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A2 Geography. Slide 4 SESSION 3: Unit 3 – Contested Planet – key themes Unit 3, Contested Planet, forms the core of A2 Geography. The unit aims to.

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Presentation on theme: "A2 Geography. Slide 4 SESSION 3: Unit 3 – Contested Planet – key themes Unit 3, Contested Planet, forms the core of A2 Geography. The unit aims to."— Presentation transcript:

1 A2 Geography

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4 Slide 4 SESSION 3: Unit 3 – Contested Planet – key themes Unit 3, Contested Planet, forms the core of A2 Geography. The unit aims to introduce students to key contemporary global issues and allow them to explore the significance of these issues and examine a range of potential solutions to them. The unit has a synoptic element, which addresses the question of ‘Managing the Contested Planet’. This takes the form of assessing three broad themes in relation to the topic content

5 Players – who these are and how their opinions vary Trans-national corporations Individual consumers National and Local governments Government Agencies Non-Governmental Organisations and Pressure Groups Inter-Governmental Organisations All players will not be present, or equally important, in each topic or example used in teaching of course. Example Players involved in Rainforest exploitation

6 Actions Refers to the variety of management strategies used at different scales : Local National Global By considering the actions you have to consider the key players Example how to try and tackle the development gap should it be through IMF, globalisation or grassroots projects introduced by NGOs

7 Futures Which of the following will happen and what are the consequences : - Business as usual - Sustainable development - Radical approaches Example Energy use with fossil fuels, renewables or radical ideas like carbon capture

8 Topic 1= Energy Security The topic is split into 3 key questions: 1.To what extent is the world's energy 'secure' at present ? Energy supply, demand and security 2. What are the potential impacts of an increasingly 'energy insecure' world? The impacts of Energy Insecurity 3. What might the world's energy future be? Energy Security and the future

9 1 Energy supply, demand and security Enquiry question: To what extent is the world ‘energy secure’ at present? What students need to learnSuggested teaching and learning There are many energy sources that can be classified in different ways (flows of renewable resources, stocks of non-renewable and recyclable sources) and that have different environmental costs. Investigating types of energy resources, their classification, and contrasting the environmental impacts associated with their production and use. Access to and consumption of energy resources, both renewable and non- renewable, is not evenly distributed, and depends on physical factors, cost, technology and public perception. Some areas suffer from energy poverty, while others have a surplus. Examining the distribution of fossil fuel resources, and renewable potential, globally and in contrasting countries. Demand for energy is growing globally, and at regional and local scales, especially in developed and emergent economies such as China and India. Examining trends in global energy supply and demand by source, type of economy and economic sector. Energy security depends on resource availability (domestic and foreign) and security of supply, which can be affected by geopolitics, and is a key issue for many economies. Developing an awareness that that there is little excess capacity to ease pressure on energy resources and therefore energy insecurity is rising, particularly for finite resources.

10 Your ideas on energy issues?

11 Lesson objectives: To understand the term ‘energy security’ To be able to identify key areas of energy surplus and areas of energy deficit.

12 What does it mean to be energy secure? To have ENERGY SECURITY means to have access to reliable and affordable energy sources e.g. Russia Countries that do not have this and have an energy deficit are said to be ENERGY INSECURE eg USA Key terms – learn and use

13 Achieving Energy Security Important factors are: Control over supplies Control over prices Having a variety of energy sources to call on Political stability (in supply region as well as demand region)

14 Energy security can be threatened by: Rapid increase in prices (oil 2004) Instability of suppliers (Georgia 2008) Manipulation of supply Attack on infrastructure (terrorism) Competition from expanding economies e.g. China Environmental legislation which adds to the costs of finding, transporting and processing the resource

15 Energy security can be improved by: Greater energy efficiency Greater energy self-sufficiency Decentralization of energy production Short term stockpiles (90 days)

16 USA and California p 6-10 Oxford Explain in 1-2 sides of A4 the energy problems that the USA is facing and why its energy insecurity is growing.

17 Define and give examples of… (p11 Oxford+Pearson sheet) Non-renewable/finite energy (sometimes called stock resources) Fossil fuels Resource depletion Renewable energy Flow resources – renewables which do not need regeneration as these resources are in constant supply. Eg? (so which renewable is not a flow resource?) Recyclable energy Energy mix

18 Energy supply, demand and security There are a wide range of energy resources: Non-renewableRenewableRecyclable A finite stock of resources, which will run out A flow of resources, which is infinite in human terms Can be used repeatedly, if managed carefully Coal, oil, gas (plus oil shale, tar sands, lignite etc.) Wind, solar, hydroelectric, wave, tidal, geothermal Biomass, nuclear (with reprocessing of fuel)

19 P 11 Oxford What are the environmental costs of energy sources?

20 Life cycle analysis Comparing the environmental impact of different energy sources is a challenge Life cycle greenhouse emissions is one approach Even this does not account for NIMBY issues (e.g. windfarms), or the loss of ecosystems and biodiversity linked to extraction of fossil fuels Some sources, such as nuclear and biomass are highly controversial and there is intense debate over their ‘green’ credentials. Life cycle analysis accounts for C02 emissions at all stages of the energy supply chain, not simply during use 

21 What are the patterns of energy consumption in the world?

22 P Oxford and P10-12 Pearson sheet Type of energyReserves/ProductionConsumption Nuclear Natural Gas Oil Coal HEP Wind Solar Wave Biofuel

23 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2012 © BP 2012 Primary energy world consumption Million tonnes oil equivalent

24 p10Pearson BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Primary energy regional consumption pattern 2012 Percentage

25 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Primary energy consumption per capita 2012 Tonnes oil equivalent

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27 Nuclear Energy BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013

28 Nuclear Power Potential Country Uranium mining in tonnes Australia 725,000 t Brazil157,400 t Canada 329,200 t Kazakhstan 378,100 t South Africa284,400 t Namibia176,400 t Niger 243,100 t Russia172,400 t Ukraine135,000 t Uzbekistan72,400 t USA339,000 t

29 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Nuclear energy consumption by region Million tonnes oil equivalent

30 Natural Gas BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013

31 Rank Country/Region Natural Gas- proven reserves (billion m³) Date of Information — World 175, est. 1 Russia 47, est. 2 Iran 26, Qatar 25, est. 4 Saudi Arabia 6, est. 5 United Arab Emirates 5, est. 6 United States 5, est. 7 Nigeria 5, est. 8 Algeria 4, est. 9 Venezuela 4, est. — European Union 3, est. 10 Iraq 3, est.

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33 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Gas reserves-to-production (R/P) ratios Years 2012 by regionHistory

34 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Distribution of proved gas reserves in 1992, 2002 and 2012 Percentage

35 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Gas production/consumption by region Billion cubic metres Consumption by regionProduction by region

36 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Source: Includes data from Cedigaz. Gas consumption per capita 2012 Tonnes oil equivalent

37 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Gas prices $/Mmbtu

38 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Source: Includes data from Cedigaz, CISStat, GIIGNL, IHS CERA, Poten, Waterborne. Major gas trade movements 2012 Trade flows worldwide (billion cubic metres)

39 Oil BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013

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41 Rank Country/Region Oil- proven reserves (billion bbl) bbl Date of Information — World 1, estimated 1 Saudi Arabia est. 2 Canada Iran est. 4 Iraq est. 5 Kuwait est. 6 United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab Emirates est. 7 Venezuela est. 8 Russia est. 9 Algeria est. 10 Libya est.

42 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Oil reserves-to-production (R/P) ratios Years 2012 by regionHistory

43 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Distribution of proved oil reserves in 1992, 2002 and 2012 Percentage

44 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Oil production/consumption by region Million barrels daily Production by regionConsumption by region

45 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Oil consumption per capita 2012 Tonnes

46 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Oil product consumption by region Million barrels daily Light distillatesMiddle distillates

47 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Oil product consumption by region Million barrels daily Fuel oilOthers

48 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Crude oil prices US dollars per barrel, world events

49 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Major oil trade movements 2012 Trade flows worldwide (million tonnes)

50 What’s Y’oil problem?? Current oil supplies There are an estimated 1.3 trillion barrels of proven oil reserve left in the world’s major fields, which at present rates of consumption will be sufficient to last 40 years. By 2040, production levels may be down to 15 million barrels per day – around 20% of what we currently consume. It is likely by then that the world’s population will be twice as large, and more of it industrialised (and therefore oil dependent).

51 Two-thirds of the world’s remaining reserves are in the Middle East: CountryBillions of barrels Saudi Arabia261.8 Iraq112.5 United Arab Emirates97.8 Kuwait96.5 Iran89.7 By comparison, the North Sea has around 4.9bn barrels remaining. Brazil recently discovered a new field with an estimated 5 – 8 billion barrels but such major discoveries are rare.

52 Oxford Read p36-39 (and make notes)

53 Coal BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013

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55 Country TOTAL Share USA 246, Russia 157, China 114, India 92, Australia 78, South Africa 48, Ukraine 34, Kazakhstan 31, Poland 14, Brazil 10,1131.1

56 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Coal reserves-to-production (R/P) ratios Years 2012 by regionHistory

57 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Source: Survey of Energy Resources 2010, World Energy Council. Distribution of proved coal reserves in 1992, 2002 and 2012 Percentage

58 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Coal production/consumption by region Million tonnes oil equivalent Production by regionConsumption by region

59 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Coal consumption per capita 2012 Tonnes oil equivalent

60 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Fossil fuel reserves-to-production (R/P) ratios Years

61 Summary so far..... Direct access to fossil fuel reserves is a coincidence of geological history and international boundaries. Some countries find themselves with more fossil fuel sources than their needs Others have none Reserves run down over time, as is the gas with the UK’s once abundant North Sea oil and gas Remaining oil and gas will increasingly concentrate in the Middle East over the next 30 years. Top 15 countries by oil, gas and coal reserves in 2008

62 Hydroelectricity BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013

63 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Hydroelectricity consumption by region Million tonnes oil equivalent

64 Renewable energy BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013

65 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Renewable energy consumption/share of power by region Other renewables consumption by region Million tonnes oil equivalent Other renewables share of power generation by region Percentage

66 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 © BP 2013 Biofuels production by region Million tonnes oil equivalent World biofuels production

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70 Reasons for variations in energy supply? Physical reasons? Economic reasons? Political reasons? P 12 Pearson – add more reasons in pairs

71 Trends in energy supply and demand? P12-14 Pearson sheet MEDCs? NICs? LEDCs? (work out the % change from in table) Variable patterns over time?

72 Rapidly growing demand; use of pollution sources such as high sulphur coal; health impacts; impact on global fossil fuel prices Reserves; questions of developing these in the Arctic, Antarctic and other sensitive areas Energy poverty; dependency on foreign TNCs to exploit supply (Nigeria, Sudan) Dependency; wastefulness; lack of fossil fuel supply (energy insecurity) Supply security; role of unstable regions in fossil fuel supply; link between nuclear power and weapons. Huge surplus; inefficient use; energy as a political weapon? Energy Issues across the World – which statement goes where?

73 Dependency; wastefulness; lack of fossil fuel supply (energy insecurity) Huge surplus; inefficient use; energy as a political weapon? Rapidly growing demand; use of pollution sources such as high sulphur coal; health impacts; impact on global fossil fuel prices Energy poverty; dependency on foreign TNCs to exploit supply (Nigeria, Sudan) Supply security; role of unstable regions in fossil fuel supply; link between nuclear power and weapons. Reserves; questions of developing these in the Arctic, Antarctic and other sensitive areas Energy Issues across the world Key issues for learning

74 Describe the World Energy Balance in What are the implications of what you have described both NOW and in the FUTURE? World Energy Balance in 1997

75 Future projections?

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77 Example of One Energy Resource Natural gas Use the following 7 slides to summarise the future of demand and supply of Natural Gas. How might this affect prices? How will the supply and demand for natural gas affect who has global power? (source: Rice University:

78 This map shows the supply of natural gas (red, purple, blue) and the demand for natural gas (white dots)

79 Supply Projections Natural Gas

80 Demand Projections Natural Gas

81 Price Projections Natural Gas

82 Who buys? Who sells?

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84 Natural gas - Some possible futures LNG = Liquefied Nat Gas – How it is transported.

85 Questions 1.Which areas have the most access to energy resources? 2.Which areas have the least access to energy resources? 3.Describe which parts of the world suffer from energy poverty. (including p 16 Oxford) 4.Explain why this might be case. 5.Describe which parts of the world have an energy surplus. 6.Explain why this might be the case.


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