Presentation on theme: "Making Comparisons in English SUMMARY. We often use comparisons because we want to talk about the differences between people, places, and things. Here."— Presentation transcript:
We often use comparisons because we want to talk about the differences between people, places, and things. Here is an example: 1.Janet’s house is bigger than Tom’s. 2.Tom’s house is a lot smaller than Janet’s. 3. Janet’s house is fancier and more elaborate than Tom’s house.
The comparative forms from the previous example are: -bigger than -smaller than -fancier than -more elaborate than So... When do we use “–er” and when do we use “more?”
How many syllables are the words: “ big” and “ small ?” 1 For 1-syllable adjectives, JUST add “er” to the end. Example:Tom is smarter than Joe. *If the 1-syllable adjective ends with the letter “e,” JUST add “r” to the end. Examples: nicerwiser **If the 1-syllable adjective has a C-V-C pattern, Double the consonant and add “er.” Examples:San Francisco iswetterthan San Diego. San Diego isbigger than San Francisco.
For adjectives that end with the letter “y,” DROP the “y” and add “ier.” Examples: Adjective = fancyJanet’s house is fancier than Tom’s. Adjective = prettyJanet’s house is prettier than Tom’s. Adjective = friendlyAlison is friendlier than Susan.
How many syllables is the word: elaborate ? 4 (more than 1) For adjectives that are 2 or more syllables, use “ more” + the adjective to make the comparative form. Examples: Adjective = elaborate Janet’s house is more elaborate than Tom’s. Adjective = comfortable This chair is more comfortable than that chair.
Irregular comparatives: You MUST memorize these! Examples: good = better thanfar = farther (further) than bad=worsethan Adjective = good Sara’s grades are better than Michael’s.
Grammar Rule: Never use both MORE and “ER!” Incorrect: Lisa’s job is more better than mine. Correct: Lisa’s job is better than mine.
Using “less than” Sometimes we compare two things by using “less than.” To do this, use LESS + adjective + THAN When using “less than,” the adjective DOES NOT CHANGE Examples: He is LESS energetic than my other teacher. This class is LESS crowded than the other one. New York City is LESS polluted than Los Angeles.
Rule... ADJECTIVECOMPARATIVE 1. Adjectives with one syllable: add “er” old big cheap older than bigger than cheaper than 2. Adjectives that end in “Y”: drop “Y”, add “ier” friendly busy easy friendlier than busier than easier than 3. Adjectives with two or more syllables: use “more” polite beautiful important more polite than more beautiful than more important than 4. Irregular forms: (memorize) good bad far better than worse than farther/further than 5. Less Thanquiet crowded less quiet than less crowded than
There are a few exceptions with comparative grammar... These are adjectives that don’t follow the basic rules or that have more than one acceptable form. To learn these, you must memorize them. 1.“fun”We say:more funfunner 2. “simple”We say:more simple ORsimpler 3. “narrow”We say:more narrow ORnarrower 4. “quiet”We say:more quiet ORquieter
Try these examples. Use the comparative form. 1.I think Social Studies is _________________ (interesting) than Math. 2. San Diego is a _____________ (pretty) city than L.A. 3. A dog is usually _______________ (friendly) than a cat. 4. It is _____________ (hot) today than it was yesterday. 5. My cousin is ______________ (rich) than I am. 6. USE LESS: Some people think that Spanish is __________________ (difficult) than English.