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Lieutenant Colonel Noma Martini

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1 Lieutenant Colonel Noma Martini
ROTC Graduate UC Berkeley (1996) 18 Years of Service (Infantry / Aviator) UH-60 Blackhawk Pilot 2x Deployments (Afghanistan / Iraq)

2 All men can see these tactics whereby I conquer, but what none can see is the strategy out of which victory is evolved. - Sun Tzu

3 Agenda Center of Gravity Analysis Army’s New Training Model – Outcome Based Training and Education Operational Environment Discussion - NINIWA PROVINCE

4 (Company Level and below)
Troop Leading Procedures Small Unit Leader’s (Company Level and below) Decision Making Process TLPs Receive the Mission Issue a Warning Order Make a Tentative Plan Initiate Movement Conduct Reconnaissance Complete the Plan Issue the Operations Order Supervise and Refine METT-TC MISSION ENEMY TROOPS TERRAIN TIME CULTURE

5 Military Decision Making Process
Staff Process to Advise the Commander Battalion Level and Above Unemotional Analysis and Decision Making The basic steps in the MDMP are: Receipt of Mission Mission Analysis Course of action (COA) Development COA Analysis (aka Wargaming) COA Comparison COA Approval Orders Production

6 Center of Gravity Analysis to Develop a Strategy
Critical Capabilities Critical Requirements Critical Vulnerabilities What are our Nation’s CC, CR, CV? Technology Agriculture Natural Resources Values, Beliefs System

7 ENDs – Desired Outcome (Visualized, Defined and Described)
WAYs – Method to Achieve the Desired Outcome. MEANs – Resources / Enablers to support the Method to Achieve the Desired Outcome Mobility (ENDs) + Vehicle (WAYs) + Fuel (MEANs)

8 Strategy = ENDS + WAYS + MEANS
ENDS – Conquer Europe WAY – Mass Attack MEANS – Tank Warfare Critical Vulnerabilities – Bearings Critical Requirement – Factories

9 ENDS / WAYS – Send us Home in Boxes
ENDS / WAYS – Kill As Many Americans as Possible ENDS – Influence Public Opinion Strategy = ENDS + WAYS + MEANS WAYS – IED MEANS – Financier MEANS – Financier MEANS – IED Material MEANS – IED emplacer MEANS – Detonation Device / Trigger

10 Strategy = ENDS + WAYS + MEANS
ENDS – Attack America Strategy = ENDS + WAYS + MEANS WAYS – Freedoms MEANS – Fear / Security ENDS – Assessment. Successful or Not? The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting. - Sun Tzu

11 Army’s New Training Model OBT&E

12 Definitions Tangible Adjective- Perceptible by touch.
Noun- A thing that is perceptible by touch. Synonyms- palpable - concrete - touchable - real - tactile Intangible Adjective- Unable to be touched or grasped; not having physical presence: "cyberspace or anything else so intangible". Noun- An intangible thing. Synonyms- impalpable - untouchable

13 Desired Attributes in Subordinates
Confidence Problem-solving Initiative Team Player Accountability Able to Manage Stress Awareness Retention Judgment Thinking Skills Discipline Motivated Loyalty Decision Maker Adaptability Fitness (Holistic) Resiliency Competent Compassion Flexible Mastery of Basic Skills Self-learner / Self-starter Warrior Spirit Understands the Situation Moral & Ethical Resolute Selfless Service Common (Good) Sense

14 Outcome-Based Training & Education
   Outcome-Based Training & Education (OBT&E) emphasizes the development of the individual based on operational expectations, both in regards to necessary tangible skills and desired intangible attributes, in an environment of relatedness, resulting in Soldiers and leaders who have learned to teach themselves, able to solve problems as individuals and teams within a framework of knowledge and principles, and have realize an increase in intangible attributes. In OBT&E, measures of effectiveness are utilized to evaluate the achievement of desired outcomes. OBT&E is oriented towards creating adaptive forces able to deal with the complex challenges of current and future combat, and civil and humanitarian operations described in FM 3-0, Operations, and exist in support of the “what” defined in FM 7.0, Training for Full Spectrum Operations and the “how to” defined in FM 7-1, Battle Focused Training.

15 The overall goal of OBTE is to prepare Soldiers to function in tomorrow’s operational environment.
To this end, Soldiers who have learned to teach themselves, to solve problems within a framework of knowledge, realize increased confidence, accountability, awareness, judgment and initiative. WHY 13 Years of constant war has created adaptive and dynamic leaders that can not be replicated in a peacetime environment.

16 Tenets or Doctrine of OBT&E:
Emphasizes training and education (together termed as development) as a leadership issue, i.e. effective mission accomplishment ultimately occurs from the development of subordinates Emphasizes the creative nature of military operations Emphasizes Commander’s Intent rooted in Purpose and Vision that facilitates Means (or Method) Emphasizes Safety as an individual responsibility that enhances training and operations Emphasizes the risk associated to future military operations when development does not occur Emphasizes the Effective utilization (from a developmental perspective) of fixed resources Emphasizes assessment, judgment, decision and execution at all levels of authority Emphasizes the why over the must (219 instances of must in the current draft of FM 7.0) Emphasizes scenario-based experience of problem solving over exhaustive task list Emphasizes training Tangible Skills as venues for Intangible Development Emphasizes resources, good curriculum and aptitude/ability as enhancers, not requirements

17 Principles of OBT&E:    Training to Grow Problem Solving: teach Soldiers to “learn for themselves” the skills necessary to the success of their mission, within an established framework of knowledge and principles Training to Increase Intangibles: develop intangible attributes like confidence, accountability, initiative, judgment and awareness; reinforce positive character traits Training to Increase Understanding and Awareness: teach through contextual understanding of the task and its mission application Training to Increase Deliberate Thought: condition Soldiers to exercise always a deliberate thought process (assessment, judgment and decision) while under controlled and increasing levels of stress Training to Improve Combat Performance: condition Soldiers to overcome the psychological and physiological effects, and the physical requirements of combat

18 Threshold Training for the Individual or Unit
Threshold Training exists within a smaller scale of Order to Chaos that moves on a larger scale of Simplicity to Complexity. Targeted Realm of Individual Struggle Idealized Realm of Training Destructive Impact Threshold of Failure Order Chaos Negative Impact Simplicity 1. Explanation on how to incorrectly apply (and the negative of doing so) this diagram to industrial, rationalized, stimulus-response training/performance (machine). 2. Explanation on how to correctly apply this diagram to OBTE (human). 3. Explanation on the destructive impact of training in the realm of chaos. 4. Explanation on the negative impact of training in the realm of order. 5. Explanation on training toward difficult success and the opportunity for error. 6. Explanation on the negative of training to failure, i.e. the danger of over-reliance on learning from mistakes. 7. Explanation of what happens (the cyclic impact) to the individual or unit when operating in the ideal realm of training. 8. Explanation on why/how Chaos and Complexity are not the same, but interrelated. 9. Explanation on why/how Order and Simplicity are not the same, but interrelated. Complexity Where an individual or unit trains on the smaller scale, determines whether the Threshold for Chaos (Failure) generally moves to the right on both scales, remains stagnate or rescinds, such that rightward movement advances the Margin for Success (that which the individual or unit can affect) into higher levels of Complexity.

19 Operational Environment Niniwa Discussion

20 Key Players Elected Iraqi Governor Iraqi Army Iraqi Police Kurdish Police Peshmerga Army Peshmerga Security Force PKK US Special Forces Other Gov’t Agencies Non Gov’t Agencies UN Inspectors Christians Shiites Sunnis US – Conventional Forces Issues Kurdish Independence Land Rights (water/oil) Al Qaida Attacks (IA, IP, US) PKK Attacks Turkish Cross Border Iraqi Elections US Transition and Withdrawal

21 1 2 3 4 5 Support Host Nation Government
Lines of Effort (LOEs) or Lines of Operations (LOOs) Support Host Nation Government 1 Promote Rule of Law and Support Host Nation Security Forces (IA, IP, Pesh Army/Police) 2 Secure the Porous Borders with Syria, Turkey, and Iran (Isolate population from foreign insurgents) 3 Set the Conditions to Transition Security to Host Nation Transition Security to Host Nation 4 5

22 Key Players Elected Iraqi Governor Iraqi Army Iraqi Police Kurdish Police Peshmerga Army Peshmerga Security Force PKK US Special Forces Other Gov’t Agencies Non Gov’t Agencies UN Inspectors Christians Shiites Sunnis US – Conventional Forces Issues Kurdish Independence Land Rights (water/oil) Al Qaida Attacks (IA, IP, US) PKK Attacks Turkish Cross Border Iraqi Elections US Transition and Withdrawal

23 STRATEGY = ENDS + WAYS + MEANS

24 Train, Teach, Coach and Mentor Creative Thinkers.
Need Tomorrow’s Problems Solvers, Today! 2,3 year Scholarships Active Duty and Part-Time Service Options Immediate Job Placement Upon Graduating Great Community of People to Work With. Some Really Cool Jobs Opportunities


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