2 Janet's house Tom's house We often use comparisons because we want to talk about the differences between people, places, and things.Here is an example:Janet’s house is bigger than Tom’s.Tom’s house is a lot smaller than Janet’s.3. Janet’s house is fancier and more elaborate than Tom’s house.Janet's houseTom's house
3 The comparative forms from the previous example are: -bigger than -smaller than -fancier than -more elaborate than So When do we use “–er” and when do we use “more?”Here are the rules
4 Rule 1: For 1-syllable adjectives, JUST add “er” to the end. How many syllables are the words: “big” and “small?” 1For 1-syllable adjectives,JUST add “er” to the end.Example: Tom is smarter than Joe.*If the 1-syllable adjective ends with the letter “e,”JUST add “r” to the end.Examples: nicer wiser**If the 1-syllable adjective has a C-V-C pattern,Double the consonant and add “er.” Examples: San Francisco is wetter than San Diego.San Diego is bigger than San Francisco.
5 Rule 2: For adjectives that end with the letter “y,” DROP the “y” and add “ier.”Examples:Adjective = fancy Janet’s house is fancier than Tom’s.Adjective = pretty Janet’s house is prettier than Tom’s.Adjective = friendly Alison is friendlier than Susan.
6 Rule 3: (more than 1) For adjectives that are 2 or more syllables, How many syllables is the word: elaborate? 4(more than 1)For adjectives that are 2 or more syllables,use “more” + the adjective to make the comparative form.Examples:Adjective = elaborateJanet’s house is more elaborate than Tom’s.Adjective = comfortableThis chair is more comfortable than that chair.
7 Rule 4: Irregular comparatives: You MUST memorize these! Examples: good = better than far = farther (further) thanbad = worse thanAdjective = goodSara’s grades are better than Michael’s.
8 Never use both MORE and “ER!” Grammar Rule:Never use both MORE and “ER!”Incorrect:Lisa’s job is more better than mine.Correct:Lisa’s job is better than mine.
9 Rule 5: Using “less than” Examples: Sometimes we compare two things by using “less than.”To do this, use LESS + adjective + THANWhen using “less than,” the adjective DOES NOT CHANGEExamples:He is LESS energetic than my other teacher.This class is LESS crowded than the other one.New York City is LESS polluted than Los Angeles.
10 Review of Rules Rule . . . ADJECTIVE COMPARATIVE 1. Adjectives with one syllable:add “er”oldbigcheapolder thanbigger thancheaper than2. Adjectives that endin “Y”:drop “Y”, add “ier”friendlybusyeasyfriendlier thanbusier thaneasier than3. Adjectives with two ormore syllables:use “more”politebeautifulimportantmore polite thanmore beautiful thanmore important than4. Irregular forms: (memorize)goodbadfarbetter thanworse thanfarther/further than5. Less Thanquietcrowdedless quiet thanless crowded than
11 Some Exceptions...There are a few exceptions with comparative grammar . . .These are adjectives that don’t follow the basic rules or that have more than one acceptable form. To learn these, you must memorize them.“fun” We say: more fun funner2. “simple” We say: more simple OR simpler3. “narrow” We say: more narrow OR narrower4. “quiet” We say: more quiet OR quieter
12 Practice! more interesting prettier friendlier hotter richer Try these examples. Use the comparative form.I think Social Studies is _________________ (interesting) than Math.2. San Diego is a _____________ (pretty) city than L.A.3. A dog is usually _______________ (friendly) than a cat.4. It is _____________ (hot) today than it was yesterday.5. My cousin is ______________ (rich) than I am.6. USE LESS: Some people think that Spanish is __________________ (difficult) than English.more interestingprettierfriendlierhotterricherless difficult