Presentation on theme: "Unit 1: The Exam! 21/05/2014 Cognitive Experiments Social Surveys"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 1: The Exam! 21/05/2014 Cognitive Experiments Social Surveys The exam is 1 hour 20 minutes long and you will have to answer three types of question.This unit is 40% of your total AS psychology and the paper is marked out of 60.There are three compulsory sections.CognitiveExperimentsSocialSurveysThere are three parts to the Unit 1 exam:Multiple choice questions – read them carefully and make sure you read how many responses you have to give. [15 minutes]Short answer / stimulus response. Answer fully. [40 minutes]Extended writing question [25 minutes]
3Study or Theory? STUDY (APRC / GRAVE) THEORY A study is any exercise where data is collected and analysed. This involves a researcher conducting an experiment of any type. It will have an aim, procedure, results and conclusion. Studies Craik and Tulvin (1975), Godden & Baddely (1975),A theory is an explanation for a psychological phenomenon. Following a theory researchers will conduct studies in an attempt to support the theory and provide evidence for it. Theories MSM, LoP, Trace Decay, Cue-Dependency, Interference theory
5APRC: Describing a STUDY Aim – what did the psychologist want to do? Procedure – what did they do? Who did they do it to? Experimental design? Sampling method? Apparatus? Results – what did they find (raw data)? Conclusions – so what? What does it mean?
7GRAVE: Evaluating a STUDY Generalisability - can the findings be applied to the general population? Think about the sample, methods used & confounding variables.Reliability - can the procedure be replicated and are the findings consistent?Applications - do the findings have practical value? Think: So what?Validity - did the study test what it set out to? Can the findings be applied to everyday life (ecological validity)? Population validity (sampling).Ethics - with reference to the BPS ethical guidelines, how ethical was the study?
9ASSUMPTION1: Information Processing Definition: The processing by which information is received by the senses, analysed and responded to. This flow of information is described using the terms input, process and output.Example:
10Information Processing INPUTINFO. RECEIVED BY SENSESPROCESSINGINFO. ANALYSEDOUTPUTINFO. RESPONDED TODecisionmakingMemory
11ASSUMPTION 2: Computer Analogy The human mind works in a similar way to a computer in terms of information processing.INPUTS information from the senses;PROCESSES information in the form of thinking, memory and language;OUTPUTS information in the form of decision making, speech and action.
13ASSUMPTON 3: ActiveHumans actively organise and manipulate information from the environment. Cognitive or mental processes mediate between stimulus and response.Active processing refers to sets of procedures in which a learner acts on instructional inputs to generate, re-organise, self-explain, or otherwise go beyond the encoding of material.
14Evaluation of Cognitive Approach StrengthsAdopts scientific procedures to develop and test theories.Uses experimental techniques.Models simplify cognitive processes.Allows us to understand mental process that are not directly observable.WeaknessesTends to ignore biology and genetic influence also ignores individual differences.Provides a mechanistic view of human behaviour.Can such a scientific approach really tell us about how we think, feel and behave? (Humanistic psychology).
16Memory & Forgetting… The same thing? The retention and recall of previous experience.Encoding -> Storage -> RetrievalForgetting:Not been able to remember a fact or event because the memory trace is unavailable or inaccessible.
17All 3 processes depend upon one another; they are interdependent. Failure at any of these 3 stages can lead to forgetting.Memory involves three mainProcesses:ENCODINGSTORAGERETRIEVALThe process of changing sensory input into a memory trace so that it can be stored.The process of maintaininga record of the memory trace so that it can be retrieved in the future.The process of accessing andrecovering stored information so that it can be recalled.17
20AO2 Evaluation of Atkinson & Shiffrin’s Multi-store Model of Memory Lot’s of evidence supporting STM and LTM being separate stores.Problems with concept of STM:- FK shows that semantic as well as acoustic encoding is used.- First-in-first out displacement loss disproved.- Not a single system- working memory with separate subsystems for visual & spatial and verbal information.X HM learning new skills shows LTM not a single system- separate episodic, semantic and procedural stores.X Rehearsal does not completely explain transfer to LTM.X Primacy-recency effect equally well explained by LOP framework.X Supporting studies use artificial tasks therefore evidence low in ecological validity.X ‘Capacity’ not well defined; not clear whether it refers to storage or processing.X An additional criticism of the MSM is that it does not take into account the strategies (other than maintenance rehearsal) used to remember information.
21Craik and Lockhart’s Levels of Processing (1972) [Theory] Proposed as an alternative to the PROCESSES involved in storing a memory suggested by the MSM.They suggested that the likelihood of remembering a piece of information depends on how we process it.In this way, memory is a by-product of the information processing that occurs when attending to information.
22Levels of Processing Structural Shallow Phonetic Semantic Deep What does the word look like?Is the word in capital letters?PhoneticWhat does the word sound like?Does the word rhyme with …?Semantic DeepWhat does the word mean?Does the word fit in this sentence?
23Evaluation of LoP (AO2)Evidence to support- Craik & Tulving (65% sem, 37% p, 17% st). This is incidental rather than intentional learning so ecologically valid.Brain scanning studies show more activity when semantic processing occurring.Improvement on MSMElaborative rather than maintenance rehearsal;Shows complexity of encoding process.Useful everyday applications- education.X Confounding variables to depth; time, effort, distinctiveness.X Semantic does not always = betterX Circular argumentX Focuses on processes not stores
24Craik and Tulvin (1975) [Study] Aim The aim was to test whether words that were processed for their meaning would be better remembered than words that were processed for information about their appearance or sound. Procedure Laboratory experiment- the IV (depth of processing) was manipulated and there was a high level or experimental control in an artificial situation. Repeated Measures- all participants participated in all three conditions: Structural processing, phonetic processing & semantic processing.
25Craik and Tulvin (1975) [Study] Participants did not initially know that it was a memory test and thought they just had to answer questions on a list of words. In reality, different types of questions were making participants use different levels of processing structural, phonetic and semantic. Words were presented to participants; each word was followed by a question which required a yes or no answer. Finally, participants were presented with the incidental memory test- incidental as they didn’t originally know they were going to do it. Recall was measured through a recognition task where participants had to choose as many of the original words as they could amongst several others.
26Is the word in capital letters? Does this word rhyme with GREEN? ChairDoes this word rhyme with GREEN?BEANDoes the word fit this sentence? ‘The soldier picked up his _____.’rifleIs this word in lower-case letters?FLOWERDoes the word fit this sentence? ‘The woman _________ on the train.’sleptDoes the word rhyme with MEND?poolMEANINGDoes the word fit this sentence? ‘Yesterday we saw a _______.’fenceDoes the word rhyme with HOUSE?MOUSEDoes the word fit into this sentence? ‘There are _______ growing in my garden.’DOORSIs the word in lower-case letters?spendDoes the word rhyme with TABLE?GENERALIs this word in capital letters?articleDoes this word fit this sentence? ‘The _____ should not be more than 1000 words.’castleDoes this word rhyme with STOOL?POND
27Craik and Tulvin (1975) [Study] Results 65% semantic 36% phonetic and 17% of structurally processed words were recalled. Conclusion This study shows that depth of processing affects how well words are remembered. Semantic processing, that is thinking about the meaning of the words, leads to their being remembered best.
28Craik and Tulvin (1975) A02G: Problems as participants were all students (good memories?) and the task was artificial and not representative of things we remember. R: As it is a lab experiment we can replicate the experiment easily to check the reliability of the study. A: Shows that students (or anyone wanting to remember something) must attach meaning to it. When things are processed semantically we remember them better. Could develop revision techniques. V: Artificial task so might not be measuring how we actually remember words. However, Pps. didn’t know it was a test of memory that removes some confounding variables. Poor population validity – all students. E: Participants could have been embarrassed if they didn’t do well.
30Trace Decay TheoryTrace-decay theory can be used to explain forgetting from either STM or LTM. It proposes that forgetting occurs due to information not being available so there is nothing to retrieve thus recall cannot occur.This theory is based on the idea that information creates a neurological (physical) trace in the brain when it is encoded which disappears over time. Without the rehearsal of information, engrams decay over time thus the memory disappears and forgetting occurs.Forgetting therefore occurs from STM due to the stores limited duration if maintenance rehearsal does not take place. Equally, despite having a potential life-time duration, it has been suggested that if knowledge and skills in LTM are not practiced, then the engram will decay causing a structural change in LTM thus forgetting.
31AO2 STRENGHTS Trace Decay Theory A study conducted by Peterson and Peterson (1959) supports the idea of trace decay in STM. They found that the number of trigrams recalled by participants decreased as the length of distraction task increased. This finding suggests that forgetting in STM is due to trace decay since the distraction task prevented rehearsal- the function of which is to replenish the trace before it decays completely.This theory is also supported by physiological evidence showing that memories do create a physical trace in the brain.The theory also has mundane realism as it is consistent with the forgetting demonstrated by people with Alzheimer’s disease who seem to lose memories (a physical process) rather than be unable to retrieve them. This suggests that trace decay may be a valid theory of forgetting.
32AO2 LIMITATIONS Trace Decay Theory X Furthermore, Jenkins & Dallenbach (1924) tested whether time between encoding and recall led to forgetting. They found that participants who remained awake between learning and recall forgot more than those who slept. This suggests that interference rather than trace-decay causes forgetting as the lower recall in the awake group must have resulted from events between learning and recall interfering with the engram.X Another limitation of trace-decay theory is that it cannot explain why some long-term memory engram’s, such as flashbulb memories, seem to be resistant to decay.X Trace decay also has difficulty explaining why material which cannot be remembered at one time can be remembered at a future time, even though no additional presentations have been made. If the trace has decayed it should never be available.
33Cue Dependent Theory Tulvin (1975) Tulvin claims two events are necessary for recall:A memory traceRetrieval cueContext (environmental) CuesThese are cues in the environment which aid our ability to retrieve a memory at a later date. Forgetting occurs as the situation or context is different from that at encoding.State CuesThis is the emotional state you are in at time of encoding. Forgetting occurs as the person’s state or mood is different from that at encoding.
34Cue Dependent Theory (AO2) Tulvin (1975) StrengthsThe theory accounts for forgetting in different tasks. There are many supporting studies.The idea is testable because the retrieval environment can be replicated.The Cognitive Interview is based on the theory that by providing cues to a person it will aid their ability to recall information.WeaknessesThe tasks used in the supporting studies are artificial so the results may lack ecological validity and validity.It may only account for some forms of forgetting.Only applies to forgetting from the LTM.
35Mind map what you know about Godden & Baddley (1975) [Study]
36Godden & Baddley (1975) [Study] Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of environmental encoding cues on the ability to recall. Procedure: The 18 participants were randomly divided into four groups and all participants took part in all 4 conditions (repeated measured design). Participants were to learn list comprised of 36 unrelated words, 2-3 syllables long then recall in either the same or different context. During the experiment each participant undertook one condition per day: dry-dry; dry-wet; wet-wet; wet-dry. Conclusion: Godden and Baddeley concluded that their results do support the claims of cue-dependency theory.
37Godden & Baddley (1975) AO2G: Only trained SCUBA divers were used therefore it may not apply to all people. The environment and the tasks were artificial – learning does not usually take place like that. R: The experiment can be replicated to test the reliability of the results. We could replicate in more ecologically valid situations (classroom vs. exam hall). A: We can apply the findings to students learning in one environment and recalling in another. Better to sit exams in a classroom not hall. V: Word list was artificial – not real learning. Poor population validity. E: No ethical issues were broken. Not an issue.
38Complete a detailed key study S&W for Godden & Baddeley Task:Complete a detailed key study S&W for Godden & Baddeley15mins
39Godden and Baddeley (1975)Godden and Baddeley carried out a field experiment using a small number of participants. The participants were all scientists and this could have meant they were a biased sample because they may have tried hard for the researchers or they may have guessed the hypothesis of the study and changed their behaviour so the results would be biased and unreliable. A field experiment has controls but the problem is it is hard to control the settings, indeed the diving situations did vary because the study had to move with the divers and also had to wait until the time and conditions for diving were suitable. This means that controls were difficult which again could affect reliability. On the other hand, the findings are probably valid because there were real divers on real dives so the situation regarding the context (which was the independent variable) was natural. The study was ethical because the divers were aware of what they had to do and were trained divers so were not under pressure with regard to the task. Being scientists they would not be too worried about experimental procedures such as writing underwater, although this may have meant the study lacked reliability as already explained-it would however indicate that they would not have cheated about what they had learnt but would have been honest.Generalisability?
41Factors after the event Key Issue: EWT & MemoryReconstructive HypothesisLoftus & PalmerWhat really happenedFactors after the eventOur perception of the event.
42How does it help us explain the issues with eyewitness testimony? Multi-Store ModelAtkinson & ShiffrinInformation is only passed into the STM from the SM is we attend to it. If we are not attending to an event in the environment information about it will decay from the SM and will not be processed further (encoded) – no memory.Levels of ProcessingCraik and LockheartWe remember things well when they have been deeply processed, that is anaylsyed for meaning rather than for structural or phonetic information. Most questions following an event usually refer to apperance (structural processing).Cue-dependencyTulvinResearch has shown that both our internal state and our surroundings when we store a new memory serve as memory cues. If these cues are not present at recall we will be unable to recall the event accurately.Reconstructive MemoryLoftus & PalmerThe active process of reconstruction takes place as we retrieve memories. We tend to include post-event information when reconstruct memories. Therefore, memories can be easily distorted by using leading questions.
43The Cognitive Interview Fisher & Geiselman (1992) 46%Increase !The four main techniques that the CIT uses to aid retrieval are:Recreating the context: It is well established that memory is context dependent and so asking a witness to think about how they were feeling just before and during the event to be recalled, perhaps evoking the sounds and smells relating to the event, should facilitate retrieval.Focused concentration: Persuading the witness to concentrate very hard on the task.Multiple retrieval attempts: Encouraging a witness who feels they have recalled everything about an event to have another attempt can unlock previously un-recovered detail.Varied retrieval: Witnesses will often recall events in chronological order but if they are asked to recall details in a different order, or from a different perspective, this may trigger additional information.
45Experiments Three types of experiments: Laboratory experiments Highly controlled / artificialField experimentsControlled variables in a natural environmentQuasi (natural) experimentsWe have no control over the independent variable – it’s ‘naturally’ occurring (eg Gender)
46Experiments Independent Variable (IV) Dependent Variable (DV) Confounding Variable: a variable that effects the DVExtraneous Variable: a variable that could affect the DV buthas been controlled for so it doesn’t.
47Experiments Extraneous Variables Participant Variables Independent Measures = Individual DifferencesSituational VariablesAny feature of the experiment that could influence a participants behaviourSingle Blind – Double Blind – Control Groups
48Experiments Repeated Measures Independent MeasuresParticipants are only in one condition.Repeated MeasuresThe same participants repeat the two conditionsCondition 1 Condition 2Condition 1 Condition 2Counter balancing – alter order of Pp’s
49ExperimentsMatched Pairs – make two groups of participants as similar as possible.Condition 1Condition 2Male21IQ = 105Male21IQ = 105Female25IQ = 115Female25IQ = 115
50Strength Weakness Independent Measures Repeated Measures Matched Pairs No Order Effects Fewer Demand CharacteristicsIndividual DifferencesRepeatedMeasuresNo Individual DifferencesOrder Effects(counter balancing)MatchedPairsControls for Individual DifferencesCan be difficult and costly.Evaluation of Experimental Designs.
51Experiments – Hypotheses How are we measuring memory?What’s better or worse? Higher / Lower? More / Less?Participants memory will be much worse when there is a distraction in the room than when there is no distraction.Participants memory will be much worse when there is a distraction in the room than when there is no distraction.What is the distraction? How are we manipulating it?Operationalising your hypothesisHow have you manipulated your IV?How have you measured your DV?
52Experiments – Hypotheses Participants memory will be much worse when there is a distraction in the room than when there is no distraction.Participants will remember significantly more words from a list of 20 presented for 60 seconds when they are in a room with no distractions than participants who are in a room where rock music is playing in the background.
53Experiments – Hypotheses Participants who [do something] will be significantly [faster/better/quicker etc] at [something] than participants who [do something else].There will be no significant difference between participants who [do something] and those who [do something else]. Any difference will be down to chance.AlternateNull
54Experiments – Hypotheses Participants who [do something] will be significantly [faster/better/quicker etc] at [something] than participants who [do something else].There will be a significant difference between participants who [do something] and those who [do something else].1Tailed2Tailed
56Data Analysis Descriptive Statistics Summary of data to illustrate patterns and relationships – BUT can’t infer conclusionsInferential StatisticsStatistical tests that allow us to make conclusions in relation to our hypothesis.eg. Mann-Whitney or Spearman’s Rho.
57Data AnalysisNominal - measure of central tendency: mode Data in categories (finished, fell, started) Ordinal - measure of central tendency: median Data which are ranked or in order (1st 2nd 3rd) Interval - measure of central tendency: mean Precise and measured using units of equal intervals (1m54s, 1m59s, 2m03s) Measure of dispersion = range (Highest – Lowest) Measure of central tendency = average
58Strength Weakness Mean Median Mode Makes use of all the values in a data set.Not good for ordinal or nominal data.Can be distorted by extreme values.MedianUnaffected by extreme values.Not good for nominal data.Ignores extreme outliers.ModeCan be used with any data type.Isn’t useful for small data sets.