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Arabic Sentence Patterns Georgia Center for Language.

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Presentation on theme: "Arabic Sentence Patterns Georgia Center for Language."— Presentation transcript:

1 Arabic Sentence Patterns Georgia Center for Language

2 Sentence Components Subject: Noun or noun phrase that tells who or what the sentence addresses Ex. Harry went to the store. Ex. Harry went to the store. Predicate: Verb or verb phrase telling what the subject is or does Ex. Harry is smart. Ex. Harry is smart. Clause: Part of a sentence that contains its own subject and predicate Ex. I ran to the store and bought a loaf of bread. Ex. I ran to the store and bought a loaf of bread. Main ClauseSub-Clause

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4 Sentence Components Phrase: Group of related words without a subject or predicate. Ex. I went to the store. (Prepositional Phrase) Ex. I went to the store. (Prepositional Phrase) Ex. Stolen grapes are especially sweet. (Verbal Phrase) Ex. Stolen grapes are especially sweet. (Verbal Phrase) My brother, a kid at heart, loves to watch cartoons. (Appositive Phrase) My brother, a kid at heart, loves to watch cartoons. (Appositive Phrase)

5 Parts of Speech Nouns: Name a person, animal, place, thing, or idea. Ex. My uniform is heavy. Ex. My uniform is heavy. Adjectives: Describe or modify nouns and pronouns I like bloody steaks. I like bloody steaks. Adverbs: Modify a verb, adverb, adjective, phrase, or clause by indicating how, where, when, or how much I visited the bathroom frequently after eating that steak. I visited the bathroom frequently after eating that steak.

6 Parts of Speech Verbs: indicate an action or a state of being Ex. This building smells funny. Ex. This building smells funny. In Arabic, verbs are conjugated for three things: In Arabic, verbs are conjugated for three things: Gender: Masculine or Feminine Person: 1 st, 2 nd or 3 rd Number: Singular, Plural or Dual

7 Parts of Speech Person indicates who the action of the verb refers to. 1 st person Arabic pronouns: انا\نحن 1 st person Arabic pronouns: انا\نحن 2 nd person Arabic pronouns: انتَِ\انتم\انتما\انتنّ 2 nd person Arabic pronouns: انتَِ\انتم\انتما\انتنّ 3 rd person Arabic pronouns: هو\هي\هم\هما\منّ 3 rd person Arabic pronouns: هو\هي\هم\هما\منّ Number indicates how many members the subject is made up of. Singular: Subject is made up of one member Singular: Subject is made up of one member Plural: Subject is made up of multiple members Plural: Subject is made up of multiple members Dual: Subject is made up of two members Dual: Subject is made up of two members In Arabic, nonhuman plurals are treated as a feminine singular subject. In Arabic, nonhuman plurals are treated as a feminine singular subject.

8 Parts of Speech Pronouns: Replace a noun without specifying a name I want my MTV. I want my MTV. Personal Prounouns: I, we, he, she, it, they Personal Prounouns: I, we, he, she, it, they Demonstrative Pronouns: This, that, these, those Demonstrative Pronouns: This, that, these, those Relative Pronouns: Who, whose, which Relative Pronouns: Who, whose, which Prepositions: Indicate spatial, temporal or conceptual relationships between words. I think of my wife often. I think of my wife often. I put the bean up my nose. I put the bean up my nose.

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10 Parts of Speech Conjunctions: Link other words, phrases, or clauses together Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating Conjunctions I’ll have the ham and eggs or the pancakes. Correlative Conjunctions Correlative Conjunctions Whether you like it or not, it has to be done. Conjunctive Adverbs Conjunctive Adverbs He was always jealous of his brother, therefore he was happy to join the plot against him.

11 Nominal Sentences Nominal (or equational) sentences and clauses consist of two parts The subject: هو رجل And the predicate complement (also called the predicate nominal): هو رجل The predicate complement describes or renames the subject of the nominal sentence. (He is who or what? A man.)

12 The Nominative Case I am a teacher. You are students. He is a man. She is pretty. The car is red. انا استاذ. انتم طُلاب. هو رجل. هي جميلة. السيارة حمراء. Examples of Equational Sentences

13 Nominal Sentences If we were to put the case markings in the sentence السيارة حمراء, the subject of the sentence would be voweled with a dhamma ( ُ ), the short vowel used for nominative case. The subject of any sentence or clause, and any word or phrase that modifies the subject, is voweled in the nominative case (there are exceptions which we will see later)

14 Nominal Sentences 1.الكتابُ جديدٌ. 2.الطالبُ جميلٌ. 3.المديرُ طالبٌ. 4.انتَ مديرٌ. 5.أنا المدرّسُ. 1.الكتاب جديد. 2.الطالب جميل. 3.المدير طالب. 4.انتَ مدير. 5.أنا المدرّس. Vowel and Translate the Following Sentences:

15 The Genitive Case The Genitive Case is applied to nouns and adjectives in the following situations: Object of a Prepositional Phrase Second or later term of an Idaafa (Noun in Construct)

16 The Genitive Case The Genitive case is indicated by the vowel kesra ( ِ ). The Genitive case is indicated by one kesra ( ِ ) if the word is definite and two kesras ( ٍ ) if the word is indefinite (nunation).

17 The Genitive Case Object of a Prepositional Phrase Prepositions position, or locate, another word in the sentence. English examples: over, under, around, above, through, in, on, into Arabic examples: عن, على, في, من, الى, ل.., ب..

18 The Genitive Case الكتابُ على الطاولةِ. الطالبُ في البيتِ. أنتَ المديرُ في هذا المكتبِ. المكتبةُ قريبةٌ من الجامعةِ. الكتاب على الطاولة. الطالب في البيت. أنتَ المدير في هذا المكتب. المكتبة قريبة من الجامعة. Examples of Prepositional Phrases Vowel and translate the following

19 The Idaafa FunctionForm

20 The Genitive Case The Idaafa (Noun in Construct) The Idaafa is used for the following: To show ownership or possession To show membership or association To show a characteristic feature or quality

21 The Genitive Case Rules of the Idaafa An Idaafa consists of two or more nouns*. ONLY the last term of an Idaafa CAN have the definite article. ONLY the last term of an Idaafa CAN take nunation. The first term of an Idaafa can be in any case based on the Idaafa’s function in the sentence, but it will NOT be nunated. All terms other than the first term of an Idaafa will be in the genitive case, regardless of the Idaafa’s position in the sentence.

22 The Genitive Case A university professor The office director A teacher’s house The teacher’s house An office director’s car The office director’s car أستاذُ جامعةٍ مديرُ المكتبِ بيتُ مدرسٍ بيتُ المدرسِ سيارةُ مديرِ مكتبٍ سيارةُ مديرِ المكتبِ Examples of the Idaafa

23 The Genitive Case كتابُ المديرِ جديدٌ. مكتبُها مكتبٌ كبيرٌ. مديرُ هذا المكتبِ بليدٌ. دراسةُ قواعدِ اللغةِ العربيةِ ممتعةٌ. على مكتبٍ تفاحُ استاذٍ. كتاب المدير جديد. مكتبها مكتب كبير. مدير هذا المكتب بليد. دراسة قواعد اللغة العربية ممتعة. على مكتب تفاح استاذ. Examples of the Idaafa Vowel and translate the following

24 The Genitive Case Constructs not easily recognizable as Idaafas The False Idaafa This idaafa is functioning as an adjective. This idaafa is functioning as an adjective. قام الجيش الامريكي بعملية واسعة النطاق في بغداد. قام الجيش الامريكي بعملية واسعة النطاق في بغداد. قام الجيشُ الامريكي بعمليةٍ واسعةِ النطاقِ في بغداد. قام الجيشُ الامريكي بعمليةٍ واسعةِ النطاقِ في بغداد.

25 The Genitive Case Constructs not easily recognizable as Idaafas The Indefinite Idaafa None of the nouns in this type of Idaafa have the definite article. None of the nouns in this type of Idaafa have the definite article. قام الجيش الامريكي بعملية توغل واسعة النطاق في بغداد. قام الجيشُ الامريكي بعمليةِ توغلٍ واسعةِ النطاقِ في بغداد.

26 The Genitive Case Constructs not easily recognizable as Idaafas Idaafas beginning with any, one, some, all, or same. ايُّ كتابٍ ايةُ لحظةٍ بعضُ الاصدقاءِ كلُّ الكتبِ جميعُ السكانِ نفسُ الكتابِ The Superlative هو احسنُ طالبٍ.

27 The Genitive Case Constructs not easily recognizable as Idaafas The possessive pronoun ending The possessive pronoun ending Nouns with a possessive pronoun ending are idaafas. The noun being possessed will take the case appropriate to its function in the sentence. المدير في مكتبه. المدير في مكتبِهِ. المدير في مكتبِهِ. سيارته في الشارع. سيارته في الشارع. سيارتُهُ في الشارعِ. سيارتُهُ في الشارعِ.

28 Voweling the Pronoun هُ Pronouns starting with هُ (هم \ هما \ هُ \ هنّ ) are affected by the vowel that precedes them: If it is preceded by a kasra, it will take on the kasra If it is preceded by a kasra, it will take on the kasra If it is preceded by a fatha, dhamma, or sukkun, it keeps its dhamma If it is preceded by a fatha, dhamma, or sukkun, it keeps its dhamma Examples: هُ + في = فيهِ مع + هُ = معهُ في مكتبِِهِ هُ + في = فيهِ مع + هُ = معهُ في مكتبِِهِ

29 The Accusative Case The Accusative case is indicated by the vowel fatha ( َ ). The Accusative case is indicated by one fatha (َ ) if the word is definite and two fathas ( ً or اً ) if the word is indefinite (nunation). There are numerous sentence patterns which require the use of the accusative case

30 Kanna and the Nominal Sentence كانت اختي طالبةً جديدةً. كانت اختي طالبةً جديدةً. كان المديرُ الطالبَ الجديدَ. كان المديرُ الطالبَ الجديدَ. اصبح الجنديُ رقيباً. اصبح الجنديُ رقيباً. ما زال الارهابُ خطيراً. ما زال الارهابُ خطيراً. ما دامت السيارةُ معطلةً. ما دامت السيارةُ معطلةً. كانت اختي طالبة جديدة. كان المدير الطالب الجديد. اصبح الجندي رقيب. ما زال الارهاب خطير. ما دامت السيارة معطلة. Predicate Complement following كان و اخواتها كان و اخواتها may be used in nominal sentences Predicate complements of sentences using كان و اخواتها are declined (voweled) in the Accusative case.

31 Verbal Sentences When a sentence contains a verb that indicates an action or state of being, that sentence is called a verbal sentence. The verb can be intransitive, i.e. it doesn’t take a direct object: امتنع الولد عن التدخين امتنع الولد عن التدخين Or the verb can be transitive, i.e. it takes a direct object. The direct object tells us who or what was affected by the action of the verb: منع الأب ولده عن التدخين. منع الأب ولده عن التدخين.

32 Verbal Sentences When a sentence contains a transitive verb, the direct object of that verb is declined in the accusative case: رمى الولد الكرة. رمى الولدُ الكرةََ. كسرت البنت زجاجة. كسرتْ البنتُ زجاجةً. اصدرت المنظمة الدولية تقرير. اصدرتْ المنظمةُ الدوليةُ تقريراً.

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34 The Adverb There is no adverb, as such, in Arabic. However, derived nouns and adjectives can function as adverbs in a sentence. When they do, they are declined in the accusative: وصل صديقي ماشياً و قال لي ضاحكاً ”سيارتي تعطلت فجأةً.“ دائماً تقول إنَّها تريد انْ تسافر شرقاً.

35 The Haal Clause The above sentences contain examples of the Haal Clause. A Haal clause is a sentence which contains a main clause + a subordinate clause which modifies the verb in the main clause. The Haal clause can be constructed with or without a verb: درس الطالب العربية و هو يبتسم درس الطالب العربية و هو يبتسم In the above example, the conjunction و is NOT being used as the coordinating conjunction “and”. It is functioning as a conjunctive adverb that introduces a sub-clause which is modifying the verb in the main clause.

36 The Haal Construct In other words, the sub-clause is describing how or when the action in the main clause is being done. The best translation of و when it’s used to introduce the adverbial Haal clause is the conjunctive adverb while, or as: درس الطالب العربية و هو يبتسم درس الطالب العربية و هو يبتسم The student studied Arabic while smiling (as he was smiling). The student studied Arabic while smiling (as he was smiling).

37 The Haal Construct You can omit the و and the subject pronoun in the Haal clause, and the sentence will mean the same thing: درس الطالب العربية يبتسم درس الطالب العربية يبتسم You can also replace the verb with the active participle of that verb and get the same meaning: درس الطالب العربية و هو مبتسم درس الطالب العربية و هو مبتسم

38 The Haal Construct When you replace the verb with the active participle, you can omit و and the subject pronoun just as you do with a Haal clause that uses the verb: درس الطالب العربية مبتسماً درس الطالب العربية مبتسماً Notice that when you omit و and the subject pronoun and you’re using the active participle, the participle becomes accusative. Why?

39 The Haal Clause و + subject pronoun + verb درس الطالب العربية و هو يبتسم Verb only درس الطالب العربية يبتسم و + subject pronoun + active participle درس الطالب العربية و هو مبتسم Active participle in the accusative درس الطالب العربية مبتسماً

40 Other Uses of the Accusative Subject Following إنَّ و اخواتها (أنَّ, لكنَّ, لأنَّ, لعلَّ) The Dummy Pronoun The Dummy Pronoun Rules state that إنَّ و اخواتها must be followed by a noun or pronoun. However, it is often preferred to start sentences and clauses with a verb followed by the subject. How can this be accomplished? How can this be accomplished? By using the Dummy Pronoun ه.

41 Other Uses of the Accusative Subject of a clause following إن و اخواتها - The Dummy Pronoun Ex. Subject/Verb/Object clause: Ex. Subject/Verb/Object clause: قال الرئيسُ إنَّ الجيشَ بدأ العمليةَ. Translation: The president said that the Army began the operation. Ex. Verb/Subject/Object clause with the dummy pronoun: Ex. Verb/Subject/Object clause with the dummy pronoun: قال الرئيسُ إنَّهُ بدأ الجيشُ العمليةَ. Translation: The president said that the Army began the operation. Note that the translations are the same – the pronoun is not translated. It is used simply to satisfy the grammar rules of Note that the translations are the same – the pronoun is not translated. It is used simply to satisfy the grammar rules of إنَّ و اخواتها. إنَّ و اخواتها.

42 The pronoun ه attached to these particles is not always a dummy pronoun. Ex. قال الرئيسُ إنَّهُ اصدر الامر للانسحاب. Translation: The president said that he issued the order for the withdrawal. The feminine pronoun suffix ها is never used as the dummy pronoun, only ه

43 Special Rules for Case Masculine Sound Plurals Masculine Sound Plurals (words ending in ونَ or ينَ ) follow the following rules for case: The suffix ونَ is used for the nominative case. The suffix ونَ is used for the nominative case. The suffix ينَ is used for the accusative and genitive cases. The suffix ينَ is used for the accusative and genitive cases. The final vowel (fatha) does not change. The final vowel (fatha) does not change. When functioning as the first term of the Idaafa, the ن is dropped. When functioning as the first term of the Idaafa, the ن is dropped.

44 Dual Masculine Dual forms follow the following rules: The suffix انِ is used for the nominative case.The suffix انِ is used for the nominative case. The suffix ينِ is used for the accusative and genitive cases.The suffix ينِ is used for the accusative and genitive cases. The final vowel (kesra) does not change.The final vowel (kesra) does not change. When functioning as the first term of the Idaafa, the ن is dropped. When functioning as the first term of the Idaafa, the ن is dropped.

45 Special Rules for Case Diptotes Diptotes follow special rules for case endings: Diptotes follow special rules for case endings: When a diptote is definite, it takes regular case endings. When a diptote is indefinite it is never nunated. When a diptote is indefinite, the accusative and genitive will both be declined with the fatha (without nunation). Diptotic Patterns Diptotic Patterns Broken Plurals of the following patterns: مكاتب, عوامل, فرائد, اسابيع, رؤساء, اكابر All feminine personal names, most masculine personal names, and most place names are diptotes See Schulz page 123

46 Bibliography All the Arabic You Never Learned the First Time Around by Jim Price A Student Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic by Eckehard Schulz


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