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The First Americans.  Introduction  Origins  Regional Diversity  Mesoamerica  Western  Southwest  Pacific Northwest  Mississippian  Eastern Woodlands.

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Presentation on theme: "The First Americans.  Introduction  Origins  Regional Diversity  Mesoamerica  Western  Southwest  Pacific Northwest  Mississippian  Eastern Woodlands."— Presentation transcript:

1 The First Americans

2  Introduction  Origins  Regional Diversity  Mesoamerica  Western  Southwest  Pacific Northwest  Mississippian  Eastern Woodlands  Iroquois  New England  Conclusion  Key Terms:  Bering Land Bridge  Teotihuacan  Aztec  Anasazi  Cahokia  Iroquois  Hiawatha

3 Themes  Origins of Native Americans in Western Hemisphere  Diversity of lifestyle  Changing nature of Indian societies before European contact

4  Introduction  Origins  Regional Diversity  Mesoamerica  Southwest  Eastern Woodlands  Mississippian  Iroquois  New England  Conclusion  Key Terms:  Bering Land Bridge  Teotihuacan  Aztec  Anasazi  Cahokia  Iroquois  Hiawatha

5 SouthwestMesoamericaPacific Northwest MississippianIroquois Location Food Source Dwellings Interesting Facts

6 Native Americans and Origins  Many anthropologists and historians agree humans lived in North American about 35,000 BC  How did they arrive…?  Bering Land Bridge

7 Map of Bering Land Bridge

8 Locations of Selected Native American Peoples, 1500 AD

9 Farming  Access to food = key  Agricultural Origins  8000 B.C. Middle East  5000 B.C. Western Hemisphere

10  Introduction  Origins  Regional Diversity  Mesoamerica  Western  Southwest  Pacific Northwest  Mississippian  Eastern Woodlands  Iroquois  New England  Conclusion  Key Terms:  Bering Land Bridge  Teotihuacan  Aztec  Anasazi  Cahokia  Iroquois  Hiawatha

11 Major Mesoamerican Cultures Aztecs Mayans Incas

12 Major Mesoamerican Cultures (Aztecs)  Became dominant power by 1400s  Capitals = Tenochtitlan  Pop: 300,000 (bigger than a city in Europe)

13 Religion  Polytheistic (The worship of many gods)  Aztec honored over 200 deities

14 Aztecs  Became dominant power by 1400s  Capitals = Tenochtitlan  Pop: 300,000 (bigger than an city in Europe)  Still expanding their empire in early 1500s

15 Aztec Agriculture  Farming - Irrigation network created fertile cropland and access to fresh water

16  Introduction  Origins  Regional Diversity  Mesoamerica  Western  Southwest  Pacific Northwest  Mississippian  Eastern Woodlands  Iroquois  New England  Conclusion  Key Terms:  Bering Land Bridge  Teotihuacan  Aztec  Anasazi  Cahokia  Iroquois  Hiawatha

17 Major Southwest Cultures Anasazi Hohokam Mogollon

18 Southwest Civilization  Know for its dry climate but farming was important  Chaco Canyon was a center for trade  Constructed mud block structure and cities

19 Southwest Cultures  Anasazi culture declined by 12 th and 13 th centuries as rain levels dropped.  Large communities most likely dissolved into smaller tribes and bands  Hohokam and Mogollon cultures persist to this day

20  Introduction  Origins  Regional Diversity  Mesoamerica  Western  Southwest  Pacific Northwest  Mississippian  Eastern Woodlands  Iroquois  New England  Conclusion  Key Terms:  Bering Land Bridge  Teotihuacan  Aztec  Anasazi  Cahokia  Iroquois  Hiawatha

21 Pacific Northwest

22  Bark: used for clothing, baskets, etc.  When softened it could be fashioned into diapers for babies  Lumber: Canoes, homes (longhouses), etc.  Longhouses were very large: 100 x 40 ft

23 Pacific Northwest - Seafood/Salmon  Hunter/gatherers  Seafood was the foundation of their diet  Fish could be caught in many way  Fish were preserved by drying and smoking  Key = Abundance  Clams, crabs, and other shellfish were eaten  Whales were hunted in some areas

24  Introduction  Origins  Regional Diversity  Mesoamerica  Western  Southwest  Pacific Northwest  Mississippian  Eastern Woodlands  Iroquois  New England  Conclusion  Key Terms:  Bering Land Bridge  Teotihuacan  Aztec  Anasazi  Cahokia  Iroquois  Hiawatha

25 Mississippian

26  Mississippian culture emerged about 700 AD  Cahokia was located near present-day St. Louis

27 Cahokia Mounds  Covered about 125 sq miles  20,000 residents  Built platform mounds  Served as temples and homes for chiefs

28 Mississippian  Mississippian culture emerged about 700 AD  Cahokia was located near present-day St. Louis  After 1200 it entered a period of decline

29  Introduction  Origins  Regional Diversity  Mesoamerica  Western  Southwest  Pacific Northwest  Mississippian  Eastern Woodlands  Iroquois  New England  Conclusion  Key Terms:  Bering Land Bridge  Teotihuacan  Aztec  Anasazi  Cahokia  Iroquois  Hiawatha

30 Iroquois

31 Iroquois: A Confederation of Five Separate Tribes  Confederation of tribes that number around 10,000 total  Mohawks  Oneidas  Onondagas  Cayugas  Senecas

32 Political Structure  Council Government  Each tribe in confederacy sent delegates/representatives to council meetings

33 Iroquois Society  Homes = Longhouses  25 ft wide  Up to 200 ft in length  Several families would live in each longhouse  Property was owned communally  Division of labor between men/women:  Men: hunted/fished; warriors  Women: farmed and gathered  A significant portion of their diet came from farmed products

34 Iroquois Society  Homes = Longhouses  25 ft wide  Up to 200 ft in length  Several families would live in each longhouse  Property was owned communally  Division of labor between men/women:  Men: hunted/fished; warriors  Women: farmed and gathered  A significant portion of their diet came from farmed products

35 Women in Iroquois Society  Descent was matrilineal;  Husband moved into home of wife’s family  houses were headed by women  Women could divorce their husbands  Women selected all delegates to the Iroquois Council and influenced policy

36 New England

37  Northern New England  Hunter-gathers: Very Mobile  Spring and summer lived near coasts; moved inland for fall and winter to hunt game animals  15,000-20,000 population in 1600  Southern New England  Hunted and Farmed (at times up to 2/3 of diet)  55,000-80,000 population in 1600

38 Farming Methods  Fields were cleared by girdling and with fire  “Three Sisters” of agriculture  Corn, beans, and squash were planted together  Corn drew Nitrogen  Beans added Nitrogen  Farming had a major impact on the environment

39  Introduction  Origins  Regional Diversity  Mesoamerica  Western  Southwest  Pacific Northwest  Mississippian  Eastern Woodlands  Iroquois  New England  Conclusion  Key Terms:  Bering Land Bridge  Teotihuacan  Aztec  Anasazi  Cahokia  Iroquois  Hiawatha

40 Review  Origins of Native Americans  Tremendous differences among Indian Peoples  Compare and contrast life; what ere some important traits of people living in different regions?

41 Source  gage.com/history/l ecturepoints/part0 1_lecture01/part01 _lecture01.html

42 Southwest Present day MexicoLonghousesFarmed Mesoameric a Longhouses Confederacy of Five Tribes in New York Farmed Pacific Northwest Built Mound Platforms Near present day St. LouisFarmed Mississippian Matrilineal SocietyTenochtitlanFarmed Iroquois Built Mud Brick Homes Built mud block homes Hunter/Gather - Seafood


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