Presentation on theme: "GCSE PE Revision St Mary’s High School REVISION GUIDE."— Presentation transcript:
1GCSE PE RevisionSt Mary’s High SchoolREVISION GUIDE
2What are the benefits of taking part in physical activity? What is a HEALTHY, ACTIVE LIFESTYLE? “A lifestyle that contributes positively to physical, mental and social wellbeing and includes regular exercise and physical activity”What are the benefits of taking part in physical activity?Social Meet people,Make friends.Co-operationCompetitionPhysical challengeAesthetic appreciationMental Relieve stress/tensionStress-related illnessPhysical Improve body shapeGood health
36 INFUENCES on your Healthy, Active Lifestyle ImageFashion: the best boots, clothing and equipmentMedia: increases popularity London Marathon, New Year, Wimbledon HealthIllnessConditionsCultural FactorsDisability: resources, opportunities, fundingAge: some sports have age-restrictions e.g. minimum 18 for MarathonGender: women’s football taken less seriously then men’sRace: ethnic background – fewer Asian footballers than other races PeopleFamilyPeersRole Models ResourcesAvailability: if people are willing, facilities need to be providedLocation: local availability e.g. lack of space in inner-city areasAccess: parking, public transport to facilitiesTime: availability for demand: school facilities available “after hours”Good or bad role model? Socio-EconomicCost: hire of facilities and equipment e.g. ice-rink, skatesStatus: employed (more disposable income), unemployed (need to save money)
4OPPORTUNITIES to Become INVOLVED Where are you?Physical Education is not just about being the best performer in a sport!INITIATIVES To Get People InvolvedGovernment: At least 2 hours of high quality PE per weekPESSCL: Strengthens links between school and local clubs (ages 5-16)‘Club Links’ Opportunity to be performer, leader, official, volunteer‘Step Into Sport’Sport England: Start (participate), Stay (competition and Succeed (talented can progress)Youth Sport Trust TOPS – organise festivals in local primaries, sports leadership coursesActive Kids Supermarkets run voucher programmes to aid purchase of equipment
5Health Fitness Exercise Performance Key Definitions “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”.Fitness“The ability to meet the demands of the environment”.“a form of physical activity done primarily to improve one’s health and physical fitness”ExercisePerformance“How well a task is completed”Remember you can be fit but not healthye.g. Sir Steve Redgrave has diabetes but is a 5-time Olympic champion
65 HRF Definitions and their Tests C.V. fitness:“the ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time”.TEST: 12-min Cooper Run or Bleep TestMuscular Strength:“The ability to apply force and overcome resistance”.TEST: GripometerMuscular Endurance:“The ability to use muscles, many times without getting tired”.TEST: Sit-Up Bleep TestFlexibility:“The range of movement at a joint.”TEST: Sit and ReachBody composition:“The percentage of body weight which is fat muscle and bone.”TEST: BMI
76 Skill-Related Fitness Components (BCRAPS) Remember you need to fill in a Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PARQ) prior to taking part in activity to assess the level of risk and use the right protocols to perform safely.Balanceretain centre of mass over base of supportTEST: Stork Balance TestCo-ordinationto use two or more body parts togetherTEST: Tennis Ball ThrowReaction Timetime between the presentation of a stimulus and onset of movementTEST: Ruler DropAgilityability to change direction at speedTEST: Illinois Agility RunPowerability to do strength movements quickly: strength x speedTEST: Standing Broad Jump (Long Jump)Speedhow fast your body can move over a short distanceTEST: 30m Sprint
8Principles of Training Individual Needs “matching training to the requirements of the individual” e.g. struggle to complete game therefore CV fitnessSpecificity: “matching training to the requirements of the activity” e.g. goalkeepers training for agility, midfielders for cardiovascular fitnessProgressive Overload: “gradually increasing he amount of overload so as to gain fitness without the risk of injury”.Rest: “The period of time allotted to recovery”Recovery: “The time required to repair damage caused by training”Reversibility: “any adaptation from training is reversed during inactivity”
9F.I.T.T Principle Increase the… Frequency how often Overload is applied to a training programme by using the FITT principle.Increase the… Frequency how oftenIncrease the… Intensity how hardIncrease the… Time how longChoose correct… Type of exercise method of traininge.g. someone wanting to improve their CV EnduranceFrequency - 3 times per weekIntensity % of maximum HRTime minutes per sessionType - Method e.g. continuous running
10Goal Setting People who set sensible goals are able to focus their energies on their training and achieve them.Specific e.g. I want to run half a lap further in the 12-min runMeasurable e.g. running half a lap further – easy to measure!Achievable e.g. training plan to build on CV fitness – half lap achieved!Realistic e.g. running half a lap is more realistic than 4 extra lapsTime-bound e.g. 6 week training programme – put a clear end point inThis are the first steps towards designing your Personal Exercise Programme (PEP)
11SPRINT 30s rest SPRINT30s rest JOG---SPRINT--- 75%---JOG Training MethodsEach is designed for a specific purpose, to improve a specific aspect of fitness - combination of METHODS develop sporting performance (CROSS TRAINING)CONTINUOUSDefined as: “high duration, low intensity exercise without rest periods”e.g. (30 mins jogging)Sports: e.g. cycling, swimming, team sports in pre-season to build aerobic baseAdvantages: Cheap, wide range of activities available, can apply FITT to suit needsINTERVALDefined as: “high intensity periods of work followed by defined periods of rest”e.g. (sprint 60m, 30s rest)x6, 5-min rest then perform set again - SPEEDe.g. (15 mins jogging, 3 minutes rest) x4 – CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESSSports: e.g. Swimming, Athletics, FootballAdvantages: improves speed and CV fitness, high intensity, works high HR zonesSPRINT 30s rest SPRINT30s rest CIRCUITDefined as: “A number of exercises arranged to avoid training the same muscle groups”e.g. (6-10 stations can work muscles and CV system, also skills in your sport)e.g. work for set time (1 min), set reps (30 reps), rest for 2 mins at end of 1 circuitSports: e.g. football, cricket, tennis, badmintonAdvantages: work (strength, speed, CV, muscular endurance in 1 session), aerobic/anaerobicITTFARTLEK Swedish for ‘Speed Play’Defined as: “A combination of fast and slow running”Sports: e.g. rugby, football, netball – those with changes in speed throughoutAdvantages: can include hill work and different terrains, flexible to suit individual sport/needsJOG---SPRINT %---JOGWEIGHTDefined as: “a common type of training to develop strength and size of skeletal muscles”Sports: e.g. speed, strength, power sports (long jump, javelin, football, rugby)Advantages: can improve musc. strength, musc. endurance, power, easy to overload, variety
12Target Heart Rate Zones Exercise SessionWarm up: PREVENTS INJURY, IMPROVES PERF.Pulse raisers, stretches, mobilising jointsMain activity: WORKS SPECIFIC GOALS/COMPONENTSSkills, drills, tacticsCool down: PREPARES FOR FUTURE SESSIONSTo remove lactic acid and repay oxygen debt.Target Heart Rate ZonesHeart rate = “number of times the heart beats per min”Maximum heart rate = (220 – age)Training/ target zones are calculated using this equationLess than 60% MHR = Recovery zone (cool down)60 – 80% MHR = Aerobic training zone% MHR = Anaerobic training zone90 – 95% MHR = Speed training zone.
13GLUCOSE = ENERGY + LACTIC ACID Anaerobic ExerciseWithout O2 (Oxygen)Very short period of time 1-10 secondsHow would you improve your abilityto work anaerobically?Work very, very hard in short burstsBe around 85% of your maximum heart rate(220 - age = 100%)GLUCOSE = ENERGY LACTIC ACID
14GLUCOSE + OXYGEN = CO2 + WATER + ENERGY Aerobic ExerciseExercise with (using) O2Over a long period of timeHow would you improve your ability to work aerobically?Work hard and for a long time (at least 20 minutes in training zone)Work between 60% and 80% of the maximum heart rate(for a 14 year old that is between approx bpm)Use large muscle groupsGLUCOSE + OXYGEN = CO WATER ENERGY
15Most Valuable Player Football Club F W Minerals Vitamins Protein Fat Diet and NutritionDietary Intake and PerformanceCarbo-Loading A system mainly used by marathon runners e.g. Marathon 1 week today (Sunday) Protein-rich foods (Mon-Tues) – depletes carb stores Carb-rich foods (Weds-Sat) – fully replenishes stores Body is fooled into storing more carbs due to starvation process The protein is needed to repair muscle, carbs to fuel the activity. It is important to take food within the 2 hours after a race/activity to replenish lost stores. Blood-Flow During Exercise Blood is shunted from other areas of the body (particularly organs) to the working muscle during exercise. Less blood is available to digest food in the gut – can cause cramp. Exercise should ideally not start until 2-3 hours after the meal.MostValuablePlayerFootballClubFWMineralsVitaminsProteinFatCarbohydratesFibreWaterEnsure you know why calcium and Iron are neededCalciumIron‘C’MeatCheeseBreadCerealStrong teeth and bonesHelp the blood to carry O2To prevent scurvyGrowth and repairSlow energyFast energyHelps digestionNeeds to be replacedMineralsVitaminsProteinFatCarbohydratesFibreWater
17Extreme Body Types (Somatotypes) Endomorph – lots of fatMesomorph – lots of muscleEctomorph - skinnyOverweightHaving weight in excess of normal. Not harmful unless accompanied by over-fatnessOver-fatHaving body fat in excess of normalObeseDescribes people who are very over-fatAnorexiaA prolonged eating disorder due to the loss of appetiteOptimum WeightBest weight or desirable weight – the best weight a player performs at
18Factors Affecting Optimum Weight ***(Potential 6 mark question for you to discuss)***Factors Affecting Optimum WeightHeight – taller people often (not always) heavierGender – Men/women have different body compositionBone Structure – ‘Frame’ of skeleton depends on bone structure e.g. broad shoulders/thick wrists compared to narrow shoulders/hipsMuscle Girth – increases with training, larger muscle weighs more so sportspeople need to look at the appropriate chartsGenetics – body weight and shape are largely passed on by parentsOPTIMUM WEIGHT IN SPORTNeeds to be compared to similar with sports, positions and events e.g. between forwards in rugby, jockeys in horse racing and footballers. The rules of a sport can often govern what an optimum weight is (boxing weights for example)
20Performance-Enhancing Drugs (B.S.N.A.P.D) Beta BlockersDrugs that are used to control the heart rate and have a calming/relaxing effect.Prescribed to those with heart problems to maintain low heart rate and blood pressureStress and anxiety levels reducedImproves steadiness of hand and precisionAids performance in archery, snooker, ski-jumping, gymnasticsSide effects:Reduces heart rate to dangerously lo levels, nausea, depression, insomnia, nightmaresStimulantsNarcotics/AnalgesicsDrugs that have an effect on the central nervous system, such as increased mental and / or physical awareness.Amphetamines, Cocaine, EphedrineHelp to overcome tirednessOffset the effects of lactic acidSide effects:Insomnia, irritability, irregular heart beat, high blood pressure, addictionDrugs that can be used to reduce and / or mask pain.Heroin, methadone, morphineCan return to competition quickerIncrease risk of long-term injurySide effects:Loss of: concentration, balance, co-ordination, bring on hallucinationsAnabolic SteroidsDrugs that mimic the male sex hormone testosterone and promote bone/muscle growth.Increase strength and allow you to train harder and recover fasterProduce results quickerIncrease aggressionSide effects:Increased risk of heart attack/stroke, high blood pressure, liver disease, infertility, deathPeptide HormonesDrugs that cause other hormones to be produced.Human Growth Hormone (HGH), EPO used for anaemia but increases RBC so improved aerobic capacityIncrease muscle growthAssist recoveryIncrease red blood cells (RBC)Side effects:Thickens blood, causes dehydration, increased risk of heart attack/strokeDiureticsDrugs that elevate the rate of urine production.Misused by boxers & jockeys who need to lose weight to make the correct weight.Side effects:Dehydration – dizziness, muscle cramps, headaches and nausea, also kidney diseasePerformance-EnhancingDrugs(B.S.N.A.P.D)
21Recreational Drugs Socially Acceptable Drugs NicotineCigarettes. Nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide. Affects sports performance by getting less oxygen to working muscles so aerobic fitness is decreased. Improves alertness but extremely addictive.AlcoholAffects co-ordination, balance, reaction time. Acts as a SEDATIVE, slowing reactions and impairing judgement. Increases dehydrationSocially Acceptable DrugsSocially Unacceptable DrugsDrugs prescribed over the counter by a doctor such as paracetamol and aspirin to treat medical conditionsIllegal and unacceptable to most people e.g. heroin, cocaine, LSD. All have negative effects and can lead to death.
23Risk Assessment and Prevention of Injury Warming Up / Cooling DownWU – warm the muscles gradually to prevent injuryCD – prevents injury and disperses lactic acid preventing soreness and achesChecking Equipment and FacilitiesAre they safe and secure?In good condition?Check pitch-side for debris, are the markings clear?RulesEnsure safety and help the game flowEnsure fairness and give the game structure.When broken, participants are punished by bans/finesProtective Equipment and ClothingFootball, Hockey, Sailing.Remove jewellery, ensure your equipment isn’t a danger to others.Footwear – appropriate to activity e.g. length of studs, supportive for the ankles, comfortable.Physical ReadinessCompleting a physical activity readiness questionnaire is important to ensure all those participating are safe and healthy to do so. It highlights beforehand any potential issues.Balanced CompetitionWeight Categories Weightlifting, BoxingMixed/Single sex Contact sports split e.g. rugby, footballAthletics – split on fair competition groundsHockey/Racquet sports – mixed and open compAge Children split in age groupSeniors/Veterans in golf, marathon, tennisHandicap System Golf to allow those of mixed ability to play togetherExample QuestionAll sporting activities have clearly stated rules. State three reasons why we have rules in sport. (3)
24Keep Checking…..Check weekly for the additions to the body systems from your Y11 course!