Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 : Interdependence Among Living Organisms And The Environment"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 4 : Interdependence Among Living Organisms And The Environment
2InterdependenceAmong livingOrganisms and theenvironmentecosystempopulationcommunitiesInteractionBetweenLivingorganismsPredator-preyBiologicalcontrolLion anddeersymbiosiscommensalismTree andfernparasitismA tree andA mistletoemutualismHermit crabAnd seaanemonecompetitionFoodchainFood webHumanactivitiesAgricultureindustryPyramidOfnumbersFeedingRelationshipsAnd the flowOf energyphotosynthesisCarbon dioxideLightWaterchlorophyll
18Predator: Prey: Example: A living organism that hunts other living organism for foodPrey:A living organism that is hunted by predatorsPrey - PredatorExample 2:Lion (predator) eats deer(prey)Example:Cat (predator)eats mouse (prey)
24Meaning: Commensalism Example: Example: is an interaction between two different organisms where only one organisms benefits from the relationship. The other organisms is neither helped nor harmed.The organisms whichbenefits incommensalism iscalled the commensal.is not affectedis calledthe host.CommensalismExample:The remora fish(the commensal) feeds on food scattered by the shark(the host) . The shark neither helped nor harmed by the clown fishExample:Sea anemone (the host) uses poisonous to protect the clown fish(the commensal) from its predators . The sea anemone is neither helped nor harmed by the clown fish
25Sea anemone with clown fish commensalismSea anemone with clown fishRemora fish with shark
26An interaction that benefits both organism Meaning:An interaction that benefits both organismMutualismExample 2:The fungus and the green algae live together in a lichen . The fungus provides water , protection and nutrients to the algae whereas the algae provides the fungus with food produced during photosynthesisExample:Sea anemone obtains food and transport from the hermit crab whereas hermit crab is protected from its predators by the poisonous tentacles of the sea anemone
30Sea anemone with hermit crab mutualismlichen on CorylusSea anemone with hermit crabMynah and buffalo
31Meaning: Example 2: Parasitism Example: An interaction in which one organism (the parasite) benefits but the others organism(the host) is harmedExample 2:Ticks and lice (parasite) live on the on the skin of mammals (hosts) and suck their blood .ParasitismExample:The tapeworm(the parasite) in the human’s intestine(the host) feeds on nutrients in the human’s blood whereas the human may suffer from abdominal pain , bloatin and diarrhoea
32The tapeworm in the small intestine parasitismThe tapeworm in the small intestineThe ticks
34Meaning:Competition takes place when organisms living in the same habitat compete to obtain common need such as shelter , water , mate , minerals ,food or lightCompetition become stronger when the common needs in ecosystem are limitedCompetitionInter-specific competition is the competition between organisms of different species , such as crows and wolves compete for meatsIntra-specific competition is the competition between organisms of the same species , such as wolves compete for meat .
39Biological control agents for specific pests PMR03 Pests controlledOwlRatDung beetleBushfly, buffalo flyBiological control has many advantages as compared to using pesticides. Some of them aredoes not pollute the environmentdoes not kill other pests because natural enemies are used is cheap and safe to use
41Soalan 3 – minta pendapat – jawab dalam sains PMR 05 – Smoking is dangerous to human health.PMR 06 – suggest one way in which egg could be to floatPMR 07 – apakah kegunaan ubat gigiPMR 08 – nak tentukan ketulinan airPMR 09 – mengapa ikan gapi diletakkan didalam longkangPMR 2010 – mengapa ikan paus perlu kerap timbul dipermukaan air
44FOOD WEBS PMR 03, 04, 07 Producers, Consumers and Decomposers Producers are all green plants that make food through photosynthesis.Consumers are animals that eat plants or other animals.Decomposers are organisms that decompose dead organisms (animals or plants) and change them into simple substances. Examples of decomposers are bacteria and fungi.
48Pyramid of Numbers PMR 05, 06, 07, 2010A pyramid of numbers shows the number of organism at each link of the food chain.From the base of the pyramid to the topthe number of organisms decreasethe size of the organisms increasemore energy is lost
49What is photosynthesis? The term photosynthesis comes from two root words photo, which means “light”, and synthesis, which means putting together.Photosynthesis is the process in which green plants use light to produce food.Green plants manufacture glucose from water and carbon dioxide in the presence of sunlight in their chlorophyll.Oxygen is released in the process.The glucose is stored as starch in the plants.
61Importance of Photosynthesis What is the importance of photosynthesis?Maintaining the normal level of oxygen in the atmosphere.Providing food to maintain a balanced ecosystem.Help plants to produce yield.
62Experiment to test presence of starch during photosynthesis.
63Experiment to test presence of starch during photosynthesis.