4SESSION 3: Unit 3 – Contested Planet – key themes Unit 3, Contested Planet, forms the core of A2 Geography.The unit aims to introduce students to key contemporary global issues and allow them to explore the significance of these issues and examine a range of potential solutions to them.The unit has a synoptic element, which addresses the question of ‘Managing the Contested Planet’.This takes the form of assessing three broad themes in relation to the topic content
5Players – who these are and how their opinions vary Trans-national corporationsIndividual consumersNational and Local governmentsGovernment AgenciesNon-Governmental Organisations and Pressure GroupsInter-Governmental OrganisationsAll players will not be present, or equally important, in each topic or example used in teaching of course.ExamplePlayers involved in Rainforest exploitation
6ActionsRefers to the variety of management strategies used at different scales :LocalNationalGlobalBy considering the actions you have to consider the key playersExamplehow to try and tackle the development gap should it be through IMF, globalisation or grassroots projects introduced by NGOs
7FuturesWhich of the following will happen and what are the consequences : - Business as usual - Sustainable development - Radical approaches Example Energy use with fossil fuels, renewables or radical ideas like carbon capture
8Topic 1= Energy Security The topic is split into 3 key questions:To what extent is the world's energy 'secure' at present ?Energy supply, demand and security2. What are the potential impacts of an increasingly 'energy insecure' world?The impacts of Energy Insecurity3. What might the world's energy future be?Energy Security and the future
91 Energy supply, demand and security Enquiry question: To what extent is the world ‘energy secure’ at present?What students need to learnSuggested teaching and learningThere are many energy sources that can be classified in different ways (flows of renewable resources, stocks of non-renewable and recyclablesources) and that have different environmental costs.Investigating types of energyresources, their classification, andcontrasting the environmentalimpacts associated with theirproduction and use.Access to and consumption of energy resources, both renewable and non-renewable, is not evenly distributed, and depends on physicalfactors, cost, technology and public perception.Some areas suffer from energy poverty, while others have a surplus.Examining the distribution of fossilfuel resources, and renewablepotential, globally and incontrasting countries.Demand for energy is growing globally, and at regional and local scales, especially in developedand emergent economies such as China and India.Examining trends in global energysupply and demand by source,type of economy and economicsector.Energy security depends on resource availability (domestic and foreign) and security of supply, which can be affected by geopolitics, and is akey issue for many economies.Developing an awareness that thatthere is little excess capacity toease pressure on energy resourcesand therefore energy insecurityis rising, particularly for finiteresources.
11Lesson objectives:To understand the term ‘energy security’To be able to identify key areas of energy surplus and areas of energy deficit.
12What does it mean to be energy secure? To have ENERGY SECURITY means to have access to reliable and affordable energy sources e.g. RussiaCountries that do not have this and have an energy deficit are said to be ENERGY INSECURE eg USAKey terms – learn and use
13Achieving Energy Security Important factors are:Control over suppliesControl over pricesHaving a variety of energy sources to call onPolitical stability (in supply region as well as demand region)
14Energy security can be threatened by: Rapid increase in prices (oil 2004)Instability of suppliers (Georgia 2008)Manipulation of supplyAttack on infrastructure (terrorism)Competition from expanding economies e.g. ChinaEnvironmental legislation which adds to the costs of finding, transporting and processing the resource
15Energy security can be improved by: Greater energy efficiencyGreater energy self-sufficiencyDecentralization of energy productionShort term stockpiles (90 days)
16USA and California p 6-10 Oxford Explain in 1-2 sides of A4 the energy problems that the USA is facing and why its energy insecurity is growing.
17Define and give examples of… (p11 Oxford+Pearson sheet) Non-renewable/finite energy (sometimes called stock resources)Fossil fuelsResource depletionRenewable energyFlow resources – renewables which do not need regeneration as these resources are in constant supply. Eg? (so which renewable is not a flow resource?)Recyclable energyEnergy mix
18Energy supply, demand and security There are a wide range of energy resources:Non-renewableRenewableRecyclableA finite stock of resources, which will run outA flow of resources, which is infinite in human termsCan be used repeatedly, if managed carefullyCoal, oil, gas (plus oil shale, tar sands, lignite etc.)Wind, solar, hydroelectric, wave, tidal, geothermalBiomass, nuclear (with reprocessing of fuel)
19P 11 OxfordWhat are the environmental costs of energy sources?
20Life cycle analysisLife cycle analysis accounts for C02 emissions at all stages of the energy supply chain, not simply during use Comparing the environmental impact of different energy sources is a challengeLife cycle greenhouse emissions is one approachEven this does not account for NIMBY issues (e.g. windfarms), or the loss of ecosystems and biodiversity linked to extraction of fossil fuelsSome sources, such as nuclear and biomass are highly controversial and there is intense debate over their ‘green’ credentials.
21What are the patterns of energy consumption in the world?
22P 12-13 Oxford and P10-12 Pearson sheet Type of energyReserves/ProductionConsumptionNuclearNatural GasOilCoalHEPWindSolarWaveBiofuel
31Natural Gas- proven reserves (billion - 109 m³) Natural Gas ReservesRank Country/Region Natural Gas- proven reserves (billion m³) Date of Information — World175,4002006 est.1 Russia47,5702 Iran26,37020063 Qatar25,7902007 est.4 Saudi Arabia6,5685 United Arab Emirates5,8236 United States5,5517 Nigeria5,0158 Algeria4,3599 Venezuela4,112 European Union3,31010 Iraq3,170
50What’s Y’oil problem?? Current oil supplies There are an estimated 1.3 trillion barrels of proven oil reserve left in the world’s major fields, which at present rates of consumption will be sufficient to last 40 years.By 2040, production levels may be down to 15 million barrels per day – around 20% of what we currently consume. It is likely by then that the world’s population will be twice as large, and more of it industrialised (and therefore oil dependent).
51Two-thirds of the world’s remaining reserves are in the Middle East:CountryBillions of barrelsSaudi Arabia261.8Iraq112.5United Arab Emirates97.8Kuwait96.5Iran89.7By comparison, the North Sea has around 4.9bn barrelsremaining. Brazil recently discovered a new field with anestimated 5 – 8 billion barrels but such major discoveries are rare.
55coal reserves Country TOTAL Share USA 246,643 27.1 Russia 157,010 17.3 China114,50012.6 India92,44510.2 Australia78,5008.6 South Africa48,7505.4 Ukraine34,1533.8 Kazakhstan31,2793.4 Poland14,0001.5 Brazil10,1131.1
61Top 15 countries by oil, gas and coal reserves in 2008 Summary so far.....Direct access to fossil fuel reserves is a coincidence of geological history and international boundaries.Some countries find themselves with more fossil fuel sources than their needsOthers have noneReserves run down over time, as is the gas with the UK’s once abundant North Sea oil and gasRemaining oil and gas will increasingly concentrate in the Middle East over the next 30 years.Top 15 countries by oil, gas and coal reserves in 2008
70Reasons for variations in energy supply? Physical reasons?Economic reasons?Political reasons?P 12 Pearson – add more reasons in pairs
71Trends in energy supply and demand? P12-14 Pearson sheet MEDCs? NICs? LEDCs? (work out the % change from in table) Variable patterns over time?
72Energy Issues across the World – which statement goes where? Rapidly growing demand; use of pollution sources such as high sulphur coal; health impacts; impact on global fossil fuel pricesReserves; questions of developing these in the Arctic, Antarctic and other sensitive areasEnergy poverty; dependency on foreign TNCs to exploit supply (Nigeria, Sudan)Dependency; wastefulness; lack of fossil fuel supply (energy insecurity)Supply security; role of unstable regions in fossil fuel supply; link between nuclear power and weapons.Huge surplus; inefficient use; energy as a political weapon?Energy Issues across the World – which statement goes where?
73Energy Issues across the world Huge surplus; inefficient use; energy as a political weapon?Dependency; wastefulness; lack of fossil fuel supply (energy insecurity)Reserves; questions of developing these in the Arctic, Antarctic and other sensitive areasKey issues for learningRapidly growing demand; use of pollution sources such as high sulphur coal; health impacts; impact on global fossil fuel pricesSupply security; role of unstable regions in fossil fuel supply; link between nuclear power and weapons.Energy poverty; dependency on foreign TNCs to exploit supply (Nigeria, Sudan)
74World Energy Balance in 1997 Describe the World Energy Balance in 1997.What are the implications of what you have described both NOW and in the FUTURE?
77Example of One Energy Resource Natural gasUse the following 7 slides to summarise the future of demand and supply of Natural Gas.How might this affect prices?How will the supply and demand for natural gas affect who has global power?(source: Rice University:
78This map shows the supply of natural gas (red, purple, blue) and the demand for natural gas (white dots)
84Natural gas - Some possible futures LNG = Liquefied Nat Gas – How it is transported.
85Questions Which areas have the most access to energy resources? Which areas have the least access to energy resources?Describe which parts of the world suffer from energy poverty. (including p 16 Oxford)Explain why this might be case.Describe which parts of the world have an energy surplus.Explain why this might be the case.