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Chapter 4 : Interdependence Among Living Organisms And The Environment

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 : Interdependence Among Living Organisms And The Environment"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 : Interdependence Among Living Organisms And The Environment

2 Interdependence Among living Organisms and the environment ecosystem population communities Interaction Between Living organisms Predator- prey Biological control Lion and deer symbiosis commensalism Tree and fern parasitism A tree and A mistletoe mutualism Hermit crab And sea anemone competition Food chain Food web Human activities Agriculture industry Pyramid Of numbers Feeding Relationships And the flow Of energy photosynthesis Carbon dioxide Light Water chlorophyll

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4 4.1 Interdependence Among Living Organisms
Habitat Species Population Community Ecosystem

5 The natural home of an organism where it lives and reproduce
Habitat The natural home of an organism where it lives and reproduce

6 Examples :

7 A similar organism or same characteristics
Species A similar organism or same characteristics

8 The same species live and reproduce in a specific habitat
Population The same species live and reproduce in a specific habitat

9 Examples :

10 Community Different type of population live together in a specific habitat and interacting with one another

11 Examples :

12 Ecosystem The interaction of the organisms (several community) with the environment in a habitat

13 Examples :

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15 Interaction Between Living Organism
1. Prey-Predator 2. Symbiosis 2.1. Commensalism 2.2. Mutualism 2.3. Parasitism 3. Competition

16 Interaction Between Living Organism
2.1 Commensalism 2.Symbiosis 1.Prey - Predator 2.2 Mutualism Interaction Between Living Organism 2.3 Parasitism 3. Competition

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18 Predator: Prey: Example:
A living organism that hunts other living organism for food Prey: A living organism that is hunted by predators Prey - Predator Example 2: Lion (predator) eats deer(prey) Example: Cat (predator) eats mouse (prey)

19 Prey-predator Lion eat deer Cat eat mouse

20 APKBS4 2011

21 APKBS4 2011

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23 Symbiosis 2.1. Commensalism 2.2. Mutualism 2.3. Parasitism

24 Meaning: Commensalism Example: Example:
is an interaction between two different organisms where only one organisms benefits from the relationship. The other organisms is neither helped nor harmed. The organisms which benefits in commensalism is called the commensal. is not affectedis called the host. Commensalism Example: The remora fish(the commensal) feeds on food scattered by the shark(the host) . The shark neither helped nor harmed by the clown fish Example: Sea anemone (the host) uses poisonous to protect the clown fish(the commensal) from its predators . The sea anemone is neither helped nor harmed by the clown fish

25 Sea anemone with clown fish
commensalism Sea anemone with clown fish Remora fish with shark

26 An interaction that benefits both organism
Meaning: An interaction that benefits both organism Mutualism Example 2: The fungus and the green algae live together in a lichen . The fungus provides water , protection and nutrients to the algae whereas the algae provides the fungus with food produced during photosynthesis Example: Sea anemone obtains food and transport from the hermit crab whereas hermit crab is protected from its predators by the poisonous tentacles of the sea anemone

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30 Sea anemone with hermit crab
mutualism lichen on Corylus Sea anemone with hermit crab Mynah and buffalo

31 Meaning: Example 2: Parasitism Example:
An interaction in which one organism (the parasite) benefits but the others organism(the host) is harmed Example 2: Ticks and lice (parasite) live on the on the skin of mammals (hosts) and suck their blood . Parasitism Example: The tapeworm(the parasite) in the human’s intestine(the host) feeds on nutrients in the human’s blood whereas the human may suffer from abdominal pain , bloatin and diarrhoea

32 The tapeworm in the small intestine
parasitism The tapeworm in the small intestine The ticks

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34 Meaning: Competition takes place when organisms living in the same habitat compete to obtain common need such as shelter , water , mate , minerals ,food or light Competition become stronger when the common needs in ecosystem are limited Competition Inter-specific competition is the competition between organisms of different species , such as crows and wolves compete for meats Intra-specific competition is the competition between organisms of the same species , such as wolves compete for meat .

35 PKBS

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37 competetion Deers compete for mate

38 CONTOH SOALAN PMR 2009

39 Biological control agents for specific pests PMR03
Pests controlled Owl Rat Dung beetle Bushfly, buffalo fly Biological control has many advantages as compared to using pesticides. Some of them are does not pollute the environment does not kill other pests because natural enemies are used is cheap and safe to use

40 PMR 08

41 Soalan 3 – minta pendapat – jawab dalam sains
PMR 05 – Smoking is dangerous to human health. PMR 06 – suggest one way in which egg could be to float PMR 07 – apakah kegunaan ubat gigi PMR 08 – nak tentukan ketulinan air PMR 09 – mengapa ikan gapi diletakkan didalam longkang PMR 2010 – mengapa ikan paus perlu kerap timbul dipermukaan air

42 Terengganu 2011

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44 FOOD WEBS PMR 03, 04, 07 Producers, Consumers and Decomposers
Producers are all green plants that make food through photosynthesis. Consumers are animals that eat plants or other animals. Decomposers are organisms that decompose dead organisms (animals or plants) and change them into simple substances. Examples of decomposers are bacteria and fungi.

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46 FOOD WEBS PMR 03, 04, 07 A food web consists of several food chains that are interlinked. The organisms in a food web interact with each other.

47 Food Chains PMR 06, PMR 2010

48 Pyramid of Numbers PMR 05, 06, 07, 2010 A pyramid of numbers shows the number of organism at each link of the food chain. From the base of the pyramid to the top the number of organisms decrease the size of the organisms increase more energy is lost

49 What is photosynthesis?
The term photosynthesis comes from two root words photo, which means “light”, and synthesis, which means putting together. Photosynthesis is the process in which green plants use light to produce food. Green plants manufacture glucose from water and carbon dioxide in the presence of sunlight in their chlorophyll. Oxygen is released in the process. The glucose is stored as starch in the plants.

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52 Process Of Photosynthesis
Carbon Dioxide Water Glucose Oxygen Sun Light chlorophyll Sunlight Water Carbon Dioxide oxygen

53 Respiration Respiration is the oxidation of food in the body’s cell to release energy, carbon dioxide and water. Glucose + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + energy

54 Pahang 2011

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56 2. Buat inference untuk tumbuhan dalam serkup kaca P.

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58 Kedah 12

59 Perlis 12

60 Cuba bandingkan… Kelantan 12 Perlis 12

61 Importance of Photosynthesis
What is the importance of photosynthesis? Maintaining the normal level of oxygen in the atmosphere. Providing food to maintain a balanced ecosystem. Help plants to produce yield.

62 Experiment to test presence of starch during photosynthesis.

63 Experiment to test presence of starch during photosynthesis.

64 Melaka 2011

65 Terengganu 2011

66 Carbon Cycle

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68 Check?

69 Penutup 1. Baca Surah Al-`Ashr 2. Tasbih Kifarah.


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