8Of the almost 4000 known minerals, only about 30 are common. The most common are quartz,feldspar,mica, and calcite.
9These minerals make up most of the rocks found in the Earth’s crust.
10How do geologists classify minerals? Identified about 3,800 mineralsEach has characteristic properties that can be used to identify itWhat do you predict some of those characteristic properties might include?
11Video clip on Rocks and Minerals Why do we “care” about minerals?How do they impact our daily lives?
12COLOR Easily observed physical property Often too little information to make identificationCan only be used to identify minerals that always have own characteristic colorExamples:- Gold, Pyrite, and Chalcopyrite all have gold color, so you need additional information to identify these mineralsMalachite is always green
13Action! Arrange your minerals by color How did your group arrange the minerals?Was arranging them by color easy or difficult?What considerations did you need to make?Were there any minerals that you found difficult to place by color? Why?
14streakStreak of a mineral is the color of its powder when rubbed on an unglazed white tile.
15The streak is often not the same color as the mineral. A minerals color may vary, but the streak rarely will!
16STREAKTo do this test, rub the mineral across a piece of unglazed porcelain tile and see what color the powder isExamples:Pyrite has a gold color but a greenish black streakGold has a gold color and a golden yellow streak
17Action! Streak TestUse the unglazed tile and try the streak test on your minerals.Which mineral left a streak that was the same color as your mineral?Which mineral left a streak that was a different color than the mineral?Was there anything about running this test that your group had difficulty doing?
18Luster refers to the way a mineral shines in reflected light. Notice the difference between these two minerals?
19lusterThe mineral on the left has a metallic luster, the one on the right, a nonmetallic luster.
20lusterThere are several terms used to describe nonmetallic luster. Examples could be vitreous, like the quartz on the left, or pearly, like the gypsum on the right.
21Other terms that might be used include greasy, dull, and earthy. Can you tell which of these has an earthy luster and which has a vitreous luster?Were youRight?VitreousEarthy
22LUSTERExamples:Galena is an ore of lead, and has a bright, metallic lusterQuartz has a glassy luster
23Action! Identify the luster of your minerals. Look on page 117 (red) or 123 (orange) in Inside Earth textbook.Identify the luster for each of your minerals.- How did your group classify mineral 1?- How did your group classify mineral 2?- How did your group classify mineral 3?- How did your group classify mineral 4?- How did your group classify mineral 5?Did your group have trouble identifying the luster for any of these minerals?
24DENSITY Each mineral has a characteristic density. Density is the mass in a given space, or mass per unit volume.You can “heft” or feel a mineral’ weight by picking two mineral samples up and comparing their weight.How do you think geologists could precisely measure the mass of a mineral sample?
25Measuring DensityGeologists measure density by using a balance to determine the mineral sample’s mass, and then by placing the mineral in water and determining how much water was displaced.The volume of water displaced equals the volume of the sample.Dividing the sample’s mass by its volume gives the density of the mineral.Density = mass/ volume
26Density ProblemIf a sample of Olivine has a mass 237 grams and a volume of 72 cm, then the density will be237 g/ 72 cm = 3.3 g/cmNow your turn! A sample of Calcite has a mass of 324 grams and a volume of 120 cm . What is its density?
27HARDNESS One of the best clues when identifying minerals In 1812, Friedrich Mohs developed the “Mohs harness scale” to describe the hardness of mineralsRanks ten minerals from softest to hardestCan be determined by a “scratch test”A mineral can scratch any mineral softer than itself, and can be scratched by a mineral that is harder.Which of these minerals do you think is the softest?Quartz, Diamond, or Talc
29Talc = 1 The softest know mineral Talc flakes when scratched by a fingernailUsed as a powder on people’s skin
30Gypsum = 2 A fingernail can easily scratch it! Used in plaster, shampoo, hair products, and foot creams
31Calcite = 3 A fingernail can’t scratch it, but a penny can! One of the most common elements on EarthPrimary mineral in cave formationsAlso most sea shells are composed of calcitePulls carbon dioxide out of sea and thus functions as a filter for EarthWill fix and dissolve when in an acidic solutionUsed in construction: limestone, marbleAlso in paint, animal feed, and as a cleaner
32Fluorite = 4 A steel knife can easily scratch this mineral. Is used in aluminum, on dishes that can go in the oven, in telescopes and lenses, and for ornamental uses
33Apatite = 5A steel knife can scratch this mineral as well, though not as easily as Apatite.Used commonly in fertilizers
34Feldspar = 6It can’t be scratched by a steel knife, but it can be scratched by window glass.Used in ceramics and cleanersMost abundant mineral found in Earth’s crust
35Quartz = 7 It can easily scratch steel and hard glass. Second most abundant mineral found in Earth’s continental crustmaking of sandpaper, optics, glass, circuit boards, computer components, cement , mortar, and jewelry.Time can be measured from the vibrations of the quartz crystals so quartz crystals are often used in clocks.
36Topaz = 8 It can scratch quartz. Most common use is as a gemstone in jewelry.
38Diamond = 10Mostly use as gemstones but also used in semiconductors, cutting, grinding, and drillingHardest mineral
39Action! Run hardness tests on your minerals. Use the penny and steel nail to arrange your minerals from softest to hardest.Look on p. 122 (orange) or 118 and 119 (red) to determine where each mineral might fall on the Mohs hardness scale.Where did you classify mineral 1?Where did you classify mineral 2Where did you classify mineral 3?Where did you classify mineral 4?Where did you classify mineral 5?
40crystal shapesCrystal shape can be a useful property to identify minerals if the minerals have had the time and space to form crystals. Most mineral grains that are found in rocks, lack the room to grow.
41Crystal Systems- Crystals of each mineral grow atom by atom to form that mineral’s crystal structure- Geologists classify minerals into six groups based on the number and angle of the crystal faces.Look in Inside Earth on p. 124 (orange) or pp (red).What is the crystal system of quartz called? What is its density?What is the crystal system of Magnetite? What is its density?
42cleavageThe cleavage of a mineral is its tendency to split easily or to separate along flat surfaces.Cleavage can even be observed on tiny mineral grains making it a very useful property!
43CleavageThis is determined by how the atoms in its crystal are arranged.This arrangement causes the mineral to break apart more easily in one direction than in another.
44cleavageExample: Mica is probably the best example as it splits into thin sheets. It is said to have one perfect cleavage.
45Fracture“Fracture” describes how a mineral looks when it is broken apart in an irregular way.Geologists use many terms to describe this characteristic; including“shell-shaped” when it breaks and leaves a surface that looks like a seashell“hackly” when pure metals, such as copper and iron break, and form jagged points.“earthy” when soft minerals crumble like clay
46Special PropertiesLook at p. 126 (orange)and p. 122 (red) to find examples of each of these special properties-Magnetism: has properties of magnetsFluorescence: glows under ultraviolet lightOptical properties: bends lightReactivity: reacts chemically