janapada literally means the land where the Jana set its foot, and settled down. Purana Qila in Delhi, Hastinapur near Meerut, Atranjikhera, near Etah are settlements of them. janapadas became more important than others, and were known as mahajanapadas.Most of them have a capital city and were fortified.Ex:Magadh
Fortification of capitals Remains of a wall made of brick, found near present-day Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh). A part of it was probably built about 2500 years ago Building such huge walls required a great deal of planning. some rulers wantedto show how rich and powerful they were bybuilding really large, tall and impressive wallsaround their cities.
The new rajas now began maintaining armies. Soldiers were paid regular salaries and maintained by the king throughout the year. Some payments were probably made using punch marked coins
Taxes are the main source of Income Rulers of Mahajanapadas imposed taxes in order to build forts and maintain army. Officials were appointed to collect these taxes.
On Crops On crafts Herders Goods Hunter gatherers
Two changes noticed growing use of iron ploughshares. Transplantation of paddy.
Rivers: 1Ganga 2 Son Famous because:1 Transport 2 Water 3 Fertile land Rajgriha Ashoka Pataliputra Bimbisara
AnandaStupa Geographical Information System VAISHALI Ashokan pillar Vaishali Form of Govertnment: GANA or SANGHA GANA or SANGHA Means Republic Both Buddha and Mahavira belonged to Gana Or sangha In Gana or Sangha There were not one but many rulers.