4Armed Forces The Army Land Navy Sea Marine Corps Amphibious Air Force Air SpaceCoast Guard Sea Coast
5Police and policingHistory of civilization - societies have sought protection for their members and possessions; members of one's family provided this protection.Development in Policing Style:1st stage: informal policing, where all members of a society shared equally in the responsibility for providing protection and keeping order.2nd stage: transitional policing, occurred when police functions were informally assigned to particular members of the society.3rd stage: organic societies, different from mechanical societies, more specialized Policing was required.Modern policing: Wilson and Kelling stressed the importance of controlling minor crimes and disorders in an effort to curb more serious crime.Authority: All police systems rely on state authority. (the source of state power ultimately represents the basis of police authority as well)
6Policing Preventing crime thorough preventive patrol Better to prevent crime than to punish the culpritMaking citizens feel safer and improving their quality of life should be the goal of police.In 1970s and 80s, The philosophy of community policing is built upon the premise that reducing citizens' fear of crime while forming a partnership between the police and the communityTactics utilized in this philosophy include foot patrol, problem solving, police substations, and community groups, among others.Police force ; Constabulary, Police, Sheriff, Gendarmerie
7Policing Models of policing (Shelley) Communist: obtains legitimacy through the communist political party, is organized as a centralized, armed militarized force, and performs the functions of crime control and enforcement of state ideologyThe continental: Have similar organizational structures and functions as the communist model, however the continental model obtains its legitimacy through the central government.Colonial: Establishes legitimacy through the colonial authority.Anglo-Saxon: Obtains legitimacy through local governments and is based in law. This model is organized as a decentralized force that is armed in democratic countries.Functions: crime control, order maintenance, and welfare and administrative responsibilities.
8Para-military ForcesIt is a force whose function and organization are similar to those of a military force, w/o having the same status. The term uses the Greek prefix para- (proximity), also seen in words such as para-medic.The term paramilitary is subjective, depending on what is considered similar to a military force, and what status a force is considered to have. Its nature therefore varies greatly according to the speaker and the context.Examples: Northern Ireland, “any illegally armed group with a political purpose”Colombia, “illegally armed groups which do not combat the govt (for example United SDForces) of Colombia, while illegally armed groups rebeled against the government, such as Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, are referred to as guerrillas.
9Forces organized on Mil-Lines Law enforcement agencies may include police forces organized along military or semi-military lines, sometimes called gendarmeries, such as:Canada: Royal Canadian Mounted PoliceOntario Provincial policeUSA: Connecticut State PoliceFlorida High Way PatrolNew Jersey State PoliceNY State PoliceNorth Carolina High Way PatrolPennsylvania State PoliceTurkey: JandarmaItaly: CarabinieriFrench: Gendarmerie nataionaleIreland: Former Royal Irish ConstabularyPRC: China Armed Police ForcePortugal: National Republican Guard
10List of Para-mil forces-India Assam Rifles ,000 / 31 bns/ LTGBorder Security Forces 180,000Central Industrial Security Forces: 90,000Central Reserve Police Force: 172,000 /200 bns(Rapid Action Force) (Anti-riot Police of center)Indo-Tibetan Border Police 12,000Rastriya Rifles: 40,000Defense Security Corps ,000 (security to MoD facilities and installations nationwide.SSB ,000TOTAL ,000
11Concept of nation-state and Nepal Nation and stateAfter the 1990s, nationalism has become the issuePeople are born into one or several overlapping communities-ethnic groupswith specific valuesculturesreligious beliefstraditionsForcibly incorporated other nationalities started searching their identity.
12Nepal and nationalismNationalism: complex and varying constellation of different forms of communities, languages, ethnic groups, or religions. It has become more complex by the interplay of objectively existing reality and subjective perceptions.Nationalism in Nepal: complex and varying constellation of (living together)103 languages, over 60 ethnic groups, uncounted number of communities and four major religions (Hindu, Buddhist, Muslims and Christian).It has become more complex by the interplay of objectively existing reality and subjective perceptions due to overlap between inter-caste marriage, migration and inter-religious marriages.
13Nation-state and its boundary Is the entire geographical area owned by a state like the way every individual property owner owns his person and the property ? (inherited, worked for, or gained in voluntary exchange)Many nation's boundaries were:-acquired by force and violence,interstate agreement w/o the consent or knowledge of the people.boundaries shifted many timesAre not there your own people living out side your boundary ?Is it just to proclaim for “territorial integrity”? Is not it truly ludicrous?Will total privatization help solve nationality problems? (open borders, free immigration, global village ….will it help?
14SecuritySecurity: A condition of being protected against danger or loss. Protection from dangers that originate from outside. Individuals or actions that encroach upon the condition of protection are responsible for the breach of security. Not only safety but security! (keep in a safe(no harm) place but protect (like the padlock, vigilante)National Security:-Securing what? Territory within the boundary? People living within the boundaries? Territory and People living within the boundaries? Do we have to protect other things as well? What are these other things ?-Who decides as to what should be protected? How can we ensure total security ?-Who will be accountable for the failure of this (future and life of its citizen)?National Security:“Maintain the survival of the nation-state through the use of available power and the exercise of diplomacy”
15Available Powers and use of it Hard Power : Armed ForcesSoft Power: Political power; Economic, Diplomacy, ……..Only the state has the monopoly of powerSecuring What?-Preservation of an Independent, sovereign, unified and territorially secured Nepal.What are the threats? What means do we have?-Maintain domestic law, order and peace: rule of law to protect the people's lives and property.What are the threats? What means do we have?
16Available Powers and use of it…. Preservation of sovereign rights of the people, democratic system, democratic rights and values. Human rights, equality and freedom.Threats? means available?What about the duties of citizen?
17Hard Power and National Security of Nepal Securing National territory and people of Nepal: Constitutional commitmentHard forces:Nepal Army Task, Strength, Equipments, Other means.APF Task, Strength, Equipments, Other means.Nepal Police Task, Strength, Equipments, Other means.
18Forces in Nepal Nepal Army 92653 + 4711 = 97,164 Nepal Police 62,000 Armed Police Force 32, ,200= 34,200NID ,500 (?)NB:Nepal Army strength rose to 97,164 after integration of MACsAPF strength rose to 34,200 after the mandate of Industrial Security
19Comparison of Mandates Nepal Army APF NP Other SecurityDef of nation Complement to NA Protector of Law Human Security Against internal div Against terrorism Public disorder Inter-state boundary Developmental Role Border Security Public safety State-Intl boundary Peacekeeping Role Peacekeeping Peacekeeping Food Security Installation Security VVIP Security VVIP Security Endemic/ Epidemic Disaster Mgmt Disaster Mgmt Disaster Mgmt Energy Security Wild-life Res High way Security Investigation-Crime Cyber Security National pks Anti Terrorist Crime Control Floods/Land slides Internal Security Riot Control Massive fire control Off/Def Role Industrial Security Smuggle Peacekeeping Role ? Narcotic corruption Internal Security ? Money LaunderingDisaster Mgmt ? Ungoverned spaceDevelopmental Role? Nepali living abroadIndustrial SecurityCreation of national Security and developmental Directorate under NA ?
20Forces Police will become Central Force vs State Force ? APF Service ? How to keep APF role balanced ? Role-APF, NA and NP.How to keep it apolitical ?Enhancing Professionalism (who is responsible ?)Avoiding duplication of work by state, how?Relationship with MoH and MoDComplementing vs competing with other forces ?Work and accountability of individual officers and men.International / regional commitments and accountability.
21Conclusion Nepal Army works for National Security Nepal Army – Constitution, Parliamentary Cttees, Cabinet, PM/President.Nepal Army is not included on Rastriya Surakchya Samiti (National Security Committee).Nepal Armed Police works for both the Mil and NPNepal Armed Police and Nepal Police works under Ministry of Home.
22Conclusion National Security Strategy and all SF s being hooked to it. NA/APF/NP’s contribution in formulating NSS and owning the NSS.Formulation of ANA/PF/NP’s own strategyMandate, resources (men and material)Formulation of Operational planOrganizational structure and modification of it on periodic basicWeapon procurement (more relevant to NA)Training within.Cross training between the NA/APF/NPDeploymentWork for the mandate