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Introduction to Philosophy PAPER. The Paper  Reading: “The Apology.”  Thesis: “The purpose of this paper is to summarize and critically evaluate Socrates’

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Philosophy PAPER. The Paper  Reading: “The Apology.”  Thesis: “The purpose of this paper is to summarize and critically evaluate Socrates’"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Philosophy PAPER

2 The Paper  Reading: “The Apology.”  Thesis: “The purpose of this paper is to summarize and critically evaluate Socrates’ Horse Trainer Analogy and Unintentional Argument.”  Issue: Do Socrates’ two arguments refute the corruption charges against him?  Label the 4 sections  Introduction  Summary  Argument  Conclusion

3 Writing the Introduction  5 points  125 words or less.  Content  Thesis  Summary Statement  Position Statement  Argument Statement  Minimal Background

4 Writing the Summary  45 points  Objective: summarize the text  Clearly  Concisely  Accurately  In your own words.

5 Writing the Summary  Outline  Charges  A doer of evil who corrupts the youth  Does not believe in the gods of the state but has his own divinities  The Corrupter of the Youth  Socrates will prove Meletus is  A doer of evil  Pretending to be earnest  Is eager to bring men to trial  Questioning Meletus  Meletus claims to think a great deal about the youth  Socrates asks Meletus to tell the judges who improves the youth  Every Athenian, except the sole corrupter Socrates, improves the youth

6 Writing the Summary  Socrates’ Horse Trainer Analogy  One is able to do the horses good  The trainer does the horses good  Others injure the horses  This is true of horses and any animals  The youth would be happy with one corrupter and everyone else improving them  Meletus shows he has never thought about the young.

7 Writing the Summary  The Unintentional Argument  Meletus Agrees  It is better to live among good citizens than bad  The good do their neighbors good, the evil do evil  No one would rather be injured than benefited  No on likes to be injured  Meletus accused Socrates of intentionally corrupting the youth.  Meletus admitted the good do good and the evil do evil  Socrates knows that if he corrupts a man he has to live with, he is likely to be harmed  Socrates either does not corrupt or corrupts unintentionally.  Either way Meletus is lying  If his offense is unintentional, Meletus should have corrected him  Meletus has no care about the matter.

8 Writing the Argument  45 Points  Position Statement  Does the HTA (Horse Trainer Analogy) succeed as an analogy?  Does the HTA refute the original charge?  Does the HTA refute the modified charge?  Does the UA succeed as an argument?  Does the UA refute the original charge?  Does the UA refute the modified charge?

9 Writing the Argument  Assessing the HTA  Form of an Argument from Analogy  Premise 1: X has properties P, Q, and R.  Premise 2: Y has properties P, Q, and R.  Premise 3: X has property Z as well.  Conclusion: Y has property Z.  Assessment  The number of properties X & Y have in common.  The relevance of the shared properties to Z.  Whether X & Y have relevant dissimilarities.

10 Writing the Argument  Does the HTA respond to the charge?  Original Charge: Socrates corrupts the youth.  Modified Charge: Socrates is the sole corrupter of the youth.

11 Writing the Argument  Assessing the UA  Assessing the premises  Key premise: “if he corrupts a man he has to live with, it is very likely he will be harmed by him.”  Assessing the premises using an argument from example.  Historical examples for/against  Assessing the premises using an argument from analogy  Dog analogy  Assessing the reasoning  Do the premises support the conclusion?  Overall Assessment (premises & reasoning)

12 Writing the Argument  Does the UA respond to the charge?  Original Charge: Socrates corrupts the youth.  Modified Charge: Socrates is an intentional corrupter of the youth.

13 Writing the Conclusion  5 points  125 words or less.  Content  Thesis  Summary Statement  Position Statement  Argument Statement  Final Relevant Remark


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