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Chapter 2: Nutrition Food can divided into seven classes as follows: Carbohydrates proteins fats vitamins minerals fibre water.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2: Nutrition Food can divided into seven classes as follows: Carbohydrates proteins fats vitamins minerals fibre water."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 2: Nutrition Food can divided into seven classes as follows: Carbohydrates proteins fats vitamins minerals fibre water

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4 Carbohydrate PMR 03 FOOD TEST made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrate supplies us with energy to carry out daily activities such as walking, breathing, and working.

5 Protein PMR 04 made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen Proteins are required for building new cells for growth, to replace damaged tissue.

6 carbohydrate

7 Fat made up for carbon, hydrogen and oxygen but the ratio is different from that of carbohydrate The function of fat include: a.supplying energy, b.as and insulator of heat to reduce heat loss from the body, c.protecting the internal organs such as the kidneys and the heart, dissolving some vitamins in the body like vitamin A, D, E and K.

8 Vitamin Vitamins are classified into two groups 1.vitamins soluble in water – vitamin B and C, 2.vitamins soluble in fat- vitamin A, D, E and K.

9 Various types of vitamin VitaminMain sourceFunctionEffect of deficiency A Egg, milk, cod liver, oil, carrot, papaya - for growth and to promote healthy skin - for good vision - night blindness - dry and scaly skin B yeast, egg, milk, tomato, liver, nuts - promotes the effective functioning of the nervous system - control the supply of carbohydrates to the muscle and nerve cells - beri-beri (injury to the nervous system and paralysis) - pellagra - anaemia C lime, citrus fruits, tomato, carrot, papaya, green vegetables - increase immunity against disease - promotes healthy skin - scurvy (gusi merah) - anaemia - low resistance to infections (especially the flu) Degg, milk, cod liver oil - helps in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the small intestines for the growth of strong bones and teeth. - rickets (weak and curved bones) - tooth decay E vegetable oil, palm oil, egg, liver, milk - maintains a healthy reproductive system - sterility - infertility K maize, sunflower seeds, tomato, green vegetables - necessary for the clotting of blood. - blood slow to clot Vitamins are classified into two groups 1.vitamins soluble in water – vitamin B and C, 2.vitamins soluble in fat- vitamin A, D, E and K.

10 PMR 2011

11 dieases Beri beri scurvy ricket anemia pellagra

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13 Minerals minerals are simple chemicals usually found in the body. our bodies need more calcium and phosphorus than the minerals. (because they help to form strong bones and teeth) minerals are needed for good health. Mineralssources of foodFunctions effects of deficiency Calcium milk, eggs, vegetables, cheese * forms strong bones and teeth * helps blood to colt * rickets * brittle bones and teeth * poor blood clotting iron liver,, meat, eggs, vegetables * forms haemoglobin in red the thyroid blood cells * anaemia iodine seafood, vegetables, iodinised salt * produces hormones in the thyroid gland * Goitre sodiumcommon salt,* balances body fluid * muscle cramps phosphorusmeat, milk, eggs, beans * forms strong bones and teeth * rickets * dental decay fluorine drinking water, fish, vegetables * protect teeth* Dental decay potassiummeat, fish, cereals * maintains a healthy nervous system * muscle cramps Sources and functions of minerals as well as the effects of mineral deficiencies

14 Fibre Fibre is made up of cellulose which cannot be digested by the body. A shortage of fibre in our daily diet can cause constipation and sometimes even bowel cancer. Vegetables, fruit, beans, lentils and brown bread are examples of food rich in fibre.

15 Water Water is needed by the body for: 1. helping in the digestion of food 2. transporting digested food substances 3. transporting excretory products such as urea. 4. maintaining the concentration of blood. 5. maintaining the body temperature 6. all metabolic processes

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17 The importance of a balanced diet A balanced diet is one which contains carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins, water and fibre in the correct quantities and proportions. A balanced diet is necessary for: – supplying the required energy – balanced body growth – maintaining the health of the body – preventing deficiency diseases such as scurvy and rickets. A balanced diet varies according to one’s – Age – size – sex – job – climate – state of health

18 Factors that influence a person’s needs for a balanced diet Factorsthe group requiring more energyReason sex men required more energy compared to women of the same age and body size. men are more active age babies, children and teenagers require more energy compared to adults or the elderly. Example: the heartbeat of baby is 100 beats a minute compared to an adult who has 75 beats per minute. this group is more active and the life processes are faster. body size big-size individuals require more energy size compared to small-sized individuals. big-sized individuals require more energy for their life processes. physical activity an individual who does heavy work uses more energy compared to another who does light work. heavy work requires more energy to perform. weather individuals living in places with cold weather require more energy compared to individuals living in places with warm weather. more energy is required to maintain the body temperature in a cold place.

19 The calorific value of food PMR 06, 07, 11 The calorific value of food is the amount of heat energy released when one gram of food is completely burnt in the air. The calorific value of food is measured in kilojoules per gram (kJ/g) or kilocalories per gram (kcal/g) The calorific value differs for different types of food. Table below shows the calorific value of some of the food that we eat daily.

20 The calorific value of food PMR 06, 07, 11

21 Kedah 12

22 FOOD TESTFOOD TEST (experiment) PMR 03 Classes of food Testerobservation GlucoseBenedict solution Fehling Solution Brick-red precipitateHeat ProteinMillon reagentBrick-red precipitateHeat StarchIodine solutionDark blueNo need to heat Fat- Filter paper - Alcohol/ethanol -Translucent spot - white-emulsion (cloudy) - Heat - No need to heat

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24 Food test

25 PMR 2011

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27 Kedah 2012

28 HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Digestion is the process of breaking down large and complex food substances into smaller, simpler molecules. These molecules are soluble and can be absorbed by body cells. The process of digestion in the alimentary canal: a. physical digestion/mechanical digestion – involves the mechanical process of breaking down large pieces of food into smaller particles using the teeth and the churning movements of the alimentary canal. b. chemical digestion -involves the action of various enzymes in breaking down complex food molecules. These complex molecules are insoluble but the end products of chemicals digestion are simpler molecules which are soluble.

29 Human Digestive system anus mouth The liver also plays a vital role in excretion. It removes toxic chemicals from the blood through a series of chemical reactions.

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31 pancreas perut trakea Usus kecil Usus besar

32 Human digestive system….

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34 Try to answer …. A B C D E F G H I J K L

35 Mouth i. Digestion begins in the mouth. ii. The teeth chew and grind food into smaller particles. the salivary glands secrete glands secrete saliva which contains an enzyme called amylase. Amylase digests starch and converts it to maltose, a type of sugar. The wave-like contractions of the oesophagus muscles are known as peristalsis.

36 stomach in the stomach, food is mixed with gastric juices. Gastric glands in the stomach wall. – Gastric juices contains hydrochloric acid and enzymes (rennin and pepsin). – rennin – coagulate milk. – Pepsin – digest protein into peptone (amino acid) – The functions of hydrochloric acid include: Hydrochloric acid stops the action of the enzymes in saliva. It also kills bacteria in food. – Enzymes in the gastric juices start the digestion of protein. Example: – Partially digested food is then released into the duodenum.

37 small intestine The duodenum is the first parts of the small intestine. – The duodenum receives bile and pancreatic juice. (bile is stored in the gall bladder) – The function of bile: Emulsifications of fat i.e. breaking up large fatty globules into small droplets for enzymic action. Preparation of an alkaline medium for enzymic action. – The pancreatic amylase digests starch into glucose – The protease digests protein /peptones into amino acids. – The lipase digests fat into fatty acid and glycerol. – The small intestine (ileum) produces enzymes which digest maltose into glucose (simple sugar) – Digestion is completed in the small intestine. – The digested food is then ready to be absorbed through the thin walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream.

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39 PMR 2004

40 PMR 2005

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42 Selangor 2011

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44 PMR 2011

45 Absorption of digested food The efficiency of absorption of digested food at the small intestine can be increased by: more villus to increase surface area villus with very thin walls Each villus has a network of a blood capillaries and a lacteal. Glucose, amino acids, minerals and water-solube vitamins are absorbed into the blood capillaries. Fatty acids, glycerol and fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, D, E and K) are absorbed into the lacteal.

46 Lacteal and blood capillary in villus The efficiency of absorption of digested food at the small intestine can be increased by: – more villus to increase surface area villus with very thin walls Large of surface area (more villi) Thin wall (one cell thick) Moist surface (enable gas to dissolve) Surrounded by a network of blood capillaries. Each villus has a network of a blood capillaries and a lacteal. Glucose, amino acids, minerals and water-solube vitamins are absorbed into the blood capillaries. Fatty acids, glycerol and fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, D, E and K) are absorbed into the lacteal.

47 Glucose, amino acids, minerals and water- solube vitamins are absorbed into the blood capillaries.

48 Resap - difuse

49 End product of digestion Class of foodenzymeEnd product Carbohydrate s/starch AmylaseGlucose ProteinProteaseAmino acid FatlipaseFatty acid & glycerol

50 Parts of the digestive tract parts of the digestive tract Functions Mouth  chew and grinds food using the teeth  digests cooked starch. The amylase enzymes in the saliva change cooked starch to maltose.  The salivary glands secrete saliva which contains an enzyme called amylase.  Amylase digests starch and convert it to maltose (a type of sugar) Oesophagus  bolus-shaped food is moved from the mouth to the stomach along the oesophagus by wave-like muscular contractions called peristalsis. Stomach PMR 03  holds food, secretes gastric juices which begin the digestion of protein  secretes acids contains hydrochloric acid which kill the bacteria in food. Duodenum  receives bile from the liver and pancreatic juice from the pancreas.  Digestion and absorption of food. small intestine  secretes intestinal juice which completes the digestion of protein, carbohydrates and fat.  Absorbs end products of digestion into the blood. large intestine  absorption of most of the remaining water and minerals. Rectum  stores faeces Anus  removes faeces through defecation.

51 Chemical digestion in human digestive PartSecretesSource of secretesEnd product MouthSalivaSalivary glandStarch  maltose/glucose Stomach Hydrochloric acid Wall of the stomachDestroy bacteria in food. Prepare acid medium for digestion in stomach. Gasteric juice/jus gaster Protein  peptone DuodenumBileLiverEmulsify of fat. Prepare alkali medium for digestion in small intestine. Pancreatic juice PancreasStarch  maltose/glucose Protein  peptone/amino acid Fat  fatty acid & glycerol Small intestineWall of the small intestine Maltose  glucose Peptone  amino acid

52 R & R

53 PART OF ALLIMANTARY CANAL SECRETED BY Characteristic of secretion CLASS OF FOOD INVOLVE REACTION AND DIGESTION PRODUCT MOUTHSALIVAAlkalineCARBOHYDRATE STARCH MALTOSE STOMACH GASTER JUICE AcidicPROTEIN PROTEIN PEPTONE DUODENUMBILEAlkalineFAT FAT DROPS OF FAT PANCREAS JUICE CARBOHYDRATEPROTEINAlkalineFATSTARCHPEPTONE DROPS OF FAT FATTY ACID + GLYCEROL STARCH MALTOSE PEPTONE AMINO ACID SMALL INTESTINE INTESTINE JUICE alkalinePROTEINCARBOHYDRATE PEPTONE AMINO ACID COMPLEX SUGAR SIMPLE SUGAR

54 Digestion, absorption and use of food in human beings diffuse in small intestine nutrientscarbohydratesproteinsfats DigestionAmylase (mouth, small intestine) Protease (stomach, small intestine) Lipase (small intestine) End productsglucoseAmino acidsFatty acids and glycerol

55 HEALTHY EATING HABITS The food pyramid PMR 05, 08

56 Food Pyramid

57 Absorption of the products of digestion The inner surface of the small intestine (6 metres long) covered with millions of small projections about 1mm long. These projections are called villus.

58 villi The efficiency of absorption of digested food at the small intestine can be increased by: more villus to increase surface area villus with very thin walls

59 Visking tube (experiment) Visking tube Water temperature water

60 REABSORPTION OF WATER AND DEFACATION Reabsorption of water The main function of big intestine is to reabsorb water. Defecation Undigested food in the big intestine is expelled as faeces through the process of defecation.

61 Healthy eating habits Healthy eating habits will help maintain a healthy body. Unhealthy eating habits cause various health problems. 1. excessive nutrienthealth problems Sugartooth decay, obesity, diabetes Salthigh blood pressure, heart problems, kidney damage fat/oilheart problems, high blood pressure 2. lack of nutrienthealth problems Proteinkwashiorkor in children Roughage/fiberConstipation Vitaminslower immunity to diseases

62 Penutup 2. Tasbih Kifarah. 1. Baca Surah Al-`Ashr


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