4 Objectives ■ Understand how to create a requirements definition. ■ Become familiar with requirements analysis techniques.■ Understand when to use each requirements analysis technique.■ Understand how to gather requirements using interviews, JAD sessions, questionnaires,document analysis, and observation.■ Understand when to use each requirements-gathering technique.
5 Key IdeasThe goal of the analysis phase is to truly understand the requirements of the new system and develop a system that addresses them.The first challenge is collecting and integrating the informationThe second challenge is finding the right people to participate.
6 Analysis PhaseThis phase takes the general ideas in the system request andrefines them into a detailed requirements definition (this chapter),functional models (Chapter 6),structural models (Chapter 7), andbehavioral models (Chapter 8)This becomes the system proposalIncludes revised (modified) project management deliverables,feasibility analysis (Chapter 3) andworkplan (Chapter 4).
7 Requirement Specification a statement of whatthe system must do orcharacteristics it must haveWritten from businessperson perspective (“what” of system)Later requirements become more technical (“how” of system)
8 Functional vs. Nonfunctional A functional requirement relates directly to a process the system has to perform or information it needs to contain.Nonfunctional requirements refer to behavioral properties that the system must have, such as performance and usability.
11 Requirements Analysis Techniques Business process automation (BPA)Doesn’t change basic operationsAutomates some operationsBPA TechniquesProblem AnalysisRoot Cause Analysis
12 Business Process Improvement Business process improvement (BPI) changesHow an organization operatesChanges operation with new techniquesCan improve efficiency
13 BPI Components Duration Analysis Activity-Based Costing Time to perform each processActivity-Based CostingExamines major process costsInformal BenchmarkingStudies how other organizations perform business processes
14 Business Process Reengineering Changes how the organization does certain operationsConsists ofOutcome AnalysisTechnology analysisActivity Elimination
15 Select Appropriate Technique Assess Potential Business ValueDetermine Project CostSpecify Breadth or Scope of AnalysisDetermine Risk of Failure
18 Interviews -- Five Basic Steps Selecting intervieweesDesigning interview questionsPreparing for the interviewConducting(behavior) the interviewPost-interview follow-up
19 Selecting Interviewees Based on information neededOften good to get different perspectivesManagersUsersIdeally, all key stakeholders
20 Types of Questions Types of Questions Examples Closed-Ended Questions * How many telephoneorders are received per day?* How do customers place orders?* What additional informationwould you like the new systemto provide?Open-Ended Questions* What do you think about thecurrent system?* What are some of the problemsyou face on a daily basis?* How do you decide what types ofmarketing campaign to run?Probing (inquiring) Questions* Why?* Can you give me an example?* Can you explain that in a bitmore detail?inquiring inquisitive Questions
21 Designing Interview Questions Unstructured interviewBroad(wide), roughly(approximately) defined informationStructured interviewMore specific information
23 Interview Preparation Steps Prepare general interview planList of questionAnticipated (probable) answers and follow-upsConfirm areas of knowledgeSet priorities in case of time shortagePrepare the intervieweeScheduleInform of reason for interviewInform of areas of discussion
24 Conducting the Interview Appear professional and unbiasedRecord all informationCheck on organizational policy regarding tape recordingBe sure you understand all issues and termsSeparate facts from opinionsGive interviewee time to ask questionsBe sure to thank the intervieweeEnd on time
25 Conducting the Interview Practical Tips Don’t worry, be happyPay attentionSummarize key pointsBe succinctBe honestWatch body languageSuccinct: to the point
26 Post-Interview Follow-Up Prepare interview notesPrepare interview reportLook for gaps and new questions
28 Your TurnYou are interviewing the director of the PC lab at your school regarding a new program to support keeping track of students’ borrowing softwareWith a partner, write 5 questions you would ask the PC lab directorTake turns having one pair of students posing the questions to another pair of studentsBe sure to take notes and write up the results when you have finished.
30 JAD Key IdeasAllows project managers, users, and developers to work togetherMay reduce scope by 50%Avoids requirements being too specific or too vague (unclear)
31 Joint Application Design (JAD) Important Roles Facilitatorsets the meeting agenda and guides the discussionScribeassist the facilitator by recording notes, making copies, etc.Project team, users, and management
34 The JAD Session Prepare questions as with interviews Facilitator activitiesKeep session on trackHelp with technical termsRecord group inputHelp resolve issuesPost-session follow-up
35 Managing Problems in JAD Sessions Reducing domination (power)Encouraging non-contributorsSide discussionsAgenda go roundUnresolved conflictUse humor(joking)Unresolved conflict: Unresolved (solve)
36 Questionnaire Steps Selecting participants Using samples of the populationDesigning the questionnaireCareful question selectionAdministering the questionnaireWorking to get good response rateQuestionnaire follow-upSend results to participants
37 Good Questionaire Design • Begin with interesting questions.• Group items into logically coherent sections.• Do not put important items at the very end of the questionnaire.• Do not crowd a page with too many items.• Avoid abbreviations.• Avoid biased or suggestive items or terms.• Number questions to avoid confusion.• Pretest the questionnaire to identify confusing questions.• Provide anonymity to respondents.
38 Document Analysis Typical documents Forms Reports Policy manuals Look for user additions to forms
39 Observation Users/managers often don’t remember everything they do Checks validity of information gathered other waysBehaviors change when people are watchedCareful not to ignore periodic activitiesWeekly … Monthly … Annual
40 Summary First Step is to determine requirements Systems analysts use these techniquesInterviews,JAD,Questionnaires,Document Analysis, andObservation.
41 Expanding the DomainAdditional resources regarding Joint Application Development can be found at: