Presentation on theme: "A2 Geography. Slide 4 SESSION 3: Unit 3 – Contested Planet – key themes Unit 3, Contested Planet, forms the core of A2 Geography. The unit aims to."— Presentation transcript:
Slide 4 SESSION 3: Unit 3 – Contested Planet – key themes Unit 3, Contested Planet, forms the core of A2 Geography. The unit aims to introduce students to key contemporary global issues and allow them to explore the significance of these issues and examine a range of potential solutions to them. The unit has a synoptic element, which addresses the question of ‘Managing the Contested Planet’. This takes the form of assessing three broad themes in relation to the topic content
Players – who these are and how their opinions vary Trans-national corporations Individual consumers National and Local governments Government Agencies Non-Governmental Organisations and Pressure Groups Inter-Governmental Organisations All players will not be present, or equally important, in each topic or example used in teaching of course. Example Players involved in Rainforest exploitation
Actions Refers to the variety of management strategies used at different scales : Local National Global By considering the actions you have to consider the key players Example how to try and tackle the development gap should it be through IMF, globalisation or grassroots projects introduced by NGOs
Futures Which of the following will happen and what are the consequences : - Business as usual - Sustainable development - Radical approaches Example Energy use with fossil fuels, renewables or radical ideas like carbon capture
Topic 1= Energy Security The topic is split into 3 key questions: 1.To what extent is the world's energy 'secure' at present ? Energy supply, demand and security 2. What are the potential impacts of an increasingly 'energy insecure' world? The impacts of Energy Insecurity 3. What might the world's energy future be? Energy Security and the future
1 Energy supply, demand and security Enquiry question: To what extent is the world ‘energy secure’ at present? What students need to learnSuggested teaching and learning There are many energy sources that can be classified in different ways (flows of renewable resources, stocks of non-renewable and recyclable sources) and that have different environmental costs. Investigating types of energy resources, their classification, and contrasting the environmental impacts associated with their production and use. Access to and consumption of energy resources, both renewable and non- renewable, is not evenly distributed, and depends on physical factors, cost, technology and public perception. Some areas suffer from energy poverty, while others have a surplus. Examining the distribution of fossil fuel resources, and renewable potential, globally and in contrasting countries. Demand for energy is growing globally, and at regional and local scales, especially in developed and emergent economies such as China and India. Examining trends in global energy supply and demand by source, type of economy and economic sector. Energy security depends on resource availability (domestic and foreign) and security of supply, which can be affected by geopolitics, and is a key issue for many economies. Developing an awareness that that there is little excess capacity to ease pressure on energy resources and therefore energy insecurity is rising, particularly for finite resources.
Your ideas on energy issues?
Lesson objectives: To understand the term ‘energy security’ To be able to identify key areas of energy surplus and areas of energy deficit.
What does it mean to be energy secure? To have ENERGY SECURITY means to have access to reliable and affordable energy sources e.g. Russia Countries that do not have this and have an energy deficit are said to be ENERGY INSECURE eg USA Key terms – learn and use
Achieving Energy Security Important factors are: Control over supplies Control over prices Having a variety of energy sources to call on Political stability (in supply region as well as demand region)
Energy security can be threatened by: Rapid increase in prices (oil 2004) Instability of suppliers (Georgia 2008) Manipulation of supply Attack on infrastructure (terrorism) Competition from expanding economies e.g. China Environmental legislation which adds to the costs of finding, transporting and processing the resource
Energy security can be improved by: Greater energy efficiency Greater energy self-sufficiency Decentralization of energy production Short term stockpiles (90 days)
USA and California p 6-10 Oxford Explain in 1-2 sides of A4 the energy problems that the USA is facing and why its energy insecurity is growing.
Define and give examples of… (p11 Oxford+Pearson sheet) Non-renewable/finite energy (sometimes called stock resources) Fossil fuels Resource depletion Renewable energy Flow resources – renewables which do not need regeneration as these resources are in constant supply. Eg? (so which renewable is not a flow resource?) Recyclable energy Energy mix
Energy supply, demand and security There are a wide range of energy resources: Non-renewableRenewableRecyclable A finite stock of resources, which will run out A flow of resources, which is infinite in human terms Can be used repeatedly, if managed carefully Coal, oil, gas (plus oil shale, tar sands, lignite etc.) Wind, solar, hydroelectric, wave, tidal, geothermal Biomass, nuclear (with reprocessing of fuel)
P 11 Oxford What are the environmental costs of energy sources?
Life cycle analysis Comparing the environmental impact of different energy sources is a challenge Life cycle greenhouse emissions is one approach Even this does not account for NIMBY issues (e.g. windfarms), or the loss of ecosystems and biodiversity linked to extraction of fossil fuels Some sources, such as nuclear and biomass are highly controversial and there is intense debate over their ‘green’ credentials. Life cycle analysis accounts for C02 emissions at all stages of the energy supply chain, not simply during use
What are the patterns of energy consumption in the world?
P Oxford and P10-12 Pearson sheet Type of energyReserves/ProductionConsumption Nuclear Natural Gas Oil Coal HEP Wind Solar Wave Biofuel
Nuclear Power Potential Country Uranium mining in tonnes Australia 725,000 t Brazil157,400 t Canada 329,200 t Kazakhstan 378,100 t South Africa284,400 t Namibia176,400 t Niger 243,100 t Russia172,400 t Ukraine135,000 t Uzbekistan72,400 t USA339,000 t
Rank Country/Region Natural Gas- proven reserves (billion m³) Date of Information — World 175, est. 1 Russia 47, est. 2 Iran 26, Qatar 25, est. 4 Saudi Arabia 6, est. 5 United Arab Emirates 5, est. 6 United States 5, est. 7 Nigeria 5, est. 8 Algeria 4, est. 9 Venezuela 4, est. — European Union 3, est. 10 Iraq 3, est.
Rank Country/Region Oil- proven reserves (billion bbl) bbl Date of Information — World 1, estimated 1 Saudi Arabia est. 2 Canada Iran est. 4 Iraq est. 5 Kuwait est. 6 United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab Emirates est. 7 Venezuela est. 8 Russia est. 9 Algeria est. 10 Libya est.
What’s Y’oil problem?? Current oil supplies There are an estimated 1.3 trillion barrels of proven oil reserve left in the world’s major fields, which at present rates of consumption will be sufficient to last 40 years. By 2040, production levels may be down to 15 million barrels per day – around 20% of what we currently consume. It is likely by then that the world’s population will be twice as large, and more of it industrialised (and therefore oil dependent).
Two-thirds of the world’s remaining reserves are in the Middle East: CountryBillions of barrels Saudi Arabia261.8 Iraq112.5 United Arab Emirates97.8 Kuwait96.5 Iran89.7 By comparison, the North Sea has around 4.9bn barrels remaining. Brazil recently discovered a new field with an estimated 5 – 8 billion barrels but such major discoveries are rare.
Summary so far..... Direct access to fossil fuel reserves is a coincidence of geological history and international boundaries. Some countries find themselves with more fossil fuel sources than their needs Others have none Reserves run down over time, as is the gas with the UK’s once abundant North Sea oil and gas Remaining oil and gas will increasingly concentrate in the Middle East over the next 30 years. Top 15 countries by oil, gas and coal reserves in 2008
Reasons for variations in energy supply? Physical reasons? Economic reasons? Political reasons? P 12 Pearson – add more reasons in pairs
Trends in energy supply and demand? P12-14 Pearson sheet MEDCs? NICs? LEDCs? (work out the % change from in table) Variable patterns over time?
Rapidly growing demand; use of pollution sources such as high sulphur coal; health impacts; impact on global fossil fuel prices Reserves; questions of developing these in the Arctic, Antarctic and other sensitive areas Energy poverty; dependency on foreign TNCs to exploit supply (Nigeria, Sudan) Dependency; wastefulness; lack of fossil fuel supply (energy insecurity) Supply security; role of unstable regions in fossil fuel supply; link between nuclear power and weapons. Huge surplus; inefficient use; energy as a political weapon? Energy Issues across the World – which statement goes where?
Dependency; wastefulness; lack of fossil fuel supply (energy insecurity) Huge surplus; inefficient use; energy as a political weapon? Rapidly growing demand; use of pollution sources such as high sulphur coal; health impacts; impact on global fossil fuel prices Energy poverty; dependency on foreign TNCs to exploit supply (Nigeria, Sudan) Supply security; role of unstable regions in fossil fuel supply; link between nuclear power and weapons. Reserves; questions of developing these in the Arctic, Antarctic and other sensitive areas Energy Issues across the world Key issues for learning
Describe the World Energy Balance in What are the implications of what you have described both NOW and in the FUTURE? World Energy Balance in 1997
Example of One Energy Resource Natural gas Use the following 7 slides to summarise the future of demand and supply of Natural Gas. How might this affect prices? How will the supply and demand for natural gas affect who has global power? (source: Rice University:
This map shows the supply of natural gas (red, purple, blue) and the demand for natural gas (white dots)
Supply Projections Natural Gas
Demand Projections Natural Gas
Price Projections Natural Gas
Who buys? Who sells?
Natural gas - Some possible futures LNG = Liquefied Nat Gas – How it is transported.
Questions 1.Which areas have the most access to energy resources? 2.Which areas have the least access to energy resources? 3.Describe which parts of the world suffer from energy poverty. (including p 16 Oxford) 4.Explain why this might be case. 5.Describe which parts of the world have an energy surplus. 6.Explain why this might be the case.