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Copyright © Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte Ltd 02 January Chapter 13: Food Commodities – Fruit and Vegetables
Copyright © Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte Ltd 02 January By the end of this chapter, you will be able to: identify the different types of fruit and vegetables; list the nutritional content of fruit and vegetables; list the ways of choosing fruit and vegetables; identify ways to minimise the loss of nutrients in fruit and vegetables; explain how fruit and vegetables are used in cooking. Learning Outcomes
Copyright © Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte Ltd 02 January What are the types of fruit? Most fruit contain a rich variety of vitamins and mineral. They are also high in dietary fibre and water, and low in fats. Fruit are classified into the following groups: - citrus fruit; -tropical fruit; -melon; -pome; -dried fruit; -berry; -drupe.
Copyright © Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte Ltd 02 January Citrus fruit - They have an acidic, tangy, sweet or sour taste. Tropical fruit - They are cultivated in warm countries. Melon - They have a tough rind and flesh high in water content. Pome - They have a central core where many seeds are found. Dried fruit - They have low water content. Berry - They are small and fleshy with many seeds inside or on the skin. Drupe - They have a fleshy part surrounding the pit. Types of fruit
Copyright © Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte Ltd 02 January What is the nutritional value of fruit? The main nutrients found in fruit are stated below: -carbohydrates; -fats; -vitamin A; -vitamin C; -other vitamins; -minerals. Fruit is in high dietary fibre and water content
Copyright © Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte Ltd 02 January Carbohydrates The three types of carbohydrates found mostly in fruit are glucose, fructose and sucrose. The sugars in fruit provide a good source of instant energy for our body. Dried fruit tends to be sweeter than fresh fruit due to the concentrated sugar present.
Copyright © Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte Ltd 02 January Fats Fruit is generally low in fats except for coconuts, olives, avocados and durians. Olives, avocados and durians contain mostly monounsaturated fats. Coconuts contain mostly saturated fats. Avocados and coconuts are high in fats
Copyright © Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte Ltd 02 January Vitamin A Orange and yellow-coloured fruits such as peach, apricot and mango are rich in vitamin A in the form of beta-carotene. Vitamin C Fruit is an excellent source of vitamin C especially citrus fruit, kiwi fruit, guava and melon. When fruit is processed into jams and canned, most of the vitamin C is lost due to the heat treatment during processing.
Copyright © Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte Ltd 02 January Other vitamins Trace amounts of B-group vitamins, vitamins E and K can be found in a variety of fruit such as berries. Minerals Fruit contains small amounts of minerals such as potassium, phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, manganese, copper and zinc. Dried fruit contains small amounts of iron.
Copyright © Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte Ltd 02 January Dietary fibre and water Fruit is high in dietary fibre and water content. It is rich in both soluble and insoluble dietary fibre. The dietary fibre content can be found on the the skin surface, seeds and cell walls of fruit. Guavas are high in dietary fibre.
Copyright © Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte Ltd 02 January How do we choose fruit? Fresh fruit should: -have a bright and vibrant colour; -be firm when touched; -not have visible damages caused by insects; -be free of punctures, bruises and decay. How is fruit used in cooking? Fruit can be used: -as a puree to make desserts or jams; -as a garnish to make meals more appealing; -in cooking, including frying, boiling, stewing and baking; -in salads.
Copyright © Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte Ltd 02 January What are the effects of heat on fruit? When fruit such as pineapple is cooked, the heat softens the cellulose and hemicellulose. The pectin in the acidic fruit dissolves in the warm acidic condition, softening the tissues. Cooking fruit for a long period of time destroys most of the B-group vitamins and vitamin C. Apricot and strawberry jam Fruit tart
Copyright © Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte Ltd 02 January What are the types of vegetables? Vegetables refer to plants or parts of the plants which are edible. Vegetables are classified into the following groups: -stems; -tubers; -leaves; -roots; -bulbs -flowers; -fruits.
Copyright © Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte Ltd 02 January Stems - The part of the plant which holds up the plant structure Tubers - They are swollen and fleshy stems which grow underground. Leaves - The part of the plant which carries out photosynthesis Roots - They are starchy vegetables anchored to the ground. Bulbs - They are short, fleshy underground stems above the roots which store food for the leaves. Flowers - The flowering part of the plant which can be eaten Fruits - The part of the plant which is developed from the flower but is usually not sweet Types of vegetables
Copyright © Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte Ltd 02 January What is the nutritional value of vegetables? Apart from tubers and root vegetables, vegetables generally contain small amounts of starches and sugars. Most vegetables are low in fats. The main nutrients found in vegetables are stated below: -carbohydrates; -vitamins; -minerals; -dietary fibre and water.
Copyright © Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte Ltd 02 January Carbohydrates The three types of carbohydrates found mostly in vegetables are in the form of starch, glucose and fructose. Tuber and root vegetables such as potatoes and yam are high in starch. Vegetables such as onions, peas and tomatoes contain considerable amounts of fructose and glucose.
Copyright © Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte Ltd 02 January Vitamins Vitamins A and C can be found mostly in bright- coloured vegetables. The leaves, stems, bulbs and fruit contain varying amounts of B-group vitamins. Small amounts of vitamin E can be found in both leaves and flowers. Green leafy vegetables are good sources of vitamin K.
Copyright © Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte Ltd 02 January Minerals Vegetables contain varying amounts of: -calcium; -potassium; -phosphorus; -magnesium; -sulphur; -iron. Dietary fibre and water Similar to fruit, vegetables contain high amounts of dietary fibre and water.
Copyright © Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte Ltd 02 January How do we choose vegetables? When choosing and buying vegetables, they should: -have a strong and rich colour; -be free from insect-eaten holes and leafy vegetables should be firm and crisp; -be free from blemishes and signs of sprouting on root vegetables; -be bought in season to maximise the quality and freshness. E.g. Avoid buying tomatoes which are bruised.
Copyright © Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte Ltd 02 January How should vegetables be used in cooking? During cooking, the cellulose in vegetables is softened, causing the vegetables to shrink. In moist-heat cooking, the starch granules in the vegetables swell and gelatinise. Vegetables can be cooked in a variety of ways such as frying, boiling, steaming, stewing and grilling. E.g. Stir-fried vegetables
Copyright © Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte Ltd 02 January The points listed below, are tips on how nutrient loss can be minimised when preparing or cooking vegetables: -ensure that vegetables are fresh; -rinse leafy vegetables gently to prevent bruising the leaves; -keep the leaves of vegetables intact; -peel the vegetables thinly as most nutrients are found under the skin surface; -do not soak vegetables in water; -prepare vegetables just before cooking; -cook vegetables in a fairly short time; -boil vegetables in a small amount of water; -serve salads immediately.
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