Presentation on theme: "Leeds East Academy Developing Physical Education Revision"— Presentation transcript:
1Leeds East Academy Developing Physical Education Revision GCSE B453Leeds East AcademyDeveloping Physical Education Revision
2D/S Developing skills, techniques and motivation The learning of skills through a range of methodsCopying OthersTrial and ErrorPractice and RehearsalRole Modelling
3D/S Developing skills, techniques and motivation Key Terms – In the MOOD to develop skillMotivation – The desire to succeed and improve performanceOperant conditioning – A process in which the performer amends their performance through positive or negative reinforcement.Observational learning - Observational learning, also called social learning theory, occurs when an observer’s behaviour changes after viewing the behaviour of a model.Demonstration – A response to the observation of a skilled performer.
4D/S Developing skills, techniques and motivation RewardsTheir is positive reinforcementSessions are enjoyableThe skills are broken down into sub-routinesSessions are FunSkills are best learnt when:
5D/S The importance of different types of feedback E/FK/RK/PIf these are doneineffectively, therewill be a decreaseIn motivation.If these are doneeffectively, therewill be an increaseIn motivation.
6D/S The importance of different types of motivation Desire to winDesire to be successfulDesire to improveComes from withinIntrinsicExternal FactorsCoach, Family and FriendsMoney, medals and trophies.Extrinsic
7D/S The importance of goal setting PEA FACEExercise adherenceFocusControlling AnxietyEnabling SuccessPerformanceerformancexercise Adherenceids Motivationocusllows Progressontrol Anxietynabling Success
8GOAL - SETTING Specific Measurable Achievable or agreed Realistic Time-phasedExcitingRecorded.
9P/M Developing physical and mental capacity functions of the skeletonShape & Support -importance of healthy posture.Blood cell production; importance of red blood cells for energy/minerals.Protection; importance of healthy bones to avoid injury and allow sustained involvement in physical activity.Mineral store; importance of minerals for health.Movement/leverage; importance of levers and joints in facilitating movement.
11Inflammation of joints Arthritis Osteoarthritis. Associated problems with joints and how to avoid them through physical activity and healthy lifestyles:Inflammation of jointsArthritisOsteoarthritis.Application of these via practical examples.
12Structure of joints and the value of healthy and efficient joints: Ligament = Connects bone to boneCartilage = Spongy tissue which protectsSynovial fluid = Lubricant to allow smooth movementTendon = Connects muscle to bone
14Types of joint:Hinge – elbow and knee: To enable effective movement – giving examples.Movement = Contraction and extension OnlyBall and socket – shoulder: To enable effective movement – giving examples.Movement = Contraction, extension, rotation,abduction and adduction
15Identify the Movements FlexionExtensionRotationAbductionAdduction.Application of these movements via practical examples.
16Understanding the muscular system in relation to physical performance Deltoid; Trapezius; Latissimus dorsi; Pectorals; Biceps; Triceps; Abdominals; Quadriceps; Hamstrings)
17The roles of muscle in movement Prime moversAntagonistSynergistAntagonistic pairs.Candidates should be able to describe these roles and give applied practical examples of appropriate muscle groups that are used when participating in specific physical activities.
18Role and function of tendons The value of healthy and efficient muscles and tendons with associated problems and how to avoid them:SorenessStrainOveruseInflammationTendonitis.
19Key Termsaerobic respiration The chemical reaction in which energy is released from glucose in the presence of oxygen. The products of this process are carbon dioxide and wateranaerobic respiration The chemical reaction in which energy is released energy from glucose without oxygen. In performers, the glucose is partly broken down to form lactic acid with the release of a small amount of energy.glucose A type of carbohydrate which is broken down to release energy during respiration and is produced by photosynthesis. Simple sugars are for immediate energy and complex starches are stored in liver and muscles as glycogen and released slowly.lactic acid The substance produced in muscles as a result of anaerobic respiration, which occurs due to insufficient oxygen. It causes muscle fatigue. Also produced by some bacteria from lactose (milk sugar) in the production of yoghurt.lungs Organs in which exchange of gases between air and blood takes place. Oxygen enters and carbon dioxide leaves the organ through millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli which provide a large surface area for gas exchange.oxygen debt The amount of oxygen required to break down lactic acid that accumulates in muscles as a result of anaerobic respiration. The lactic acid is produced when there is an insufficient supply of oxygen to the muscles following vigorous exercise. Light stretching and cool-down will speed up Lactate build-up in muscles.
20The effects of lactic acid Give applied examples of when lactic acid affects exercise and training and the ability to maintain physical activity, to enable participation in an active, healthy lifestyle.Anaerobic thresholdThe anaerobic threshold, the point at which lactic acid starts to accumulates in the muscles, is considered to be somewhere between 80% and 90% of your maximum heart rate and is approximately 40 beats higher than the aerobic threshold. Your anaerobic threshold can be determined with anaerobic threshold testing.
21P/M Mental Preparation Control of emotions to enable fair play and to cope with stress.The effects of mental preparation for performance:RelaxationFocusingRaising confidence.Application of these methods via practical examples.
22Short term effects of an active, healthy lifestyle Respiratory rate, tidal volume and minute volumeHeart rate, cardiac output and stroke volumeMuscle fatigue; increase in temperature.Changes in blood-flow to muscles during exercise with identification of the vascular shunt mechanism.
23Long term effects of an active, healthy lifestyle Heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac outputLung volumes and rate of recoveryIncrease in strength of muscle fibres; hypertrophy; increased tolerance to lactic acid.Application of these via practical examples.
24Exercise and training principles that affect improving health and fitness Identification anddescription of:SpecificityProgressionOverload = FITTReversibility.Variance
25Identification of the FITT principle and applied practical examples of how these might affect health and fitnessFrequencyIntensityTimeType.
26Definitions and examples of aerobic and anaerobic exercise and training With O Both Without O2Circuit training Flexibility trainingWeight training PlyometricsContinuous trainingFartlek Interval training.
27Identifying potential hazards in a range of settings related to the role of participant, leader or officialThe gymnasium/sports hall/fitness centrePlaying fieldArtificial outdoor areasCourt areasOutdoor adventurous areas.Application of potential hazards via practical examples.
28How to reduce risks and injuries Minimising risks through knowledge of:Correct clothing/footwearPersonal protective equipmentHealth and Safety proceduresLifting, carrying and placing equipment safelyAppropriate level of competitionWarm up and cool downThe importance of personal hygiene to avoid minor infections.
29Opportunities, pathways and participation in Physical Education Level of participation in sport and physical activityEffects of media influences and promotional campaigns for an active, healthy lifestyle on levels of participation.Application of these effects via practical examples.Effects of sponsorship and availability of funds to follow an active, healthy lifestyle with applied practical examples.
30Reasons for participation and non-participation in physical activities and following an active, healthy lifestyleLocal and national provision – examples of levels of provision locally and nationally in different physical activities and their impact on participation.The roles of the following in promoting participation/leading/officiating in physical activities:Local authorityPrivate enterpriseVoluntary organisations (clubs)National organisations (National Governing Bodies)Olympic organisations (International Olympic Committee; British Olympic Association).
31Current government initiatives to promote active, healthy lifestyles Five hours of high-quality Physical Education and sport per weekOne hour of physical activity per dayEating five fruit and vegetables per day.
32What schools provide to influence young people to get involved in physical activity as part of a healthy lifestyle.The role of the school in promoting an active, healthy lifestyle:Examination courses/related qualificationsExtra curricularLinks with clubs/agenciesHealth awareness programmes.Application of these using practical examples.