2 Watson ( )What claim is Watson making about human nature?"Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select-- doctor, lawyer, merchant-chief, and yes, even beggarman and thief, regardless of histalents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors."(Watson, 1930)
3 What is it all about? We are born as “blank slates” (tabula rasa) All we have at birth is the capacity to learnAll behaviour is learned from the environmentFocus of the approach: observable behaviour
4 Some definitions.... Stimulus : Response : Reflex: Any change in the environment that an organism registers.Response :Any behaviour that the organism emits as a consequence of a stimulus.A consistent connection between a stimulus and a response.Reflex:
5 Classical conditioning Learning by associationIvan Pavlov:Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1904
6 Dog hears the lab technician That’s a reflexWhat’s going on?Dog hears the lab technician
7 How does it work? Before conditioning Bell: Neutral stimulus (NS) Food: unconditioned stimulus (UCS)Salivation: unconditioned Response (UCR)During conditioningBell: Neutral stimulus (NS)PairingFood: unconditioned stimulus (UCS)Salivation: unconditioned Response (UCR)After conditioningBell: Conditioned stimulus (CS)Salivation: Conditioned response (CR)
8 Work it out....A child is afraid of spiders. One day he is in a lift and notices a spider. Now he is afraid of lifts.Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)?Neutral stimulus (NS)?Unconditioned response (UCR)?Conditioned stimulus (CS)?Conditioned response(CR)?
9 Learning by consequences Operant conditioningLearning by consequencesBurrhus Frederic Skinner ( )
10 Key Theorists Thorndike (1849-1936) Looked at behaviour in animals – noticed that they learnt from repeated actionsAnimals and humans learn to repeat actions that produce good effects and avoid actions that have bad outcomes
11 Likelihood of repetition Operant conditioning“Behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences.” (B.F.Skinner)BehaviourConsequenceLikelihood of repetitionReinforcementPunishment
12 Likelihood of repetition Operant conditioning“Behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences.” (B.F.Skinner)BehaviourConsequenceLikelihood of repetitionReinforcementPunishment
13 Likelihood of repetition Operant conditioning“Behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences.” (B.F.Skinner)BehaviourConsequenceLikelihood of repetitionReinforcementPunishment
14 Ratatouille http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X6zS7v9nSpo&feature=related By chance he presses the leverRatatouille is hungry and perform various exploratory behavioursI’ll do that againA pellet of food appears!
15 Some definitions.... Reinforcement : Positive reinforcement : Anything which has the effect of increasing the likelihood of the behaviour being repeatedReinforcement :Positive reinforcement :Anything which has the effect of increasing the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated by using consequences that are pleasant when they happen i.e. food for RatatouilleAnything which has the effect of increasing the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated by using consequences that are pleasant when they stop - like being electrocuted continuoulsy!Negative reinforcement :U tube link – is a good clarification of positive and negative punishment and rewardAnything which has the effect of decreasing the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated by using consequences that are unpleasant when happen i.e. an immediate shock!Punishment :
16 Schedules of reinforcement When and how often we reinforce a behaviour can have a significant impact on the strength and rate of the response.2 types of schedulesContinuous reinforcement: the desired behaviour is reinforced every single time it occurs.Partial reinforcement: the response is reinforced only part of the time.
17 Fixed ratio schedules: the response is reinforced only after a specified number of responses. Variable-ratio schedules occur when a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses.Fixed-interval schedules the first response is rewarded only after a specified amount of time has elapsedVariable-interval schedules occur when a response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time has passed.
18 Which schedule of reinforcement produces the fastest learning?
19 ShapingSelective reinforcement of successive closer approximations to a target behaviour.
20 Social learningLearning by andobservationimitation
21 1. Attention to the role model Bandura (1977) believed that four criteria need too be met for imitation to occur1. Attention to the role model2. Retention of the observed behaviour3. Reproduction of the target behaviour4. Motivation to imitate the observed behaviour
22 Who makes an effective role model? Same genderSame ageHigher statusAdmired or/and respected
23 Observe behaviour being reinforced in other people Why do we imitate?Vicarious reinforcementsWhat???Observe behaviour being reinforced in other people
25 And now lets think!Which type of learning best explains the way you learn?Which of your behaviours have been learned through association?Which role models do you imitate?
26 Strengths of the Learning approach AdvantagesFocus on observable and measureable behaviourResearch methods are scientific, easy to replicate and testHelped identify Ψ as a scientific discipline
27 DisadvantagesFails to explain why people are sometimes frightened of things of which they have no experienceDoesn’t take innate factors into accountNo role for free will …everything is stimulus responseDoesn’t take into account cognitive abilities – the eureka moment