4Objectives ■ Understand how to create a requirements definition. ■ Become familiar with requirements analysis techniques.■ Understand when to use each requirements analysis technique.■ Understand how to gather requirements using interviews, JAD sessions, questionnaires,document analysis, and observation.■ Understand when to use each requirements-gathering technique.
5Key IdeasThe goal of the analysis phase is to truly understand the requirements of the new system and develop a system that addresses them.The first challenge is collecting and integrating the informationThe second challenge is finding the right people to participate.
6Analysis PhaseThis phase takes the general ideas in the system request andrefines them into a detailed requirements definition (this chapter),functional models (Chapter 6),structural models (Chapter 7), andbehavioral models (Chapter 8)This becomes the system proposalIncludes revised (modified) project management deliverables,feasibility analysis (Chapter 3) andworkplan (Chapter 4).
7Requirement Specification a statement of whatthe system must do orcharacteristics it must haveWritten from businessperson perspective (“what” of system)Later requirements become more technical (“how” of system)
8Functional vs. Nonfunctional A functional requirement relates directly to a process the system has to perform or information it needs to contain.Nonfunctional requirements refer to behavioral properties that the system must have, such as performance and usability.
11Requirements Analysis Techniques Business process automation (BPA)Doesn’t change basic operationsAutomates some operationsBPA TechniquesProblem AnalysisRoot Cause Analysis
12Business Process Improvement Business process improvement (BPI) changesHow an organization operatesChanges operation with new techniquesCan improve efficiency
13BPI Components Duration Analysis Activity-Based Costing Time to perform each processActivity-Based CostingExamines major process costsInformal BenchmarkingStudies how other organizations perform business processes
14Business Process Reengineering Changes how the organization does certain operationsConsists ofOutcome AnalysisTechnology analysisActivity Elimination
15Select Appropriate Technique Assess Potential Business ValueDetermine Project CostSpecify Breadth or Scope of AnalysisDetermine Risk of Failure
18Interviews -- Five Basic Steps Selecting intervieweesDesigning interview questionsPreparing for the interviewConducting(behavior) the interviewPost-interview follow-up
19Selecting Interviewees Based on information neededOften good to get different perspectivesManagersUsersIdeally, all key stakeholders
20Types of Questions Types of Questions Examples Closed-Ended Questions * How many telephoneorders are received per day?* How do customers place orders?* What additional informationwould you like the new systemto provide?Open-Ended Questions* What do you think about thecurrent system?* What are some of the problemsyou face on a daily basis?* How do you decide what types ofmarketing campaign to run?Probing (inquiring) Questions* Why?* Can you give me an example?* Can you explain that in a bitmore detail?inquiring inquisitive Questions
21Designing Interview Questions Unstructured interviewBroad(wide), roughly(approximately) defined informationStructured interviewMore specific information
23Interview Preparation Steps Prepare general interview planList of questionAnticipated (probable) answers and follow-upsConfirm areas of knowledgeSet priorities in case of time shortagePrepare the intervieweeScheduleInform of reason for interviewInform of areas of discussion
24Conducting the Interview Appear professional and unbiasedRecord all informationCheck on organizational policy regarding tape recordingBe sure you understand all issues and termsSeparate facts from opinionsGive interviewee time to ask questionsBe sure to thank the intervieweeEnd on time
25Conducting the Interview Practical Tips Don’t worry, be happyPay attentionSummarize key pointsBe succinctBe honestWatch body languageSuccinct: to the point
26Post-Interview Follow-Up Prepare interview notesPrepare interview reportLook for gaps and new questions
28Your TurnYou are interviewing the director of the PC lab at your school regarding a new program to support keeping track of students’ borrowing softwareWith a partner, write 5 questions you would ask the PC lab directorTake turns having one pair of students posing the questions to another pair of studentsBe sure to take notes and write up the results when you have finished.
30JAD Key IdeasAllows project managers, users, and developers to work togetherMay reduce scope by 50%Avoids requirements being too specific or too vague (unclear)
31Joint Application Design (JAD) Important Roles Facilitatorsets the meeting agenda and guides the discussionScribeassist the facilitator by recording notes, making copies, etc.Project team, users, and management
34The JAD Session Prepare questions as with interviews Facilitator activitiesKeep session on trackHelp with technical termsRecord group inputHelp resolve issuesPost-session follow-up
35Managing Problems in JAD Sessions Reducing domination (power)Encouraging non-contributorsSide discussionsAgenda go roundUnresolved conflictUse humor(joking)Unresolved conflict: Unresolved (solve)
36Questionnaire Steps Selecting participants Using samples of the populationDesigning the questionnaireCareful question selectionAdministering the questionnaireWorking to get good response rateQuestionnaire follow-upSend results to participants
37Good Questionaire Design • Begin with interesting questions.• Group items into logically coherent sections.• Do not put important items at the very end of the questionnaire.• Do not crowd a page with too many items.• Avoid abbreviations.• Avoid biased or suggestive items or terms.• Number questions to avoid confusion.• Pretest the questionnaire to identify confusing questions.• Provide anonymity to respondents.
38Document Analysis Typical documents Forms Reports Policy manuals Look for user additions to forms
39Observation Users/managers often don’t remember everything they do Checks validity of information gathered other waysBehaviors change when people are watchedCareful not to ignore periodic activitiesWeekly … Monthly … Annual
40Summary First Step is to determine requirements Systems analysts use these techniquesInterviews,JAD,Questionnaires,Document Analysis, andObservation.
41Expanding the DomainAdditional resources regarding Joint Application Development can be found at: