4 Library Help ► Ask the Library – chat, phone, email, in person ► Book a Tutor ► Research & Writing Help on Library Website Library Classes Handouts Blog Annotated Bibliographies subject guide online RefWorks – citation manager APA Citation Style
Examples: ► Research at the University of Toronto website http://www.research.utoronto.ca/ http://www.research.utoronto.ca/http://www.research.utoronto.ca/ ► See handout ► Centennial Libraries licensed databases – search for peer reviewed journal articles, case studies, surveys, etc.
1212 “Peer reviewed” articles ► Also called “refereed” or “academic” or “scholarly” ► Well researched, authoritative work ► A committee of scholars must approve quality before the editor publishes ► Many are articles reporting on original research done Most library databases allow you to limit to peer reviewed if you want 12
A word about articles & e-resources Journal & Newspaper articles: ► Published in issues regularly (weekly, monthly, etc.) ► Each issue contains several articles (essays) by different authors E-resources (“databases”): ► Licensed electronic resources that let you search thousands of articles at one time
Journal articles: scholarly or general level? Scholarly articles ► are documented (in- text citations, footnotes or endnotes). ► Most are peer reviewed = highest research quality General articles ► are not documented 19
What newspapers offer… e.g. in Lexis Nexis, CPI.Q databases, etc. ► Current info – news! ► Hot topics ► Debates, different viewpoints & opinions ► Analysis & background info ► Tips on research studies, government policies & other publications
Centennial College intranet site: https://my.centennialcollege.ca/staff/intranet_home.jsp
22 A word about Statistics ► ESTAT: an e-resource (database) popular data from Statistics Canada ► Statistics Canada (Internet website) Much is free, some are fee-based. Do not pay for Stats Canada data –ESTAT or other sources may provide free data ► Many other sources… Ask the Library staff for help
York University Libraries offer a lot of help on using Canadian statistical sources. York University Libraries homepage: http://www.library.yorku.ca/ Click on “Resources” ---Statistical data…
Remember the more research you do, the better you will be able to identify the important authors and publications
► Define your thesis – what do you want to argue or explore specifically? (Browse resources to get background information and to clarify the issues. Revise your thesis if necessary, once you see what’s out there.) ► Do a literature search, & try to find previous research published relating to your specific thesis and subject area ► Select 5-10 sources for an annotated bibliography (analyze & evaluate)
29 AND (Boolean operator that combines) Your 3 rd term or string Your 2 nd term or string Your 1 st term or string
30 OR (Boolean operator the collects) Your 1 st term O R Your 2 nd term
► Get background information – books, encyclopedias, Internet…Search Centennial websites (including intranet) if your proposal is locally based. ► Find out the issues - electronic databases (‘e-resources’) for journal & newspaper articles ► If you are lucky, you may find that someone has written a “literature review” on your thesis or area. This is an article that summarizes what’s been published. Recommend you search e- resources (BIGsearch or multiple databases using EBSCO, ProQuest or Gale vendor aggregators for this: limit “literature review” with quotes in title field – or any field…) See handout example.
Revise your thesis? Once you have done some searching, you may find that you will need to revise your thesis Possible Reasons: ► You can’t find supporting research on your thesis or topic ► Your area is discussed, but not in the way you expected ► Your thesis is too general – you discover that it has too many aspects (‘sub-topics’) to handle in one proposal ► You see a lot of research on a related aspect that you find more interesting and/or more practical
3333 ► Citation: author, title, publication info ► Notes: brief description & some evaluation Examples: On Library website: Subject Guide ---“Annotated Bibliographies” See handout
Example of a Citation with an Annotation (note) Staub, E. (1988, April). The evolution of caring and nonaggressive persons and societies. Journal of Social Issues, 44(2), 81-100. Retrieved September 10, 2009, from Academic Search Premier (EBSCO) database. Ervin Staub, a leading theorist in the area of prosocial behavior, has written an article which places prosociality in a global context. The author explores the ways that personalities and even whole societies can be shaped towards the reduction of intergroup hostility. Central among these change agents are parents and teachers, who through the socialization process, promote positive connections and caring values. Staub concludes by arguing that families institutions, and cultures can be transformed by creating systems of positive reciprocity among individuals and groups. Ervin Staub, a leading theorist in the area of prosocial behavior, has written an article which places prosociality in a global context. The author explores the ways that personalities and even whole societies can be shaped towards the reduction of intergroup hostility. Central among these change agents are parents and teachers, who through the socialization process, promote positive connections and caring values. Staub concludes by arguing that families institutions, and cultures can be transformed by creating systems of positive reciprocity among individuals and groups.