Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Learning Approach (Behaviourism). Watson (1878-1958) "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up and.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Learning Approach (Behaviourism). Watson (1878-1958) "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up and."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Learning Approach (Behaviourism)

2 Watson ( ) "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select-- doctor, lawyer, merchant-chief, and yes, even beggarman and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors."(Watson, 1930) What claim is Watson making about human nature?

3 What is it all about? All behaviour is learned from the environment We are born as “blank slates” (tabula rasa) All we have at birth is the capacity to learn Focus of the approach: observable behaviour

4 Some definitions.... Stimulus : Any change in the environment that an organism registers. Response : Any behaviour that the organism emits as a consequence of a stimulus. Reflex: A consistent connection between a stimulus and a response.

5 Classical conditioning Learning by association

6 That’s a reflex Dog hears the lab technician What’s going on?

7 Bell: Neutral stimulus (NS) Salivation: unconditioned Response (UCR) Bell: Conditioned stimulus (CS) Salivation: Conditioned response (CR) Food: unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Before conditioning During conditioning After conditioning Pairing Bell: Neutral stimulus (NS) Food: unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Salivation: unconditioned Response (UCR) How does it work?

8 Work it out.... A child is afraid of spiders. One day he is in a lift and notices a spider. Now he is afraid of lifts. Neutral stimulus (NS)? Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)? Unconditioned response (UCR)? Conditioned stimulus (CS)? Conditioned response(CR)?

9 Operant conditioning Learning by consequences

10 Key Theorists Thorndike ( ) Looked at behaviour in animals – noticed that they learnt from repeated actions Animals and humans learn to repeat actions that produce good effects and avoid actions that have bad outcomes v=BDujDOLre-8 v=BDujDOLre-8

11 Psychlotron.org.uk Operant conditioning BehaviourConsequence Likelihood of repetition “Behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences.” (B.F.Skinner) Reinforcement Punishment

12 Psychlotron.org.uk Operant conditioning BehaviourConsequence Likelihood of repetition “Behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences.” (B.F.Skinner) Reinforcement Punishment

13 Psychlotron.org.uk Operant conditioning BehaviourConsequence Likelihood of repetition “Behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences.” (B.F.Skinner) Reinforcement Punishment 

14 Ratatouille Ratatouille is hungry and perform various exploratory behaviours By chance he presses the lever A pellet of food appears! I’ll do that again 6zS7v9nSpo&feature=related

15 Some definitions.... Reinforcement : Anything which has the effect of increasing the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated Positive reinforcement : Anything which has the effect of increasing the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated by using consequences that are pleasant when they happen i.e. food for Ratatouille Negative reinforcement : Anything which has the effect of increasing the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated by using consequences that are pleasant when they stop - like being electrocuted continuoulsy! Punishment : Anything which has the effect of decreasing the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated by using consequences that are unpleasant when happen i.e. an immediate shock! be.com/watch?v =imkbuKomPXI

16 Schedules of reinforcement When and how often we reinforce a behaviour can have a significant impact on the strength and rate of the response. 2 types of schedules Continuous reinforcement: the desired behaviour is reinforced every single time it occurs. Continuous reinforcement Partial reinforcement: the response is reinforced only part of the time. Partial reinforcement

17 1.Fixed ratio schedules: the response is reinforced only after a specified number of responses.Fixed ratio schedules 2.Variable-ratio schedules occur when a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses.Variable-ratio schedules 3.Fixed-interval schedules the first response is rewarded only after a specified amount of time has elapsedFixed-interval schedules 4.Variable-interval schedules occur when a response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time has passed.Variable-interval schedules

18 Which schedule of reinforcement produces the fastest learning?

19 Shaping Selective reinforcement of successive closer approximations to a target behaviour.

20 Social learning Learning by andobservation imitation

21 Bandura (1977) believed that four criteria need too be met for imitation to occur 1. Attention to the role model 2. Retention of the observed behaviour 3. Reproduction of the target behaviour 4. Motivation to imitate the observed behaviour

22 Who makes an effective role model? Same genderSame age Higher status Admired or/and respected

23 Why do we imitate? What??? Observe behaviour being reinforced in other people Vicarious reinforcements

24 Bandura (1961)

25 And now lets think! Which type of learning best explains the way you learn? Which of your behaviours have been learned through association? Which role models do you imitate?

26 Strengths of the Learning approach Advantages Focus on observable and measureable behaviour Research methods are scientific, easy to replicate and test Helped identify Ψ as a scientific discipline

27 Disadvantages Fails to explain why people are sometimes frightened of things of which they have no experience Doesn’t take innate factors into account No role for free will …everything is stimulus response Doesn’t take into account cognitive abilities – the eureka moment

28 Top five things you have learned today

29 If you are unsure about any of these concepts – check out U Tube A nice little summary of Behaviourism 6Y 6Y


Download ppt "The Learning Approach (Behaviourism). Watson (1878-1958) "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up and."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google