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LESSON 1 – HOW DOES ELECTRICITY WORK?  Hydraulic system  OIL  Fuel System  FUEL  Electrical System?  Electrons.

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Presentation on theme: "LESSON 1 – HOW DOES ELECTRICITY WORK?  Hydraulic system  OIL  Fuel System  FUEL  Electrical System?  Electrons."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 LESSON 1 – HOW DOES ELECTRICITY WORK?

3  Hydraulic system  OIL  Fuel System  FUEL  Electrical System?  Electrons

4  Electrons come from ATOMS  Atoms have two main parts  Nucleus  Protons (+ charge)  Neutrons (no charge)  Electrons (- charge) in orbit around the nucleus

5  The electrons in the outermost orbit of the atom are called VALENCE electrons  During electricity, or electrical flow, our “fluid” will be the VALENCE ELECTRONS that migrate from one atom to another  The inner electrons are magnetically bonded to the nucleus and therefore cannot move  The valence electrons have a weak bond that is easily broken to allow movement (flow)

6 Oxygen Titanium Chlorine Silicon

7  Allow easy flow of electrons from atom to atom  Have less than four valence electrons  1, 2, or 3 Copper (1) Iron (2) Silver (1) Aluminum (3)

8  Inhibit electron flow (requires much more force)  Have more than four valence electrons Argon (8) Iodine (7)Sulfur (6) Nitrogen (5)

9  Have EXACTLY four valence electrons Carbon SiliconGermanium

10  Can be used as either a conductor or insulator depending on the application  Diodes are primarily made up of semi- conductors Flow No Flow

11  Usually made up of copper strands  Can also be other conducting material (aluminum, titanium, steel, etc.)  Each strand contains billions of atoms  Electricity is the flow of electrons from one atom to another atom in a conductor

12 If the video does not automatically start by itself, do one of the two suggestions below. 1)Click on the direct link to the video. Click hereClick here 2)Go to copy / paste this code into the search box vL2KklctxQ0, and click on the video link that pops up.www.youtube.com

13  Return to the course material listed in the LESSON 1 folder and click on the link labeled “Knowledge Check 1”  This quiz will not be counted towards your final course grade but will provide valuable feedback before you move on  After completing the knowledge check, return to this lesson and resume at slide #13

14  Power source  Battery  Generator  Alternator  Provides a potential difference in magnetic charges between the two sides of the power source  Often called the VOLTAGE SUPPLY + -

15  Conductor  Provides a path for electrons to travel between the positive and negative charged sides of the source

16  Load  Whatever electrical component you are trying to get work or power out of  Light bulb  Electrical motor  Solenoid valve  Provides resistance in the circuit which limits how many electrons can flow  Unlimited electron flow, or no resistance or no load, is bad  Balances the magnetic difference in the source (making it useless)  Creates tremendous heat from billions of electrons colliding with each other  Is dangerous because it can cause sparks and fire load loadload

17  What happens when electrons are allowed to flow unlimited from one end of the source to the other If the video does not automatically start by itself, do one of the two suggestions below. 1)Click on the direct link to the video. Click hereClick here 2)Go to copy / paste this code into the search box lhVTDWjwY and click on the video link that pops up. You can fast forward to the 1:34 mark and play it until the 3:00 mark.www.youtube.com

18 Battery (source) + - Wire (conductor) Resistance (load)

19 + -

20  Refers to the conducting side between the + charge of the source and the load + - Power

21  Refers to the conducting side between the load and the - charge of the source + - Ground

22  In A/C electricity (alternating current), like in your home or on a farm, the actual earth (ground) plays a role in how the “return” side of the system works

23  The term has carried over to D/C electricity (direct current) and is used more as slang or jargon.  The earth plays no role at all in DC electricity  We say “ground” to simply identify the return side of the system

24  There are similarities  The ground in AC uses the earth as a return conductor instead of a wire  The ground in DC often uses the iron frame of the machine as a return conductor instead of a wire

25  There are similarities  The ground in AC uses the earth as a return conductor instead of a wire  The ground in DC often uses the iron frame of the machine as a return conductor instead of a wire Load Iron frame of machine Circuit “ground” point

26  Usually a switch of some type to activate or deactivate the circuit  Mechanical switch  Electrical switch (relay)  Solid state electronic switch (computer controller) + -

27  The control can be placed on either side of the circuit  It can switch the power on and off + -

28  The control can be placed on either side of the circuit  It can switch the power on and off  It can switch the ground on and off  In A/C electricity this is a safety hazard and is illegal. In D/C electricity it is perfectly normal and acceptable. + -

29  Electrons are allowed to flow through the circuit from one side of the source to the other, including through the load which will allow it to work. + -

30  All electron flow is stopped everywhere in the circuit, including the load. The load will not work. + -

31  The magnetic charged particles are still present. They just can’t flow

32  This diagram shows Conventional Flow Theory  Electrical flow starts at the positive terminal of the source and flows through the system returning to the source at the negative terminal + -

33  This diagram shows Electron Flow Theory  Electrical flow starts at the negative terminal of the source and flows through the system returning to the source at the positive terminal + -

34  Technically?  Electron Flow Theory  Electrons are negative charged particles and therefore should REPEL away from the negative terminal and ATTRACT towards the positive terminal + -

35  Realistically for troubleshooting?  Conventional Flow Theory  Our primary tool for troubleshooting is a voltmeter  Voltmeters measure the difference in magnetic charge between two points in the system, often times referred to as the charge “gap”  The GAP direction is opposite the direction of the electrons V

36  Why it makes sense to troubleshoot electrical systems from positive to negative (conventional flow), even though the electrons flow from negative to positive If the video does not automatically start by itself, do one of the two suggestions below. 1)Click on the direct link to the video. Click hereClick here 2)Go to copy / paste this code into the search box 5igHrRV16uk and click on the video link that pops up.www.youtube.com

37  Return to the course material listed in the LESSON 1 folder and click on the link labeled “Knowledge Check 2”  This quiz will not be counted towards your final course grade but will provide valuable feedback before you move on  After completing the knowledge check, return to this lesson and resume at slide #37

38  At this point you should be able to describe the “fluid” used in electrical systems, identify materials that make good conductors, good insulators, and good semi-conductors, and describe the path of electron flow through a complete circuit.  You will soon take a lesson assessment that will be scored and recorded. You must achieve a minimum of 80% for each lesson in this course to receive credit.  Are you ready?

39  One last review before the test If the video does not automatically start by itself, do one of the two suggestions below. 1)Click on the direct link to the video. Click hereClick here 2)Go to copy / paste this code into the search box D2monVkCkX4 and click on the video link that pops up. The video is over 8 minutes long but only the first 5:00 minutes is relevant for this lesson.www.youtube.com

40  The links on the next page will take you to various web sites and videos with related information. You are not required to study them but may find them helpful if you are unsure about anything or just want more information.

41               

42  Return to the Lesson 1 folder and click on the link labeled “Lesson 1 Assessment.”  It is required to have a minimum score of 80% for all lesson assessments to receive credit for completing this course.  You may take the assessment as many times as needed to achieve a minimum score of 80%

43  AhmadSherif (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons  Andy Dingley (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons  Djanes (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons  Greg Robson) [CC-BY-SA-2.0-uk (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/uk/deed.en)], via Wikimedia Commons  Hight, S. (2012). Electron flow vs conventional current[Web]. Retrieved from  Quarked Project. (2011). How electrons become electricity [Web]. Retrieved from  Robinsonsauto. (2012). Having fun with fuses (short circuit)[Web]. Retrieved from  Science Online. (2008). Electricity and circuits [Web]. Retrieved from  Scott Ehardt (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons  Scratch (http://wiki.scratch.mit.edu/wiki/Category:Images) [CC-BY-SA-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by- sa/2.0) or CC-BY-SA-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons  StromBer 16:51, 17. Dez (CET).StromBer at de.wikipedia [CC-BY-SA-2.0-de (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/de/deed.en)], from Wikimedia Commons  wdwd (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons


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