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What shape behaviors?  What shape behaviors – so far.  Who is responsible for shaping behavior; – Individual him self. – Significant others – The Leaders,

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Presentation on theme: "What shape behaviors?  What shape behaviors – so far.  Who is responsible for shaping behavior; – Individual him self. – Significant others – The Leaders,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 What shape behaviors?  What shape behaviors – so far.  Who is responsible for shaping behavior; – Individual him self. – Significant others – The Leaders, Manager, Parents & all significant others, – Environment, economics-socio-political millieue – Heredity, inborn…  We will look at how our needs motivate & shape our behaviors

3 What shape behaviors?  What shape behaviors – so far.  Who is responsible for shaping behavior; – Individual him self. – Significant others – The Leaders, Manager, Parents & all significant others, – Environment, economics-socio-political millieue – Heredity, inborn…  We will look at how our needs motivate & shape our behaviors

4 Motivation Theories -what shape behaviors?  Our needs prompt us to take action to satisfy our needs.  Maslow hierarchy theories. – Hierarchy of needs; physiological, safety, social, esteem, self actualization. – Lower & higher order of needs. – Example; JKPM workmen on strike even higher order needs are taken care but low on money-housing-safety.  Theory X & Y – Two types of Managers – X ; workmen are lazy & need to be controlled – Y ; workmen are self driven & need to be empowered. – Do our assumptions influence the way we motivate people & get results? – Example of SKM & Bajaj & how SKM could get best out of workmen. Wage cut for late coming brought down late coming but did not improve productivity. Series of positive reinforcements/incentives not only ensure positive discipline but improve productivity.

5 Motivation Theories -what shape behaviors?  Herzberg’s two factor theory – Hygiene factors & Motivators. Lower & Higher order of needs – Hygiene prevent dissatisfaction. Motivators make employee give his best. – Example; Reliance – people do not leave because of compensation/money. It is one of the highest paid company. People stay in Tata not because it pays the best.  McClelland’s three motives – Achv, Power, Affl – What motivate an entrepreneur? – What motivate a mother to take all the responsibilities for house holds  Intrinsic & Extrinsic needs

6 Motivation Theories -what shape behaviors?  Expressed & Wanted dimensions – Inter personal needs; inclusion – need to socialize, affection – need to be close, control – need to influence. – Expressed dimension ; need for person to take initiative. – Wanted ; need for others to take initiative. – FIRO B – Example – why you stick to set of friends?  Approach & Avoidance dimension – A & B both are high on achievement motivation. A is high on approach dimension called hope for success. B is high on avoidance dimension called fear for failure. A set challenging goals & enjoy stress. B may be scared of such challenges & may set lower goals to avoid failure. – Difference between Achievers(A & B both are achievers) & non achiever – one indicator is setting goals & going after them. – Question for students - Are you an Achiever & what are your goals. – Examples JSW – SJ & JKO

7 Motivation Theories -what shape behaviors? Expectancy Theory Employees will be motivated to exert high level of efforts when they believe efforts will lead to reward & recognition which will satisfy their personal goals. Do you agree? Goal setting theory Stretch goals motivate people. Examples – JFK Kenedy, GE, 3 M, Reliance, JSW, Tata, Aditya Birla & many others One reason what explain India’s high growth is bunch of ambitious Entrepreneus… Self efficacy Theory Individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing task Higher your self efficacy, the more confidence you have in your ability to suceed in a task. In difficult situation, people with low self efficacy are more likely to lessen the effort. Examples – Highly effective people. Equity Theory

8 Motivation Theories -what shape behaviors? Expectancy Theory Employees will be motivated to exert high level of efforts when they believe efforts will lead to reward & recognition which will satisfy their personal goals. Do you agree? Goal setting theory Stretch goals motivate people. Examples – JFK Kenedy, GE, 3 M, Reliance, JSW, Tata, Aditya Birla & many others One reason what explain India’s high growth is bunch of ambitious Entrepreneus… Self efficacy Theory Individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing task Higher your self efficacy, the more confidence you have in your ability to suceed in a task. In difficult situation, people with low self efficacy are more likely to lessen the effort. Examples – Highly effective people.

9 GD – …. Theory  Gopal is a MBA from Institute ranked 18 th in country. In the campus placement, he was offered the job with high salary & promise of great work environment & fast growth. Gopal was overjoyed & had a celebration party with friends. He was looking forward to the new job.  His first day in company was a great experience. He along with other new recruits were made to feel at home. They met the CEO of the company who was inspirational. He was very friendly & shared vision on the company to them and made them feel as part of a big family.  The company induction was very carefully carried out. It went on two weeks after which Gopal joined the department alotted to him & his Boss in the department was a competent professional. Goipal was feeling comfortable with his environment.  First day in the department, Gopal came to know some thing which disappointed him no end. Another campus recruit who joined same day along with Gopal has been offered compensation which little higher than Gopal. Gopal sought the reasons from his Boss & HR Dept. He was not happy with answer. He remained very dissatisfied & left the company after 6 months.  Questions; – Why Gopal left the company & what is the most important reason? – What company could have done better to prevent dissatisfaction.

10 Motivation Theories -what shape behaviors?  Equity Theory – Individual’s perception whether justice has been done or not motivate/demotivate people – Organization justice Distributive justice; perceived fairness of outcome. ‘I got a pay raise I deserve’ Procedural justice – perceived fairness in determining outcome Inter actional justice – perceived degree to which one is treated with dignity & respect. – Examples – most organizations, there are plethora of employee practices. But they do not bring best out of people. Basis for employee motivation – respect, care, fairness. – You have joined a company with high salary but find that another colleague has got more than you. – GD – when last you feel wronged.

11 How do organizations motivate employees Through JOB – Job characteristic model Skill variety, Task identity, Task significance, Autonomy, Feedback Example/GD – what an employee look for from his job Job Enabling the employee to make use of diverse skill, Is his job seen as important, Has he got some autonomy in carrying out his job. Does he receive feedback Does the job give a sense of meaning – story of 3 masons  How organizations implement job characteristic model – Job rotation – Job enlargement – Job enrichment – Alternative work environment – flexitime, job sharing, – Employee involvement  Reward & recognition practices

12 Motivation Theories -what shape behaviors?  Equity Theory – Individual’s perception whether justice has been done or not motivate/demotivate people – Organization justice Distributive justice; perceived fairness of outcome. ‘I got a pay raise I deserve’ Procedural justice – perceived fairness in determining outcome Inter actional justice – perceived degree to which one is treated with dignity & respect. – Examples – most organizations, there are plethora of employee practices. But they do not bring best out of people. Basis for employee motivation – respect, care, fairness. – You have joined a company with high salary but find that another colleague has got more than you. – GD – when last you feel wronged.

13 Motivation – Coverage & important questions What are different needs that motivate people. Examples of what motivate that person & how it impact others. How do different theories explain needs that motivate people & explain above examples. As a Manager how somebody on daily basis can motivate or demotivate his employees. Exercise from Basic Managerial Skill. What organizations do to motivate employees, and how? Why they succeed or fail to motivate. What are important insights

14 Motivation - Coverage… What motivate people.. Examples. Exercise what motivate you to chose a company over another company? Video film – Kennedy Moon speech or Martin Luther King Moon speech Theories - Relate theories to examples & above exercise Summary learning points – individualized needs, fairness- respect.. How organizations motivate.. BT Survey, Gallup 12 conditions, EVP. From OB book From my other book on reward/recognition practices Role of Manager..

15 Examples… Sachin take feedback how to improve after scoring hundred centuries. JRD Tata & striking workmen under sun/ JRD reviewing new plant comissioning……what made him do so & impact of this on workmen. Rahul Dravid puts in hours of practices including visualization. Case of concern for excellence JFK Kennedy vision of putting man in moon galvanised USA. Case of stretch target. Sadam Hussain did every thing till the end to stay in power. Case of power & control We are not able to end Naxalite movement……case of economic-social-political(power for naxalites ideologue). Vikram Sarabhai built great organization. His way of motivating as told by APJ Kalam. Case of trust, care & confidence in others to motivate people. Also leaders leading by example Dr Bihani & punctuality. Case of leading by examples. In ITC attrition among employees at middle & senior level is very low because of post retiremental benefits. Case of physiological/safety/social. Dirubhai wanted to build largest organization in the world. What needs underline his ambition? Martin Luther King dreamt of American Society with equal rights for black & white. He was able to mobilize & motivate majority of Americans. What needs of people he was able to tap? Ramesh find a particular subject a very difficult to grasp and you believe it is beyond your capability. How Ramesh is likely to feel when before you come for the class on that subject? Which theory explain such feelings. Self efficacy

16 Questions for GD… JFK Kennedy’s vision of putting man in moon galvanised USA. USA was the first country to send men to moon. What needs underline bold ambition of Kenedy ? What needs Kenedy was able to tap while motivating so many in USA? Why stretch target motivate people to achieve greater things. Sadam Hussain attacked Iran & neighbouring countries. He killed all his rivals in Iraq. He killed people who opposed him in Iraq. Sadam Hussain did every thing till the end to stay in power. What needs underline Sadam’s doings? Does money motivate people Dirubhai wanted to build largest organization in the world. What needs underline his ambition? How it impacted others around him? Martin Luther King dreamt of American Society with equal rights for black & white. He was able to mobilize & motivate majority of Americans. What needs of people he was able to tap? Ramesh find a particular subject a very difficult to grasp and you believe it is beyond your capability. How Ramesh is likely to feel when before you come for the class on that subject? Which theory explain such feelings. Self efficacy

17 Examples… Different category of employees are motivated by different things Older employees Middle level Manager. High Achiever Young generation – mobiles, IT, …. Docile man turning violent..Case of context impacting behavior... You are happy with the salary offer. You came to know your friend has joined same organization with better offer. Equity theory & motivation.....

18 Motivation – Important Insights.… What motivate is what satisfy my needs. I work harder to satisfy a need if I think I can achieve my need. This combination of if I believe I can do it and whether environment will enable me to achieve the need. My needs change. Hence motivation vary from time to time depending on time and context. Some of the powerful motives which explain why people do what they do are – money, power, achievement. Talent, love, justice-fairness. I do things either to seek pleasure or avoid pain. In a group and organizational context, basis for motivation is – respect, care, fairness.....

19 Summary Learning PointsExamples… What motivate people-Hierarchy of motivation.. Individual needs are different in terms of degree & priorities. Basis – Care, Respect, Fairness. Context & environment make a difference – Tata & Maruti Udyog Strikes The Leader makes a difference. CEOs –JRD, Henry Ford, Martin Luther King, Gandhi, Churchil. How people see themselves do matter – self efficacy theory, self fulfilling prophecy..

20 The Case of Tata  Vision & values has shaped the employee practices – JRD reviewing the new plant comissioning – JRD & striking workmen  What the best organizations do? Tata does what other best organizations do

21 What Best Organizations do? ◦ Persons Organization Fit ◦ Job Person Fit. ◦ Respect, Care & Fairness underlines employee philosophy & ◦ All other employee motivation & development build on that ◦ Leaders walk the talk ◦ Managers are accountable ◦ Best employer survey

22 Gallup 12 conditions- Job Satisfaction 1. Do I know what is expected of me at work 2. Do I have materials & equipment I need to do my work right? 3. At work, do I have opportunity to do what I do best every day. 4. In last seven days I have received recognition or praise for good work. 5. Does my supervisor or some one at work seems to care about me as a person. 6. Is there some one at work who encourages my development? 7. At work, do my opinions seem to count? 8. Does the mission/purpose of my company make me feel like my work is important. 9. Are my coworkers committed to doing quality work? 10. Do I have best friend at work? 11. In the last six months, have I talked with some one about my progress 12. At work, I had opportunities to learn and grow..

23 The Case of JKPM Company profile Not a happy work place Bad industrial relation. Indiscipline. High employee turnover among blue collar Host of initiatives QCs Suggestion scheme Mentoring Wage raise Union Management – fairness, respect, trust(keep commitment), negotiation from position of strengths & no compromise on certain policies. Employee welfare Impact of initiatives – employee morale & productivity.

24 Summary Learning PointsExamples… What motivate people-Hierarchy of motivation.. Individual needs are different in terms of degree & priorities. Basis – Care, Respect, Fairness. Context & environment make a difference – Tata & Maruti Udyog Strikes The Leader makes a difference. CEOs –JRD, Henry Ford, Martin Luther King, Gandhi, Churchil. How people see themselves do matter – self efficacy theory, self fulfilling prophecy..

25 Theories of Motivation Hierarchy of Needs Theory – Abraham Maslow 1. Physiological. 2. Safety. 3. Social. 4. Esteem. 5. Self actualization.  Theory X & Theory Y by Mcgregor  Two Factor Theory or Motivation Hygiene Theory by Herzberg.  Mclelland’s Theory of needs  Cognitive Evaluation Theory.  Self efficacy theory – individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task

26 Theories of Motivation  Reinforcement Theory  Equity Theory  Expectancy Theory

27 Theories of Motivation & Leaders Association Which of following leader you associate with different Motives & Theories  Gandhi  Steve Jobs – Achievements.  Thomas Edison.  Henry Ford; Achievement & Power


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