2 INDEX WHAT IS STRESS???? DIFFERENT TYPES OF STRESS. HISTORY OF STRESS CAUSES OF STRESSEFFECT OF STRESSMANAGEMENT OF STRESS.
3 WHAT IS STRESS ????Stress is a person's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition or a stimulus. Stress is a body's method of reacting to a challenge. According to the stressful event, the body's way to respond to stress is by sympathetic nervous system activation which results in the fight-or-flight response. Stress typically describes a negative condition or a positive condition that can have an impact on a person's mental and physical well-being.
4 DIFFERENT TYPES OF STRESS. Acute StressAcute stress is the most common form of stress. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses, but too much is exhausting..
5 Chronic stress Episodic acute stress Chronic stress comes when a person never sees a way out of a miserable situation. It's the stress of unrelenting demands and pressures for seemingly interminable periods of time. With no hope, the individual gives up searching for solutions.Episodic acute stressThere are those, however, who suffer acute stress frequently, whose lives are so disordered that they are studies in chaos and crisis. They're always in a rush, but always late. If something can go wrong, it does. They take on too much, have too many irons in the fire, and can't organize the slew of self-inflicted demands and pressures clamoring for their attention. They seem perpetually in the clutches of acute stress.
6 HISTORY OF STRESSA key to the understanding of the negative aspects of stress is the concept of milieu interieur (the internal environment of the body), which was first advanced by the French physiologist Claude Bernard. In this concept, he described the principles of dynamic equilibrium. In dynamic equilibrium, constancy, a steady state (situation) in the internal bodily environment, is essential to survival. Therefore, external changes in the environment or external forces that change the internal balance must be reacted to and compensated for if the organism is to survive. Examples of such external forces include temperature, oxygen concentration in the air, the expenditure of energy, and the presence of predators.
7 The neurologist Walter Cannon coined the term homeostasis The neurologist Walter Cannon coined the term homeostasis . He also was the first credited with recognizing that stressors could be emotional as well as physical.Through his experiments, he demonstrated the "fight or flight" response that man and other animals share when threatened.Further, Cannon traced these reactions to the release of powerful neurotransmitters from a part of the adrenal gland, the medulla. The adrenal medulla secretes two neurotransmitters, epinephrine and non epinephrine , in the response to stress.The release of these neurotransmitters leads to the physiologic effects seen in the fight or flight response, for example, a rapid heart rate, increased alertness, etc.Hans Selye included the pituitary gland, a small gland at the base of the brain, as part of the body's stress response system. He described how this gland controls the secretion of hormones that are important in the physiological response to stress.Selye also introduced the term stress from physics and engineering and defined it as "mutual actions of forces that take place across any section of the body, physical or psychological."
8 CAUSES OF STRESS Death of a Loved One- Even if a death is anticipated, such as with a prolonged illness, those people who loved the individual can experience extreme stress. Childhood Trauma- People who are sexually, psychologically, and/or physically abused, or who have been abandoned while young, may carry these stresses into adulthood.Divorce- All the aspects of a divorce, from personal to financial to loss of family and friends, contribute to these forms of stress. Finances- Although this is easily understood as a stress factor, bankruptcy and mortgage foreclosures seem to increase the human stress levels even more. Employment- Those who are employed may find their work, hours or co-workers cause stress, while those who are not employed find their circumstances without income and the job searching process also cause stress. Poor Health- The medical crisis or being ill, escalating medical costs, terminal illness, becoming incapacitated, not having medical insurance, and not having access to medical services all contribute to causing stress. Personal Relationships- If there are troubling issues with family, extended family, partnerships, friends, children, or lovers, these are all large contributors to stress levels.Chronically Illness- The parents, family, and friends of chronically ill children all experience stresses caused from circumstances surrounding the child’s illness, and the personal and financial obligations derived from the chronic illness. Danger and Fear- People who live in war zones, crime infested areas, and in isolated communities can experience daily stressors that accumulate over time, while others who are victims of personally invasive crimes, such as cyber bullying and identity theft, are also at risk for high stress levels.
9 Personal Problem Health Aging, diagnosis of a new disease, complications from an existing disease, and undiagnosed symptoms can increase stress.RelationshipsArguments with a spouse, parent, or child can certainly increase stress. Problems among other members of the family, even if you’re not directly involved, can cause additional stress.Emotional ProblemsFeeling unable to relate to someone or needing to express emotions but not being able to can weigh you down with additional stress.Life ChangesThe death of a loved one, changing jobs, moving houses, and sending a child off to college are examples of big life changes that can be stressful.MoneyFinancial trouble is a common source of stress. Credit card debt, not making rent, inability to provide for a family—not being able to make ends meet can put a serious amount of stress on a person.
10 Social Stress Personal Beliefs Arguments about personal, religious, or political beliefs can challenge you, leading to increased stress especially in situations where you can’t remove yourself from the conflict.OccupationResearch has shown that pressure and conflict from a job can be a main source of stress for many people.DiscriminationFeeling discriminated against—because of your race, ethnicity, gender, or sexual orientation, for example—can cause long-term stress.EnvironmentUnsafe neighborhoods, crime-ridden cities, and worry over personal safety may lead to chronic stress.
11 Traumatic EventPeople who have suffered a traumatic event or life-threatening situation such as robbery or rape, a natural disaster, or war often live with long-term stress. In many cases, they are actually suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder.
12 Common internal causes of stress Common externalcauses of stressMajor life changesWork or schoolRelationship difficultiesFinancial problemsBeing too busyChildren and familyCommon internalcauses of stressUnrealistic expectations/PerfectionismRigid thinking, lack of flexibilityAll-or-nothing attitudeChronic worryPessimismNegative self-talk
13 EFFECT OF STRESS Various body part effect because of stress :- Brain Stress can impede your thought processes and hamper your thinking. You may find making simple decisions like what to have for dinner or remembering directions to a restaurant are more difficult than in a nonstressed state.EmotionsPeople dealing with chronic stress may be easily frustrated and quick to lose their temper. They may cry more often and spend considerably more time worrying about things than they would without being stressed.Teeth and GumsStrange as it may seem, stress can take a toll on your oral health. Stress may cause you to clench or grind your teeth. It’s often done unconsciouslyor during your sleep, but if it’s not treated, it may lead to problems with your temporomandibular joints. Stress may also lead to gum disease, perhaps because of teeth grinding, less attention to oral hygiene, salivary changes, and impaired immunity.HeartIn terms of its effect on the body, stress is dangerous to your heart. Stress hormones speed up your heart rate, constrict blood vessels, and make the heart and blood vessels more likely to overreact in the event of a future stressful event. Stress is also linked to high blood pressure, blood clots, and in some cases, even stroke.LungsPeople with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often have worsening symptoms during times of chronic stress.
14 StomachStress may make your stomach uneasy, and you may have increased incidence of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In people with gastrointestinal disorders and diseases like gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), ulcerative colitis, and peptic ulcer disease, symptoms may be worsened by stress.SkinStress may make skin problems such as psoriasis, eczema, acne, androsacea worse. It is also known to bring on cold sores and fever blisters.HairYour hair may fall victim to your stress. When a person is under a great deal of stress, his or her hair may enter the falling-out stage of the hair life cycle. It can occur up to three months after the stressful event, but hair usually grows back within a year.MusclesStress-related tension in your back, neck, and shoulders can lead to muscle pain throughout your body.Immune SystemIf it seems you always get sick when you can least afford it, it may be because your stress is suppressing your immune system, making you more susceptible to infection. Stress can worsen symptoms of chronic illness such as rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes.
15 Stress Warning Signs And Symptoms Cognitive SymptomsEmotional SymptomsMemory problemsInability to concentratePoor judgmentSeeing only the negativeAnxious or racing thoughtsConstant worryingEating more or lessSleeping too much or too littleIsolating yourself from othersProcrastinating or neglecting responsibilitiesUsing alcohol, cigarettes, or drugs to relaxNervous habits (e.g. nail biting, pacing)
16 Physical Symptoms Behavioral Symptom Aches and painsDiarrhea or constipationNausea, dizzinessChest pain, rapid heartbeatLoss of sex driveFrequent coldsEating more or lessSleeping too much or too littleIsolating yourself from othersProcrastinating or neglecting responsibilitiesUsing alcohol, cigarettes, or drugs to relaxNervous habits (e.g. nail biting, pacing)
17 STRESS MANAGEMENT Identify triggers The hard reality is that stress will always exist. The good news? You can pinpoint your triggers to help eliminate the unhealthy side effects of stress. Before you can leap ahead to stress-reduction, it’s important to identify the sources of your stress. Examine the different areas of your life: work, finances, relationships, your daily commute. Can you reduce the stress in your life in any of these areas? While jobs, family, and finances will continue to play integral roles in your life, you can change the way you cope with each.
18 Sweat it outIf you need more reasons to schedule exercise into your calendar, evidence supports the benefits of physical activity for managing stress. In addition to helping your heart, regular exercise can boost your mood, manage your weight, and ensure a healthy night’s sleep. For adults, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)recommends 150 minutes (2 ½ hours) of vigorous activity every week and muscle-toning exercises at least two days a week. If this sounds like a lot, break up it up into effective, yet manageable workout sessionsCrySome studies show that you may feel better following a good cry. The release of pent-up stress is like washing your emotional palette clean: endorphins (feel-good hormones) rush out, lifting tension. A study from the University of South Florida found that crying in front of a friend increased participants’ feeling supported and better overall. Also, understanding that a problem could be solved played a major part in how good people felt after producing tears. So, go on: let it all out.
19 Learn to Be Imperfect Schedule “Me” Time While it’s healthy to have goals, putting too much pressure on yourself to accomplish unrealistic expectations can have a negative effect on your health. First, you have to accept that there is no such thing as perfection. Then, you need to let go of your need to achieve it. Embrace your flaws, and learn from your mistakes. Your mind—and your heart—will thank you.Schedule “Me” TimeBills to pay. Laundry towering in the hamper. Groceries to buy. Sure, these things need to get done, but you won’t have the energy or enthusiasm to check any of these chores off your to-do list without penciling in some private time. Whether it’s five minutes of meditation to close your day, a half-hour bath, or a walk, make time for you—and only you.
20 Do One Healthy Thing Each Day Take the stairs at the train station. Swap the candy bar for a piece of fruit. Trade in your morning cup of highly caffeinated coffee for (antioxidant-rich) green tea. Drive in the slow lane on your commute home from work. Amidst a cluttered calendar, find the time to insert healthy steps towards reducing stress. You might just find that each healthy choice keeps you motivated to make more healthy decisions.Be PreparedThings happen, but you can reduce or eliminate stress by being prepared for inevitable or unpleasant events. Make copies of your house, apartment, or car keys to give to a family member or close friend. Keeping an easily accessible spare will leave you less stressed if you happen to lose a set. For those times when the unavoidable strikes, count to ten before speaking, take three deep breaths, or go for a walk to clear your mind.
21 Drink UpWater, that is. Hydration is important for staying healthy and combating fatigue. After all, how much can you accomplish if you’re feeling lethargic and cranky? Stress management relies, in part, on staying hydrated. When you don’t drink enough water, you might look to sweets to satisfy a sugar craving. To keep your body healthy, your mind sharp, and stress at bay, don’t wait until your mouth is parched. Drink water throughout the day and with meals. A general rule to remember is8x8: aim for eight 8 oz. glasses of water a day to stay hydratedWrite it DownAccumulating evidence suggests that journaling can help you sort through a gamut of emotions such as sadness, loss, and anger. Studies led byJames W. Pennebaker, Ph.D. of the University of Texas at Austin show that when people write about meaningful or traumatic events, their health and other biological markers for stress improve.
22 Say NoIt might feel natural and downright nice to say “yes” to every project, proposal, and task that comes your way. However, recognizing—and sticking to—your limits will keep you in control of your time and your health. Piling too much on your plate can lead to a major meltdown. Instead, accept what you are willing to handle and politely say “no” to the rest. Use some of that downtime to recharge your batteries.More InfoSome other tips to cope with unavoidable stress include:laughing a little every daycutting out stimulants (like caffeine and sugar)relaxation and meditationtalking to a friend or counselor