The Gap Closing students (GC) had a higher percentage change from PRE-test to POST-test (M=5.8%, SD=(16%) than Non-Gap Closing students (NGC) (M=-2.1%, SD=19%). This difference was significant, t(300) = 3.12, p <.05, two-tailed.
Analysis of Variance revealed a significant difference between the four Gap-Closing groups - No Intervention, Whole Class intervention, Small Group intervention, and Individual Intervention, F(3, 298) = 3.97. Further analysis showed that the group that received No intervention had a significantly lower percentage change than the group that had Individual intervention, t(70) = -2.82, p <.05, two-tailed; than the group that had Whole Class intervention, t(238) = -2.78, p<.05, two tailed; and than the group that had Small Group intervention, t(94) = -2.11, p<.05, two-tailed. No other significant differences were found. [this means that there is no statistical difference between any of the three groups that received gap-closing]