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WELCOME TO THE CLASS OF HRM. Performance Management and Appraisal Prof. Hiteshwari Jadeja.

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Presentation on theme: "WELCOME TO THE CLASS OF HRM. Performance Management and Appraisal Prof. Hiteshwari Jadeja."— Presentation transcript:

1 WELCOME TO THE CLASS OF HRM

2 Performance Management and Appraisal Prof. Hiteshwari Jadeja

3 A process of goal-setting, communication, observation and evaluation to support, retain and develop exceptional employees for organizational success. Performance Management Communicate ObserveEvaluate Set Goals

4 Why Performance Management? Total Quality Appraisal Issues Strategic Focus The Performance Management Approach

5 Basic Concepts in Performance Management and Appraisal Performance Appraisal: Setting work standards, assessing performance, and providing feedback to employees to motivate, correct, and continue their performance. Performance Management: An integrated approach to ensuring that an employee’s performance supports and contributes to the organization’s strategic aims. Comparing Performance Appraisal and Performance Management

6 Performance Management and Performance Appraisal Performance management:Performance management:  Dynamic, continuous process.  Improves organizational effectiveness.  Strategic goals. Performance appraisal:Performance appraisal:  Periodic (usually annual) event.  Formal review.  Last step in performance management process.

7 Defining the Employee’s Goals and Work Standards Assign Specific Goals Encourage Participation Assign Measurable Goals Assign Challenging but Doable Goals Guidelines for Effective Goal Setting

8 Setting Goals SMART Goals:SMART Goals:  Specific, and clearly state the desired results.  Measurable in answering “how much.”  Attainable, and not too tough or too easy.  Relevant to what’s to be achieved.  Timely in reflecting deadlines and milestones.

9 An Introduction to Appraising Performance Performance Appraisal is an objective assessment of an individual’s performance against well defined benchmarks.

10 Definitions According to Edwin Flippo, "Performance Appraisal is the systematic, periodic and impartial rating of an employee's excellence, in matters pertaining to his present job and his potential for a better job.“ According to Dale Beach, "Performance Appraisal is the systematic evaluation of the individual with regards to his or her performance on the job and his potential for development."

11 An Introduction to Appraising Performance 1 Is useful in career planning. Plays an integral role in performance management. Why Appraise Performance? Is basis for pay and promotion decisions. Helps in correcting deficiencies and reinforcing good performance. 234

12 Objectives of Appraisal To effect promotions based on competence and performance.To effect promotions based on competence and performance. To confirm the services of probationary employees upon their completing the probationary period satisfactorily.To confirm the services of probationary employees upon their completing the probationary period satisfactorily. To assess the training and development needs of employees.To assess the training and development needs of employees. To decide upon a pay raise where (as in the unorganised sector) regular pay scales have not been fixed.To decide upon a pay raise where (as in the unorganised sector) regular pay scales have not been fixed.

13 To let the employees know where they stand insofar as their performance is concerned and to assist them with constructive criticism and guidance for the purpose of their development.To let the employees know where they stand insofar as their performance is concerned and to assist them with constructive criticism and guidance for the purpose of their development. To improve communication. Performance appraisal provides a format for dialogue between the superior and the subordinate, and improves understanding of personal goals and concerns.To improve communication. Performance appraisal provides a format for dialogue between the superior and the subordinate, and improves understanding of personal goals and concerns. Finally, performance appraisal can be used to determine whether HR programmes such as selection, training, and transfers have been effective or not.Finally, performance appraisal can be used to determine whether HR programmes such as selection, training, and transfers have been effective or not. Objectives of Appraisal (contd..)

14 Classroom Teaching Appraisal by Students

15 FIGURE 9-1 (Continued)

16 The Performance Appraisal Process Objectives of Performance Appraisal Establish Job Expectations Design an Appraisal Programme Appraise Performance Performance Interview Use Appraisal Data for Appropriate Purposes

17 Design an Appraisal Programme

18 Performance Appraisal Methods Traditional Methods (Past- Oriented) 1.Graphic Rating Scale Method 2.Alternation Ranking Method 3.Paired Comparison Method 4.Forced Distribution Method 5.Critical Incident Method 6.Narrative Forms 7.Annual Confidential Report (ACR) Modern Methods ( Future- Oriented) 1.Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) 2.Management by Objectives (MBO) 3.Computerized and Web- Based Performance Appraisal 4.Merged Methods 5.Assessment Centres Degree Feedback

19 Graphic Rating Scale Method A scale that lists a number of traits and a range of performance for each. The employee is then rated by identifying the score that best describes his or her level of performance for each trait.A scale that lists a number of traits and a range of performance for each. The employee is then rated by identifying the score that best describes his or her level of performance for each trait.

20 Sample Graphic Rating Performance Rating Form

21 Sample Performance Rating Form (continued)

22 Alternation ranking Method Ranking employees from best to worst on a particular trait, choosing the highest, then lowest, until all are ranked.Ranking employees from best to worst on a particular trait, choosing the highest, then lowest, until all are ranked.

23 Scale for alternate ranking of Appraiser

24 Paired Comparison Method : In this method, each employee is compared with the other on one-to-one basis. This method makes judgement easier as compared to ranking method.. The total number of comparison can be ascertained by the following formula : Maximum no. of pairs = [n(n-1)]/2 where N stands for number of employees to be evaluated.where N stands for number of employees to be evaluated.Example: If the following five students Ashok (A), Bina (B), Chitra (C), Dinesh (D), Eillen (E) have to be evaluated for the best student award, the total number of comparison would be = 10 A with BA with B A with CB with CA with CB with C A with DB with DC with DA with DB with DC with D A with EB with EC with ED with EA with EB with EC with ED with E The number of times a student gets a better score, would be the basis for selecting the Best Student. This method is not appropriate if a large number of students are required to be evaluated.The number of times a student gets a better score, would be the basis for selecting the Best Student. This method is not appropriate if a large number of students are required to be evaluated. 24

25 FIGURE 9–6Ranking Employees by the Paired Comparison Method Note: + means “better than.” – means “worse than.” For each chart, add up the number of +’s in each column to get the highest-ranked employee.

26 Forced Distribution Method  Similar to grading on a curve; predetermined percentages of ratees are placed in various performance categories.  Example:  15% high performers  20% high-average performers  30% average performers  20% low-average performers  15% low performers 26

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28 Critical Incident Method This method evaluates an employee on the basis of certain `events' or `episodes' known as critical incident.This method evaluates an employee on the basis of certain `events' or `episodes' known as critical incident. The underlying principle of this method is "there are certain significant acts in each employee's behavior and performance, which can make all the difference between success and failure on the job.“ The underlying principle of this method is "there are certain significant acts in each employee's behavior and performance, which can make all the difference between success and failure on the job.“ Thus, in this method the rater focuses his attention on all those factors, that can make a difference between performing a job in a noteworthy manner. Thus, in this method the rater focuses his attention on all those factors, that can make a difference between performing a job in a noteworthy manner. 28

29 Examples of Critical Incidents for an Assistant Plant Manager

30 Narrative Forms All or part of the written appraisal may be in narrative form.All or part of the written appraisal may be in narrative form. Here, the person’s supervisor is responsible for providing an assessment of the employee’s past performance and required areas of improvement.Here, the person’s supervisor is responsible for providing an assessment of the employee’s past performance and required areas of improvement.

31 Appraisal- Coaching Worksheet

32 Annual Confidential Report (ACR) This is a traditional method of evaluating an employee's performance. It is normally used in Government departments and small business units. Here, the evaluation is done by the immediate boss or supervisor.This is a traditional method of evaluating an employee's performance. It is normally used in Government departments and small business units. Here, the evaluation is done by the immediate boss or supervisor. The main limitation of this method is the ratings are generally not discussed with the ratee (only in case of adverse remark). The main limitation of this method is the ratings are generally not discussed with the ratee (only in case of adverse remark). 32

33 BARS (Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scale) In order to overcome the problem of judgmental evaluation, this method was conceived by some organisations. This method combines the benefits of Essay Method, Critical Incident and Rating scales.In order to overcome the problem of judgmental evaluation, this method was conceived by some organisations. This method combines the benefits of Essay Method, Critical Incident and Rating scales. In this method the employee's behaviour and performance dimensions are analysed and used for evaluating the performance of the employee. The HR department is involved in the process of preparing the BARS. Based on the Employee's performance and behaviour, employees are anchored in different slots of good, average and poor. The rater is required to give corresponding ratings to the employee.In this method the employee's behaviour and performance dimensions are analysed and used for evaluating the performance of the employee. The HR department is involved in the process of preparing the BARS. Based on the Employee's performance and behaviour, employees are anchored in different slots of good, average and poor. The rater is required to give corresponding ratings to the employee. 33

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35 Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) Developing a BARS 1. Generate critical incidents 2. Develop performance dimensions 3. Reallocate incidents 4. Scale the incidents 5. Develop a final instrument Advantages of BARS  A more accurate gauge  Clearer standards  Feedback  Independent dimensions  Consistency

36 Example of a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale for the Dimension Salesmanship Skills

37 Management by Objectives (MBO) A comprehensive and formal organizationwide goal-setting and appraisal program requiring:A comprehensive and formal organizationwide goal-setting and appraisal program requiring: 1. Setting of organization’s goals. 2. Setting of departmental goals. 3. Discussion of departmental goals. 4. Defining expected results (setting individual goals). 5. Conducting periodic performance reviews. 6. Providing performance feedback.

38 Using MBO Problems with MBO Setting unclear objectives Conflict with subordinates over objectives Time-consuming appraisal process

39 Computerized and Web-Based Performance Appraisal Performance appraisal software programsPerformance appraisal software programs  Keep notes on subordinates during the year.  Electronically rate employees on a series of performance traits.  Generate written text to support each part of the appraisal. Electronic performance monitoring (EPM)Electronic performance monitoring (EPM)  Having supervisors electronically monitor the amount of computerized data an employee is processing per day, and thereby his or her performance.

40 Assessment Centres : This method was used to appraise army officers in Germany way back in 1930s. The concept was adapted from army to business arena in 1960s. In India, the concept has been adopted by organisations such as Crompton Greaves, Eicher, Hindustan Lever and Modi Xerox recently.This method was used to appraise army officers in Germany way back in 1930s. The concept was adapted from army to business arena in 1960s. In India, the concept has been adopted by organisations such as Crompton Greaves, Eicher, Hindustan Lever and Modi Xerox recently. This method is mainly used to evaluate executive and supervisory potential. Here employees are taken to a place away from work and a series of tests and exercises are administered. For example, assesses are asked to participate in; in-basket exercise, simulations, group exercise and role plays. Performance of the employee is evaluated in each of these tests and feedback is provided to the ratee, in terms of strengths and weaknesses.This method is mainly used to evaluate executive and supervisory potential. Here employees are taken to a place away from work and a series of tests and exercises are administered. For example, assesses are asked to participate in; in-basket exercise, simulations, group exercise and role plays. Performance of the employee is evaluated in each of these tests and feedback is provided to the ratee, in terms of strengths and weaknesses. 40

41 360o Appraisal Method : Where multiple raters are involved in evaluating performance, the technique is called 360-degree appraisal.Where multiple raters are involved in evaluating performance, the technique is called 360-degree appraisal. The 360-degree technique is understood as systematic collection of performance data on an individual or a, group derived from a number of stakeholders—the stakeholders being the immediate, team members customers peers and self.The 360-degree technique is understood as systematic collection of performance data on an individual or a, group derived from a number of stakeholders—the stakeholders being the immediate, team members customers peers and self. In this method an employee's performance is evaluated by his supervisor, subordinates, peers and customers (or an outside expert).In this method an employee's performance is evaluated by his supervisor, subordinates, peers and customers (or an outside expert). All these appraisers provide information or feedback by completing a questionnaire designed for this purpose.All these appraisers provide information or feedback by completing a questionnaire designed for this purpose. 41

42 42 The 360-degree degree appraisal provides a broader perspective about an employee’s performance.The 360-degree degree appraisal provides a broader perspective about an employee’s performance. In addition, the technique facilitates greater self- development of the employee. In addition, the technique facilitates greater self- development of the employee. It enables an employee to compare his evaluation about self with perceptions of othersIt enables an employee to compare his evaluation about self with perceptions of others Though this method was developed to bring about a degree of objectivity, it still suffers from subjectivity.Though this method was developed to bring about a degree of objectivity, it still suffers from subjectivity.

43 Appraising Performance: Problems and Solutions Unclear Standards Leniency or Strictness Halo Effect Potential Rating Scale Appraisal Problems Central Tendency Bias

44 TABLE 9–2A Graphic Rating Scale with Unclear Standards Note: For example, what exactly is meant by “good,” “quantity of work,” and so forth? ExcellentGoodFairPoor Quality of work Quantity of work Creativity Integrity

45 Appraising Performance: Problems and Solutions (continued) Know Problems Control Outside Influences Use the Right Tool How to Avoid Appraisal Problems Train Supervisors Keep a Diary

46 TABLE 9–3Important Advantages and Disadvantages of Appraisal Tools ToolAdvantagesDisadvantages Graphic rating scale Simple to use; provides a quantitative rating for each employee. Standards may be unclear; halo effect, central tendency, leniency, bias can also be problems. BARSProvides behavioral “anchors.” BARS is very accurate. Difficult to develop. Alternation rankingSimple to use (but not as simple as graphic rating scales). Avoids central tendency and other problems of rating scales. Can cause disagreements among employees and may be unfair if all employees are, in fact, excellent. Forced distribution method End up with a predetermined number or % of people in each group. Employees’ appraisal results depend on your choice of cutoff points. Critical incident method Helps specify what is “right” and “wrong” about the employee’s performance; forces supervisor to evaluate subordinates on an ongoing basis. Difficult to rate or rank employees relative to one another. MBOTied to jointly agreed-upon performance objectives. Time-consuming.

47 Who Should Do the Appraising? Self-Rating Subordinates 360-Degree Feedback Potential Appraisers Immediate Supervisor Peers Rating Committee

48 The Appraisal Interview Satisfactory—Promotable Satisfactory—Not Promotable Unsatisfactory—Correctable Unsatisfactory—Uncorrectable Types of Appraisal Interviews

49 The Appraisal Interview (continued) Talk in terms of objective work data. Don’t tiptoe around. Don’t get personal. Encourage the person to talk. Guidelines for Conducting an Interview

50 The Appraisal Interview (continued) 1 Recognize your own limitations. Never attack a person’s defenses. How to Handle a Defensive Subordinate Recognize that defensive behavior is normal. Postpone action. 234

51 The Appraisal Interview (continued) How to Criticize a Subordinate Criticize in private, and do it constructively. Do it in a manner that lets the person maintain his or her dignity and sense of worth. Give daily feedback so that the review has no surprises. Never say the person is “always” wrong. Criticism should be objective and free of biases.

52 Checklist During the Appraisal Interview

53 Formal Written Warnings Purposes of a Written WarningPurposes of a Written Warning  To shake your employee out of bad habits.  To help you defend your rating, both to your own boss and (if needed) to the courts. A Written Warning Should:A Written Warning Should:  Identify standards by which employee is judged.  Make clear that employee was aware of the standard.  Specify deficiencies relative to the standard.  Indicate employee’s prior opportunity for correction.

54 Creating the Total Performance Management Process “What is our strategy and what are our goals?”“What is our strategy and what are our goals?” “What does this mean for the goals we set for our employees, and for how we train, appraise, promote, and reward them?”“What does this mean for the goals we set for our employees, and for how we train, appraise, promote, and reward them?”

55 PMS in India Performance evaluation has reached high maturity levels in Indian organizations. Successful practices like goal setting, balanced scorecard, development orientation etc., are being introduced and it mostly covers managerial employees and employees who are not part of any union. ACR system of government is being changed to PMS. Online appraisal systems are also used. Initiatives like training, appraisals, multiple levels appraisers, reviews, etc. are undertaken to improve the quality of PMS.

56 Let’s Practice Your Performance Appraisal Skills

57 Thank You


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