Presentation on theme: "St Mary’s High School REVISION GUIDE. What is Health and why do we take part in physical activity? SocialSocialMeet people, Make friends. Co-operation."— Presentation transcript:
St Mary’s High School REVISION GUIDE
What is Health and why do we take part in physical activity? SocialSocialMeet people, Make friends. Co-operation Competition Physical challenge Aesthetic appreciation. MentalMentalRelieve stress/tension Stress-related illness PhysicalPhysical Improve body shape Good health
Health “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. “The ability to meet the demands of the environment”. Fitness “a form of physical activity done primarily to improve one’s health and physical fitness” Exercise “How well a task is completed” Performance
C.V. fitness: “the ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time”. TEST: 12-min Cooper Run or Bleep Test Muscular Strength: “The ability to apply force and overcome resistance”. TEST: Gripometer Muscular Endurance: “The ability to use muscles, many times without getting tired”. TEST: Sit-Up Bleep Test Flexibility: “The range of movement at a joint.” TEST: Sit and Reach Body composition: “The percentage of body weight which is fat muscle and bone.” TEST: BMI
A B C P R S Agility ability to change direction at speed TEST:Illinois Agility Run Balance retain centre of mass over base of support TEST:Stork Balance Test Co-ordination to use two or more body parts together TEST:Tennis Ball Throw Power ability to do strength movements quickly: strength x speed TEST:Standing Broad (Long Jump) Reaction Time time between the presentation of a stimulus and onset of movement TEST:Ruler Drop Speed how fast your body can move over a short distance TEST:30m Sprint
S.P.O.R.T.I.M Specificity:to the sport type of fitness e.g. marathon runners run muscle groupsswimmers use the pool Progression: push yourself but gradually increase for safety Overload: making your body systems work harder than normal Reversibility – when you stop training you lose the fitness built up Tedium – making sure the training is not boring Individual Needs: personal fitness needs: age, gender, fitness level, sport Moderation: making sure you don’t over-train to allow rest/recovery Negative (you won’t apply these)
F.I.T.T Principle Overload is applied to a training programme by using the FITT principle. Increase the Frequency Increase the Intensity Increase theTime Choose correctType of exercise e.g.someone wanting to improve their CV Endurance Frequency-3 times per week Intensity-60-80% of maximum HR Time-30 minutes per session Type-Method e.g. continuous running
Exercise Session Warm up: Pulse raisers, stretches, mobilising joints Main activity: Skills, drills, tactics Cool down: To remove lactic acid and repay oxygen debt. Target Heart Rate Zones Maximum heart rate = 220 – age Training/ target zones are calculated using this equation Less than 60% MHR = Recovery zone (cool down) 60 – 80% MHR = Aerobic training zone 80 - 90% MHR = Anaerobic training zone 90 – 95% MHR = Speed training zone.
Aerobic Exercise Exercise with (using) O2 Over a long period of time How would you improve your ability to work aerobically? Work hard and for a long time Work between 60% and 80% of the maximum heart rate Use large muscle groups GLUCOSE + OXYGEN = CO2 + WATER + ENERGY
Anaerobic Exercise Without O2 (Oxygen) Very short period of time 1-10 seconds How would you improve your ability to work anaerobically? Work very, very hard in short bursts Be around 85% of your maximum heart rate (220 - age = 100%) GLUCOSE = ENERGY + LACTIC ACID
Short-Term Effects (30 Mins of Hard Exercise) Circulatory System H.R. increases S.V. increases These both increase the CO Blood flows faster More O2 is delivered to the muscle More CO2 is removed Respiratory System We breathe faster Our tidal volume increases Exchange of O2 & CO2 is quicker Long-Term Effects (After 6 Weeks) Heart becomes bigger Heart becomes stronger Heart walls become thicker Can pump more blood per minute Decreased resting HR Higher stroke volume & cardiac output Increase blood supply Vital capacity increases (lung volume) Greater gas exchange with each breath More efficient gas exchange Respiratory System Circulatory System Circulatory System
Diet & Nutrition Most Valuable Player Football Club F W –Minerals –Vitamins –Protein –Fat –Carbohydrates –Fibre –Water –Calcium –‘C’ –Meat –Cheese –Bread –Cereal –Strong teeth and bones –To prevent scurvy –Growth and repair –Slow energy –Fast energy –Helps digestion –Needs to be replaced Minerals Vitamins Protein Fat Carbohydrates Fibre Water
Extreme Body Types (Somatotypes) Endomorph – lots of fat Mesomorph – lots of muscle Ectomorph - skinny Over-fat = More body fat than you should have Obese = People who are very over-fat Overweight = Having weight that is in excess of normal. This is not harmful unless the extra weight is made up of excess fat.
Socially Acceptable Drugs Nicotine – cigarettes. Nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide. Affects sports performance by getting less oxygen to working muscles, so you tire easily. Alcohol - affects co-ordination, balance, reaction time. Acts as a SEDATIVE, slowing reactions and impairing judgement Stimulants Stimulate circulatory and nervous systems Can work hard for long periods of time without feeling pain & fatigue Dangers: Ignoring pain & fatigue can lead to injury Examples include: amphetamines, speed, cocaine Narcotic Analgesics Pain killers Dangers: Ignoring pain & fatigue can lead to injury Very addictive Examples: morphine, heroin, codeine Anabolic Steroids Hormones that help build & repair muscle. Can train harder and longer Dangers: If you take artificial hormones your body stops making its own. Causes aggression, infertility, cancer, growth of facial hair & deepening voice in females. Examples: testosterone Diuretics Increase the amount of water excreted in urine Misused by boxers & jockeys who need to lose weight to make the correct weight. Beta Blockers Block the effect of adrenaline Calm athletes nerves. (Archery, shooting) Dangers: reduce blood pressure, can cause depression.
Blood Doping Increasing the number of red blood cells Red blood cells carry O2. Increasing O2 helps endurance athletes perform better for longer Blood is withdrawn and red blood cells extracted & frozen. Immediately before the event they are injected into the athlete Dangers: Infection & blocked capillaries Foot Infections Athlete’s foot – fungus between toes. Spread by contact or on wet floors Athletes foot powder cures it Verruca – is a wart on the sole of the foot. Spread by contact or on wet floors Treated by creams or by a chiropodist
Sports Injuries Fractures – breaks or cracks in bone Dislocation – a bone out of place at a joint Tennis and golfers elbow – joint injury – over use Knee cartilage – torn – joint injury Dehydration – loss of too much body fluid Hypothermia – core body temperature too low Prevention of Injury Rules Correct clothing/ footwear Protective clothing/ equipment e.g. shin pads, gum shields, post protectors Warm up and cool down Balanced competition – Same age, sex, skill level/ grade, weight Treatment of Soft Tissue/Sprain Rest Ice the area Compression (bandage) Elevate the injury Bleeding Apply direct pressure Elevate Additional pressure to pressure point
What should you consider when you approach an unconscious person? If they are breathing and have a pulse: Put them into the Recovery Position Danger Response Airway Breathing Circulation If they are not breathing : Start ABC - (mouth to mouth) If they are breathing and there is no pulse: Start ABC and Cardiac Massage
Cardiac Massage If casualty is not breathing and has no pulse, first phone the ambulance, then give two breaths and fifteen chest compressions until help arrives. These chest compressions do the same job as the heart in pumping blood to vital organs.(You are not really trying to start the heart). Recovery Position If the casualty is breathing and has a pulse (but are unconscious), place on their side in the recovery position and keep checking they are breathing & have pulse until help arrives. This keeps airway clear.
The Circulatory System Is made up of the: Heart Arteries (O 2 away from the heart) Veins (blood towards the heart) Capillaries (small blood vessels) Our blood (with O 2 in it)
Pathway of Blood… Remember stages 1-5 (and 12), and 6-11 are working simultaneously to provide deoxygenated blood to the lungs (1-5) and oxygenated blood to the muscle tissues (6-11) 1Right Atrium 2 Tricuspid Valve 3 Right Ventricle 4 Pulmonary Valve 5 Pulmonary Artery 6 Pulmonary Vein 7 Left Atrium 8 Bicuspid Valve 9 Left Ventricle 10 Aortic Valve 11 Aorta 12 Vena Cava
Double Circulatory System The heart acts as a pump in a double circulatory system The two sides of the heart are separated by the SEPTUM The right side always deals with de-oxygenated blood & sends it to the lungs The left side always deals with oxygen rich blood and sends it round the body The Circulatory System Definitions Heart Rate Is the number of BPM (lower = fitter) Stroke Volume Is the amount of blood pumped out per beat (increases as walls get stronger (heart pumps out more blood per beat) Cardiac Output Is the amount of blood ejected per minute (increases with fitness) HR x SV = Cardiac Output
ArteriesVeins Capillaries No valvesHave valves No valves Go awayGo towards (in) heart Narrow lumenLarge lumen High PressureLow Pressure Low Pressure Thick muscleThin muscle 1-cell thick Mainly oxygenatedMainly deoxygenated Gaseous Exchange Blood Vessels
Blood Red blood cells Transport oxygen from lungs to tissues (Haemoglobin) Plasma Transport carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs (and glucose and mineral salts to tissues) Platelets Help in blood clotting (forming scabs) White blood cells Immune system, defence against disease. BLOOD PRESSURE = THE AMOUNT OF BLOOD FORCED THROUGH A BLOOD VESSEL IN ONE CONTRACTION Blood Pressure
The Respiratory System
Parts of the Respiratory System Air is breathed into the nose, where it is filtered by cilia (tiny hairs) and warmed and moistened by mucus. The epiglottis (a small flap of cartilage) stops food going into the windpipe instead of the gullet. The larynx is the voice box. The windpipe or trachea is a flexible tube held open by rings of cartilage. The lungs are soft and spongy and are in a space called the thoracic cavity. The pleural membrane is a slippery skin that protects the lungs as they rub against the ribs. The windpipe or trachea is a flexible tube held open by rings of cartilage. The lungs are soft and spongy and are in a space called the thoracic cavity. The ribs protect the lungs. Intercostal muscles in between the ribs help us breathe in and out. In the lungs, the trachea branches into two bronchi. Each is a bronchus. The bronchi branch into smaller bronchioles. The bronchioles end in bunches of tiny air sacs called alveoli. Their walls are thin so gases can pass through them.
Mechanisms of Breathing RibsDiaphragm INSPIRATION (breathing in) Upwards and outwards Contracts and moves downwards EXPIRATION (breathing out) Downwards and inwards Relaxes and moves upwards GASEOUS EXCHANGE Gaseous exchange takes place in the alveoli of the lungs Capillaries (are one cell thick) surround the alveoli. The oxygen from the lungs pass into the capillaries and this then goes back to the heart to be pumped round the body The carbon dioxide passes from the blood into the lungs and is then breathed out. You breathe INYou breathe OUT Oxygen21%17% Carbon Dioxide 0.04%4% Water Vapour Not muchQuite a lot Nitrogen79% Components of Air
Respiratory Terms 1200 ml The amount of air left in the lungs after a forced breath out Residual lung volume 6000 mlAll the air in the lungs after a maximum inhalation Total lung capacity 500 mlMaximum amount of air that can be forcibly inhaled and exhaled in one breath Vital capacity 6 litres per minuteThe volume of air breathed per minuteMinute ventilation 0.5 litres per breathThe volume of air breathed in or out per breathTidal volume 12–16 breaths for an average adult The number of breaths per minuteBreathing frequency Amount at restDescriptionTerm
Composition of Bones Periosteum – grows around the cartilage. Controls the shape & thickness of the bone. Bone cells appear at the end of bones – the growth plates or epiphyseal plates. The epiphysis is at the end of the bone. The diaphysis is the shaft (length) of the bone. Ossification From cartilage to bone Cartilage – prevents bones rubbing together. Becomes thicker with exercise. Compact bone - hard and strong, it protects the bone from breaking. Becomes thicker with exercise. Marrow cavity – contains bone marrow. With exercise, production of red & white blood cells is speeded up. Spongy bone – helps with shock absorption. This increases through exercise.
5 Functions of the Skeleton 1.MOVEMENT Muscles are attached to bone by tendons, and these allow us to apply movement at joints 2.SHAPE Without your skeleton you’d be a shapeless lump 3.PROTECTION Vital organs, e.g. – Ribs –heart and lungs), Cranium – brain) Vertebrae – Spinal Cord 4.SUPPORT Skeleton provides attachment and support for organs. 5.BLOOD PRODUCTION Red Blood Cells are made in the bone marrow of larger bones. Four TYPES of Bone LONG BONES – arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, toes. Used for movement. SHORT BONES Carpals & tarsals. Fine movement & strength. FLAT BONES Scapula, cranium, pelvis. Protection of vital organs. IRREGULAR BONES Vertebrae. Protection & support. Vertebral Column
A joint is defined as ‘a place where two, or more, bones meet’
Structure of a Synovial Joint Joint capsule: holds the bone together and protects the joint. Synovial membrane: This lines the capsule and contains liquid called the synovial fluid. Joint cavity: This is a small gap between the bones that is filled by synovial fluid. This lubricates the joint so bones move easier. Cartilage: At the end of bones to prevent them rubbing together. Ligaments: Hold bones together.
Freely Movable Joints Ball and socket: Hip – cross over step in javelin Shoulder – bowling in cricket Hinge:Elbow – press ups Knee – kicking a ball Pivot:Neck, Radius & Ulna Saddle:Thumb Gliding:Vertebrae – sit up Condyloid:Carpals – dart throw Fixed Joints These bones can’t move at all e.g. cranium (skull). The plates in the cranium are fused together for greater strength. The bones at a slightly moveable joint can move very slightly. They are held together by ligaments and are cushioned by cartilage. A good example of this joint is the vertebrae and the ribs and sternum. Slightly Moveable
Help with the circulation of our blood Protect and keep our abdominal organs in place Give us our own individual shape Generate body heat when they contract. 4 Functions of Muscular System 11 Key Muscles 3 Types of Muscle Skeletal/Voluntary:attached to bones Work when we want them to, when we decide. Cardiac:forms the wall of the heart Never stops or tires. Involuntary: found in the walls of smooth organs Work without conscious effort Muscles work in antagonistic pairs. Working muscle = prime mover or agonist The relaxing muscle is called the antagonist. e.g. to flex the arm: Biceps = agonist, triceps = antagonist To extend the arm Triceps = agonist, biceps = antagonist. The hamstrings and quadriceps are another example Antagonistic Pairs
Flexion – bending a limb at a joint. (Decreasing the angle). Extension – Straightening a limb at a joint. (Increasing the angle). Adduction – Movement towards the mid line of the body. Abduction – Movement away from the mid line of the body. Movement Some muscle fibres are always in a state of contraction, due to complete nervous stimulation. This state of partial contraction is called muscle tone. Posture is the ability to keep our centre of gravity over our base of support. Muscle Tone and Posture Muscle Attachment Origin “...is where the muscle joins the FIXED bone.” Insertion “…is where the muscle is attached to the MOVING bone.” Muscle Contraction ISOTONIC- muscle tenses and shortens/lengthens ISOMETRIC- muscle tenses but length stays the same Muscle Fibres FAST TWITCH - Large, tire quickly, powerful - SPRINTERS SLOW TWITCH – Contract slowly, don’t tire easily - MARATHON
REMEMBER !!! As soon as you are allowed to open your exam paper write down the following -
REMEMBER !!! Mental, Social, Physical benefits HRF – Body comp, CV, Endurance, Flex, Strength SRF – Agility, Balance, Co-ord, Power Reaction time, Speed. (ABCPRS) Specificity, Progression, Overload, Reversibility, Tedium, Individual Needs, Moderation. (SPORTIM) Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type. (FITT)