Presentation on theme: "GCSE PE Revision St Mary’s High School REVISION GUIDE."— Presentation transcript:
1GCSE PE RevisionSt Mary’s High SchoolREVISION GUIDE
2What is Health and why do we take part in physical activity? Social Meet people,Make friends.Co-operationCompetitionPhysical challengeAesthetic appreciation.Mental Relieve stress/tensionStress-related illnessPhysical Improve body shapeGood health3
3Health Fitness Exercise Performance Know Your Definitions! “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”.Fitness“The ability to meet the demands of the environment”.“a form of physical activity done primarily to improve one’s health and physical fitness”ExercisePerformance“How well a task is completed”
4Health Related Fitness 5Health Related FitnessComponents
5HRF Definitions C.V. fitness: “the ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time”.TEST: 12-min Cooper Run or Bleep TestMuscular Strength:“The ability to apply force and overcome resistance”.TEST: GripometerMuscular Endurance:“The ability to use muscles, many times without getting tired”.TEST: Sit-Up Bleep TestFlexibility:“The range of movement at a joint.”TEST: Sit and ReachBody composition:“The percentage of body weight which is fat muscle and bone.”TEST: BMI
7A B C P R S Agility ability to change direction at speed Balance TEST: Illinois Agility RunBalanceretain centre of mass over base of supportTEST: Stork Balance TestCo-ordinationto use two or more body parts togetherTEST: Tennis Ball ThrowPowerability to do strength movements quickly: strength x speedTEST: Standing Broad (Long Jump)Reaction Timetime between the presentation of a stimulus and onset of movementTEST: Ruler DropSpeedhow fast your body can move over a short distanceTEST: 30m Sprint
9S.P.O.R.T.I.M Specificity: to the sport type of fitness e.g. marathon runners runmuscle groups swimmers use the poolProgression: push yourself but gradually increase for safetyOverload: making your body systems work harder than normalReversibility – when you stop training you lose the fitness built upTedium – making sure the training is not boringIndividual Needs: personal fitness needs: age, gender, fitness level, sportModeration: making sure you don’t over-train to allow rest/recoveryNegative (you won’tapply these)
10F.I.T.T Principle Increase the Frequency Increase the Intensity Overload is applied to a training programme by using the FITT principle.Increase the FrequencyIncrease the IntensityIncrease the TimeChoose correct Type of exercisee.g. someone wanting to improve their CV EnduranceFrequency - 3 times per weekIntensity % of maximum HRTime minutes per sessionType - Method e.g. continuous running
12Target Heart Rate Zones Exercise SessionWarm up:Pulse raisers, stretches, mobilising jointsMain activity:Skills, drills, tacticsCool down:To remove lactic acid and repay oxygen debt.Target Heart Rate ZonesMaximum heart rate = 220 – ageTraining/ target zones are calculated using this equationLess than 60% MHR = Recovery zone (cool down)60 – 80% MHR = Aerobic training zone% MHR = Anaerobic training zone90 – 95% MHR = Speed training zone.
13GLUCOSE + OXYGEN = CO2 + WATER + ENERGY Aerobic ExerciseExercise with (using) O2Over a long period of timeHow would you improve your ability to work aerobically?Work hard and for a long timeWork between 60% and 80% of the maximum heart rateUse large muscle groupsGLUCOSE + OXYGEN = CO WATER ENERGY
14GLUCOSE = ENERGY + LACTIC ACID Anaerobic ExerciseWithout O2 (Oxygen)Very short period of time 1-10 secondsHow would you improve your abilityto work anaerobically?Work very, very hard in short burstsBe around 85% of your maximum heart rate(220 - age = 100%)GLUCOSE = ENERGY LACTIC ACID
15Short-Term Effects (30 Mins of Hard Exercise) Circulatory SystemRespiratory SystemH.R. increasesS.V. increasesThese both increase the COBlood flows fasterMore O2 is delivered to the muscleMore CO2 is removedWe breathe fasterOur tidal volume increasesExchange of O2 & CO2 is quickerLong-Term Effects (After 6 Weeks)Respiratory SystemCirculatory SystemIncrease blood supplyVital capacity increases (lung volume)Greater gas exchange with each breathMore efficient gas exchangeHeart becomes biggerHeart becomes strongerHeart walls become thickerCan pump more blood per minuteDecreased resting HRHigher stroke volume & cardiac output
17Diet & Nutrition Most Valuable Player Football Club F W Minerals VitaminsProteinFatCarbohydratesFibreWaterDiet &NutritionCalcium‘C’MeatCheeseBreadCerealStrong teeth and bonesTo prevent scurvyGrowth and repairSlow energyFast energyHelps digestionNeeds to be replacedMineralsVitaminsProteinFatCarbohydratesFibreWater
19Extreme Body Types (Somatotypes) Endomorph – lots of fatMesomorph – lots of muscleEctomorph - skinnyOver-fat = More body fat than you should haveObese = People who are very over-fatOverweight = Having weight that is in excess of normal. This is not harmful unless the extra weight is made up of excess fat.
21Socially Acceptable Drugs StimulantsSocially Acceptable DrugsNarcotic AnalgesicsStimulate circulatory and nervous systemsCan work hard for long periods of time without feeling pain & fatigueDangers: Ignoring pain & fatigue can lead to injuryExamples include: amphetamines, speed, cocaineNicotine – cigarettes. Nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide. Affects sports performance by getting less oxygen to working muscles, so you tire easily.Alcohol - affects co-ordination, balance, reaction time. Acts as a SEDATIVE, slowing reactions and impairing judgementPain killersDangers: Ignoring pain & fatigue can lead to injuryVery addictiveExamples: morphine, heroin, codeineDrugsAnabolic SteroidsDiureticsBeta BlockersHormones that help build & repair muscle.Can train harder and longerDangers: If you take artificial hormones your body stops making its own. Causes aggression, infertility, cancer, growth of facial hair & deepening voice in females.Examples: testosteroneIncrease the amount of water excreted in urineMisused by boxers & jockeys who need to lose weight to make the correct weight.Block the effect of adrenalineCalm athletes nerves. (Archery, shooting)Dangers: reduce blood pressure, can cause depression.
22Blood Doping Foot Infections Increasing the number of red blood cells Red blood cells carry O2. Increasing O2 helps endurance athletes perform better for longerBlood is withdrawn and red blood cells extracted & frozen. Immediately before the event they are injected into the athleteDangers: Infection & blocked capillariesFoot InfectionsAthlete’s foot – fungus between toes. Spread by contact or on wet floorsAthletes foot powder cures itVerruca – is a wart on the sole of the foot. Spread by contact or on wet floorsTreated by creams or by a chiropodist
24Apply direct pressure Elevate Additional pressure to pressure point Sports InjuriesTreatment of Soft Tissue/SprainFractures – breaks or cracks in boneDislocation – a bone out of place at a jointTennis and golfers elbow – joint injury – over useKnee cartilage – torn – joint injuryDehydration – loss of too much body fluidHypothermia – core body temperature too lowRestIce the areaCompression (bandage)Elevate the injuryBleedingApply direct pressure Elevate Additional pressure to pressure pointPrevention of InjuryRulesCorrect clothing/ footwearProtective clothing/ equipment e.g. shin pads, gum shields, post protectorsWarm up and cool downBalanced competition – Same age, sex, skill level/ grade, weight
25Danger Response Airway Breathing Circulation What should you consider when youapproach an unconscious person?If they are breathing and have a pulse:Put them into the Recovery PositionIf they are not breathing :DangerResponseAirwayBreathingCirculationStart ABC - (mouth to mouth)If they are breathing and there is no pulse:Start ABC and Cardiac Massage
26Cardiac Massage Recovery Position If casualty is not breathing and has no pulse, first phone the ambulance, then give two breaths and fifteen chest compressions until help arrives.These chest compressions do the same job as the heart in pumping blood to vital organs.(You are not really trying to start the heart).Recovery PositionIf the casualty is breathing and has a pulse (but are unconscious), place on their side in the recovery position and keep checking they are breathing & have pulse until help arrives.This keeps airway clear.
28The Circulatory System Is made upof the:HeartArteries (O2 away from the heart)Veins (blood towards the heart)Capillaries (small blood vessels)Our blood (with O2 in it)
29Pathway of Blood… Remember stages 1-5 (and 12), and 6-11 are working simultaneously to provide deoxygenated blood to the lungs (1-5) and oxygenated blood to the muscle tissues (6-11)1 Right Atrium2 Tricuspid Valve3 Right Ventricle4 Pulmonary Valve5 Pulmonary Artery6 Pulmonary Vein7 Left Atrium8 Bicuspid Valve9 Left Ventricle10 Aortic Valve11 Aorta12 Vena Cava116578104129312
30Double Circulatory System The heart acts as a pump in a double circulatory systemThe two sides of the heart are separated by the SEPTUMThe right side always deals with de-oxygenated blood & sends it to the lungsThe left side always deals with oxygen rich blood and sends it round the bodyThe Circulatory System DefinitionsHeart RateIs the number of BPM (lower = fitter)HR x SV = Cardiac OutputStroke VolumeIs the amount of blood pumped out per beat(increases as walls get stronger (heart pumps out more blood per beat)Cardiac OutputIs the amount of blood ejected per minute (increases with fitness)
31Blood Vessels Arteries Veins Capillaries No valves Have valves No valvesGo away Go towards (in) heartNarrow lumen Large lumenHigh Pressure Low Pressure Low PressureThick muscle Thin muscle cell thickMainly oxygenated Mainly deoxygenated Gaseous Exchange
32Blood Blood Pressure Red blood cells Transport oxygen from lungs to tissues (Haemoglobin)PlasmaTransport carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs (and glucose and mineral salts to tissues)PlateletsHelp in blood clotting (forming scabs)White blood cellsImmune system, defence against disease.BLOOD PRESSURE =THE AMOUNT OF BLOOD FORCED THROUGHA BLOOD VESSEL IN ONE CONTRACTIONBlood Pressure
35Parts of the Respiratory System Air is breathed into the nose, where it is filtered by cilia (tiny hairs) and warmed and moistened by mucus.The epiglottis (a small flap of cartilage) stops food going into the windpipe instead of the gullet.The larynx is the voice box.The windpipe or trachea is a flexible tube held open by rings of cartilage.The lungs are soft and spongy and are in a space called the thoracic cavity.The pleural membrane is a slippery skin that protects the lungs as they rub against the ribs.The ribs protect the lungs. Intercostal muscles in between the ribs help us breathe in and out.In the lungs, the trachea branches into two bronchi. Each is a bronchus.The bronchi branch into smaller bronchioles.The bronchioles end in bunches of tiny air sacs called alveoli. Their walls are thin so gases can pass through them.
36Mechanisms of Breathing Components of AirYou breathe INYou breathe OUTOxygen21%17%Carbon Dioxide0.04%4%Water VapourNot muchQuite a lotNitrogen79%RibsDiaphragmINSPIRATION(breathing in)Upwards andoutwardsContracts and moves downwardsEXPIRATION(breathing out)Downwards and inwardsRelaxes and moves upwardsGASEOUS EXCHANGEGaseous exchange takes place in the alveoli of the lungsCapillaries (are one cell thick) surround the alveoli. The oxygen from the lungs pass into the capillaries and this then goes back to the heart to be pumped round the bodyThe carbon dioxide passes from the blood into the lungs and is then breathed out.
37Respiratory Terms1200 mlThe amount of air left in the lungs after a forced breath outResidual lung volume6000 mlAll the air in the lungs after a maximum inhalationTotal lung capacity500 mlMaximum amount of air that can be forcibly inhaled and exhaled in one breathVital capacity6 litres per minuteThe volume of air breathed per minuteMinute ventilation0.5 litres per breathThe volume of air breathed in or out per breathTidal volume12–16 breaths for an average adultThe number of breaths per minuteBreathing frequencyAmount at restDescriptionTerm
40Composition of Bones Ossification Periosteum – grows around the cartilage. Controls the shape & thickness of the bone.Bone cells appear at the end of bones – the growth plates or epiphyseal plates.The epiphysis is at the end of the bone.The diaphysis is the shaft (length) of the bone.Cartilage – prevents bones rubbing together. Becomes thicker with exercise.Compact bone - hard and strong, it protects the bone from breaking. Becomes thicker with exercise.Marrow cavity – contains bone marrow. With exercise, production of red & white blood cells is speeded up.Spongy bone – helps with shock absorption. This increases through exercise.OssificationFrom cartilage to bone
415 Functions of the Skeleton MOVEMENT Muscles are attached to bone by tendons, and these allow us to apply movement at jointsSHAPE Without your skeleton you’d be a shapeless lumpPROTECTION Vital organs, e.g. – Ribs –heart and lungs), Cranium – brain) Vertebrae – Spinal CordSUPPORT Skeleton provides attachment and support for organs.BLOOD PRODUCTION Red Blood Cells are made in the bone marrow of larger bones.Vertebral ColumnCFour TYPES of BoneTLONG BONES – arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, toes.Used for movement.SHORT BONESCarpals & tarsals. Fine movement & strength.FLAT BONESScapula, cranium, pelvis. Protection of vital organs.IRREGULAR BONESVertebrae. Protection & support.LSC
42JointsA joint is defined as ‘a place where two, or more, bones meet’
43Structure of a Synovial Joint Joint capsule: holds the bone together and protects the joint.Synovial membrane: This lines the capsule and contains liquid called the synovial fluid.Joint cavity: This is a small gap between the bones that is filled by synovial fluid. This lubricates the joint so bones move easier.Cartilage: At the end of bones to prevent them rubbing together.Ligaments: Hold bones together.
44Freely Movable Joints Fixed Joints Slightly Moveable Ball and socket: Hip – cross over step in javelinShoulder – bowling in cricketHinge: Elbow – press upsKnee – kicking a ballPivot: Neck, Radius & UlnaSaddle: ThumbGliding: Vertebrae – sit upCondyloid: Carpals – dart throwFixed JointsThese bones can’t move at all e.g. cranium (skull). The plates in the cranium are fused together for greater strength.Slightly MoveableThe bones at a slightly moveable joint can move very slightly. They are held together by ligaments and are cushioned by cartilage.A good example of this joint is the vertebrae and the ribs and sternum.
464 Functions of Muscular System 11 Key MusclesHelp with the circulation of our bloodProtect and keep our abdominal organs in placeGive us our own individual shapeGenerate body heat when they contract.3 Types of MuscleSkeletal/Voluntary: attached to bonesWork when we want them to, when we decide.Cardiac: forms the wall of the heartNever stops or tires.Involuntary: found in the walls of smooth organsWork without conscious effortAntagonistic PairsMuscles work in antagonistic pairs.Working muscle = prime mover or agonistThe relaxing muscle is called the antagonist.e.g. to flex the arm: Biceps = agonist, triceps = antagonistTo extend the arm Triceps = agonist, biceps = antagonist.The hamstrings and quadriceps are another example
47Muscle Tone and Posture MovementFlexion – bending a limb at a joint. (Decreasing the angle).Extension – Straightening a limb at a joint. (Increasing the angle).Adduction – Movement towards the mid line of the body.Abduction – Movement away from the mid line of the body.Muscle AttachmentMuscle Tone and PostureOrigin “...is where the muscle joins the FIXED bone.”Insertion “…is where the muscle is attached to the MOVING bone.”Some muscle fibres are always in a state of contraction, due to complete nervous stimulation. This state of partial contraction is called muscle tone. Posture is the ability to keep our centre of gravity over our base of support.Muscle FibresMuscle ContractionFAST TWITCH - Large, tire quickly, powerful - SPRINTERSSLOW TWITCH – Contract slowly, don’t tire easily - MARATHONISOTONIC - muscle tenses and shortens/lengthensISOMETRIC - muscle tenses but length stays the same
48REMEMBER !!!As soon as you are allowed to open your exam paper write down the following -
49REMEMBER !!! Mental, Social, Physical benefits HRF – Body comp, CV, Endurance, Flex, StrengthSRF – Agility, Balance, Co-ord, Power Reaction time, Speed. (ABCPRS)Specificity, Progression, Overload, Reversibility, Tedium, Individual Needs, Moderation. (SPORTIM)Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type. (FITT)