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8.1 © 2007 by Prentice Hall 8 Chapter Securing Information Systems.

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1 8.1 © 2007 by Prentice Hall 8 Chapter Securing Information Systems

2 8.2 © 2007 by Prentice Hall LEARNING OBJECTIVES Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems Analyze why information systems need special protection from destruction, error, and abuse. Assess the business value of security and control. Design an organizational framework for security and control. Evaluate the most important tools and technologies for safeguarding information resources.

3 8.3 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Phishing: A Costly New Sport for Internet Users Problem: Large number of vulnerable users of online financial services, ease of creating bogus Web sites. Solutions: Deploy anti-phishing software and services and a multilevel authentication system to identify threats and reduce phishing attempts. Deploying new tools, technologies, and security procedures, along with educating consumers, increases reliability and customer confidence. Demonstrates IT’s role in combating cyber crime. Illustrates digital technology as part of a multilevel solution as well as its limitations in overcoming discouraged consumers. Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

4 8.4 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Systems Vulnerability and Abuse Security Policies, procedures, and technical measures used to prevent unauthorized access, alteration, theft, or physical damage to information systems Controls Methods, policies, and organizational procedures that ensure: Safety of organization’s assets Accuracy and reliability of accounting records Operational adherence to management standards Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

5 8.5 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Systems Vulnerability and Abuse Why systems are vulnerable Electronic data vulnerable to more types of threats than manual data Networks Potential for unauthorized access, abuse, or fraud is not limited to single location but can occur at any access point in network Vulnerabilities exist at each layer and between layers E.g. user error, viruses, hackers, radiation, hardware or software failure, theft Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

6 8.6 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Contemporary Security Challenges and Vulnerabilities Figure 8-1 The architecture of a Web-based application typically includes a Web client, a server, and corporate information systems linked to databases. Each of these components presents security challenges and vulnerabilities. Floods, fires, power failures, and other electrical problems can cause disruptions at any point in the network. Systems Vulnerability and Abuse Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

7 8.7 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Systems Vulnerability and Abuse Internet vulnerabilities Public network, so open to anyone Size of Internet means abuses may have widespread impact Fixed IP addresses are fixed target for hackers VoIP phone service vulnerable to interception , instant messaging vulnerable to malicious software, interception Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

8 8.8 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Systems Vulnerability and Abuse Wireless security challenges Many home networks and public hotspots open to anyone, so not secure, communication unencrypted LANs using standard can be easily penetrated Service set identifiers (SSIDs) identify access points in Wi-Fi network and are broadcast multiple times WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy): Initial Wi-Fi security standard not very effective as access point and all users share same password Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

9 8.9 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Wi-Fi Security Challenges Figure 8-2 Many Wi-Fi networks can be penetrated easily by intruders using sniffer programs to obtain an address to access the resources of a network without authorization. Systems Vulnerability and Abuse Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

10 8.10 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Systems Vulnerability and Abuse Malicious software (malware) Computer virus Rogue software program that attaches to other programs or data files Payload may be relatively benign or highly destructive Worm: Independent program that copies itself over network Viruses and worms spread via: Downloaded software files attachments Infected messages or instant messages Infected disks or machines Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

11 8.11 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Systems Vulnerability and Abuse Trojan horse Software program that appears to be benign but then does something other than expected Does not replicate but often is way for viruses or malicious code to enter computer system Spyware Small programs installed surreptitiously on computers to monitor user Web surfing activity and serve advertising Key loggers Record and transmit every keystroke on computer Steal serial numbers, passwords Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

12 8.12 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Systems Vulnerability and Abuse Hacker Individual who intends to gain unauthorized access to computer system Cybervandalism Intentional disruption, defacement, or destruction of Web site or corporate information system Spoofing Misrepresentation, e.g. by using fake addresses or redirecting to fake Web site Sniffer: Eavesdropping program that monitors information traveling over network Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

13 8.13 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Systems Vulnerability and Abuse Denial-of-service (DoS) attack: Flooding network or Web server with thousands of false requests so as to crash or slow network Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack Uses hundreds or thousands of computers to inundate and overwhelm network from many launch points Botnet Collection of “zombie” PCs infected with malicious software without their owners’ knowledge and used to launch DDoS or perpetrate other crimes Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

14 8.14 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Worldwide Damage from Digital Attacks Figure 8-3 This chart shows estimates of the average annual worldwide damage from hacking, malware, and spam since These data are based on figures from mi2G and the authors. Systems Vulnerability and Abuse Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

15 8.15 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Read the Interactive Session: Technology, and then discuss the following questions: What is the business impact of botnets? What management, organization, and technology factors should be addressed in a plan to prevent botnet attacks? How easy would it be for a small business to combat botnet attacks? A large business? Bot Armies and Network Zombies Systems Vulnerability and Abuse Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

16 8.16 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Systems Vulnerability and Abuse Computer crime Computer as target of crime Accessing computer without authority Breaching confidentiality of protected computerized data Computer as instrument of crime Theft of trade secrets and unauthorized copying of software or copyrighted intellectual property Using for threats or harassment Most economically damaging computer crimes DoS attacks and viruses Theft of service and disruption of computer systems Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

17 8.17 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Systems Vulnerability and Abuse Identity theft Using key pieces of personal information (social security numbers, driver’s license numbers, or credit card numbers) to impersonate someone else Phishing Setting up fake Web sites or sending messages that look like those of legitimate businesses to ask users for confidential personal data Evil twins Bogus wireless networks used to offer Internet connections, then to capture passwords or credit card numbers Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

18 8.18 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Systems Vulnerability and Abuse Pharming Redirecting users to bogus Web page, even when individual types correct address into browser Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (1986) Makes it illegal to access computer system without authorization Click fraud Fraudulently clicking on online ad without intention of learning more about advertiser or making purchase Cyberterrorism and cyberwarfare: At least twenty countries are believed to be developing offensive and defensive cyberwarfare capabilities Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

19 8.19 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Systems Vulnerability and Abuse Internal threats: Employees Company insiders pose serious security problems Access to inside information– like security codes and passwords May leave little trace User lack of knowledge: Single greatest cause of network security breaches Compromised passwords Social engineering Errors introduced into software by: Faulty data entry, misuse of system Mistakes in programming, system design Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

20 8.20 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Systems Vulnerability and Abuse Software vulnerability Software errors are constant threat to information systems Cost U.S. economy $59.6 billion each year Can enable malware to slip past antivirus defenses Patches Created by software vendors to update and fix vulnerabilities However, maintaining patches on all firm’s devices is time consuming and evolves more slowly than malware Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

21 8.21 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Business Value of Security and Control Business value of security and control Protection of confidential corporate and personal information Value of information assets Security breach of large firm results in average loss of 2.1 % of market value Legal liability Electronic Records Management (ERM) Policies, procedures, and tools for managing retention, destruction, and storage of electronic records Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

22 8.22 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Business Value of Security and Control Legal and regulatory requirements for ERM HIPAA Outlines medical security and privacy rules Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act Requires financial institutions to ensure security and confidentiality of customer data Sarbanes-Oxley Act Imposes responsibility on companies and their management to safeguard accuracy and integrity of financial information used internally and released externally Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

23 8.23 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Business Value of Security and Control Electronic evidence and computer forensics Legal cases today increasingly rely on evidence represented as digital data most common electronic evidence Courts impose severe financial, even criminal penalties for improper destruction of electronic documents, failure to produce records, and failure to store records properly Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

24 8.24 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Business Value of Security and Control Computer forensics Scientific collection, examination, authentication, preservation, and analysis of data on computer storage media so that it can be used as evidence in a court Awareness of computer forensics should be incorporated into firm’s contingency planning process Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

25 8.25 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Establishing a Framework for Security and Control ISO International standards for security and control specifies best practices in information systems security and control Risk Assessment Determines level of risk to firm if specific activity or process is not properly controlled Value of information assets Points of vulnerability Likely frequency of problem Potential for damage Once risks are assessed, system builders concentrate on control points with greatest vulnerability and potential for loss Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

26 8.26 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Establishing a Framework for Security and Control Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems EXPOSUREPROBABILITY OF OCCURRENCE LOSS RANGE / (AVERAGE) EXPECTED ANNUAL LOSS Power failure 30 % $5,000 - $200,000 ($ ) $30,750 Embezzlement 5 % $1,000 - $50,000 ($25,500) $1,275 User error 98 % $200 - $40,000 ($20,100) $19,698 Online Order Processing Risk Assessment Table 8-3

27 8.27 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Security policy Statements ranking information risks, identifying acceptable security goals, and identifying mechanisms for achieving these goals Chief Security Officer (CSO) Heads security group in larger firms Responsible for enforcing security policy Security group Educates and trains users Keeps management aware of security threats and breakdowns Maintains tools chosen to implement security Technologies and Tools for Security Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

28 8.28 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Acceptable Use Policy (AUP) Defines acceptable uses of firm’s information resources and computing equipment A good AUP defines acceptable actions for every user and specifies consequences for noncompliance Authorization policies Determine level of access to information assets for different levels of users Authorization management systems Allow each user access only to those portions of system that person is permitted to enter, based on information established by set of access rules Technologies and Tools for Security Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

29 8.29 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Security Profiles for a Personnel System Figure 8-4 These two examples represent two security profiles or data security patterns that might be found in a personnel system. Depending on the security profile, a user would have certain restrictions on access to various systems, locations, or data in an organization. Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems Establishing a Framework for Security and Control

30 8.30 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Ensuring business continuity Fault-tolerant computer systems Ensure 100% availability Utilize redundant hardware, software, power supply components Critical for online transaction processing High availability computing Tries to minimize downtime Helps firms recover quickly from system crash Utilizes backup servers, distributed processing, high capacity storage, disaster recovery and business continuity plans Recovery-oriented computing: Designing systems, capabilities, tools that aid in quick recovery, correcting mistakes Technologies and Tools for Security Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

31 8.31 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Disaster recovery planning Restoring computing and communication services after earthquake, flood, etc. Can be outsourced to disaster recovery firms Business continuity planning Restoring business operations after disaster Identifies critical business processes and determines how to handle them if systems go down Business impact analysis Use to identify most critical systems and impact system outage has on business Technologies and Tools for Security Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

32 8.32 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Auditing MIS audit: Examines firm’s overall security environment as well as controls governing individual information systems Security audit: Reviews technologies, procedures, documentation, training, and personnel Audits: List and rank all control weaknesses Estimate probability of occurrence Assess financial and organizational impact of each threat Technologies and Tools for Security Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

33 8.33 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Sample Auditor’s List of Control Weaknesses Figure 8-5 This chart is a sample page from a list of control weaknesses that an auditor might find in a loan system in a local commercial bank. This form helps auditors record and evaluate control weaknesses and shows the results of discussing those weaknesses with management, as well as any corrective actions taken by management. Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems Establishing a Framework for Security and Control

34 8.34 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Access control Policies and procedures used to prevent improper access to systems by unauthorized insiders and outsiders Users must be authorized and authenticated Authentication: Typically established by password systems New authentication technologies: Tokens Smart cards Biometric authentication Technologies and Tools for Security Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

35 8.35 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Firewalls: Hardware and software controlling flow of incoming and outgoing network traffic Prevents unauthorized access Screening technologies Packet filtering Stateful inspection Network address translation (NAT) Application proxy filtering Technologies and Tools for Security Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

36 8.36 © 2007 by Prentice Hall A Corporate Firewall Figure 8-6 The firewall is placed between the firm’s private network and the public Internet or another distrusted network to protect against unauthorized traffic. Technologies and Tools for Security Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

37 8.37 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Intrusion detection systems: Full-time, real-time monitoring tools Placed at most vulnerable points of corporate networks to detect and deter intruders Scanning software looks for patterns such as bad passwords, removal of important files, and notifies administrators Technologies and Tools for Security Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

38 8.38 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Antivirus software, antispyware software Antivirus software: Checks computer systems and drives for presence of computer viruses To remain effective, antivirus software must be continually updated Antispyware software tools: Many leading antivirus software vendors include protection against spyware Standalone tools available (Ad-Aware, Spybot) Technologies and Tools for Security Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

39 8.39 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Securing wireless networks WEP: Provides some measure of security if activated VPN technology: Can be used by corporations to help security i specification: Tightens security for wireless LANs Longer encryption keys that are not static Central authentication server Mutual authentication Wireless security should be accompanied by appropriate policies and procedures for using wireless devices Technologies and Tools for Security Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

40 8.40 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Read the Interactive Session: Management, and then discuss the following questions: How are Unilever executives’ wireless handhelds related to the company’s business performance? Discuss the potential impact of a security breach at Unilever. What management, organization, and technology factors had to be addressed in developing security policies and procedures for Unilever’s wireless handhelds? Is it a good idea to allow Unilever executives to use both BlackBerrys and cell phones? Why or why not? Unilever Secures Its Mobile Devices Technologies and Tools for Security Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

41 8.41 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Encryption: Transforming message into cipher text, using encryption key Receiver must decrypt encoded message Two main methods for encrypting network traffic Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) /Transport Layer Security (TLS) Establishes secure connection between two computers Secure HTTP (S-HTTP) Encrypts individual messages Technologies and Tools for Security Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

42 8.42 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Two methods of encryption: Symmetric key encryption Shared, single encryption key sent to receiver Public key encryption Two keys, one shared/public and one private Messages encrypted with recipient’s public key but can only be decoded with recipient’s private key Technologies and Tools for Security Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

43 8.43 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Public Key Encryption Figure 8-7 A public key encryption system can be viewed as a series of public and private keys that lock data when they are transmitted and unlock the data when they are received. The sender locates the recipient’s public key in a directory and uses it to encrypt a message. The message is sent in encrypted form over the Internet or a private network. When the encrypted message arrives, the recipient uses his or her private key to decrypt the data and read the message. Technologies and Tools for Security Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

44 8.44 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Digital signature Encrypted message that only sender with private key can create Used to verify origin and contents of message Digital certificates Data files used to establish identity of users and electronic assets for protection of online transactions Uses trusted third party, certificate authority (CA), to validate user’s identity Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Use of public key cryptography working with certificate authority Technologies and Tools for Security Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems

45 8.45 © 2007 by Prentice Hall Digital Certificates Figure 8-8 Digital certificates help establish the identity of people or electronic assets. They protect online transactions by providing secure, encrypted, online communication. Technologies and Tools for Security Management Information Systems Chapter 8 Securing Information Systems


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