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Introduction to TCP/IP, the Internet, IP Addressing, and Domain Name.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to TCP/IP, the Internet, IP Addressing, and Domain Name."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to TCP/IP, the Internet, IP Addressing, and Domain Name

2 Internet The Goliath of all computer networks Links hundreds of millions of computer users throughout the world

3 Internet A Network of Networks Tens of thousands of separate computer networks – All interlinked

4 Internet “a loosely organized international collaboration of autonomous, interconnected networks.” – IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)

5 Internet Loosely Organized: – No single organization controls it – No control over what content or service appears – Any kind of material imaginable is present – No guarantee of information accuracy

6 Internet International: – At least 192 countries represented

7 Internet Collaboration: – Internet exists because of cooperation among many different organizations – Collaboration of programmers throughout the world

8 Internet Interconnected – Concept of Interconnection – Using standard protocols to enable networks to communicate with each other. – Provided by TCP/IP Protocol

9 TCP Transmission control protocol Communication between applications A communication request is sent “full-duplex” communication Communication line is occupied between the two computers

10 IP Internet Protocol “Connection-less” communication protocol Messages or other data are broken up into small independent “packets” and sent between computers via the Internet IP “routes” each packet to correct destination

11 IP Routers “Routing” the packet to the correct destination, directly or via another router. Router: responsible for right addressing – Depending on traffic volume – Errors in the network – Etc..

12 Connection-less analogy Sending a long letter as a large number of small post cards RECEIVER

13 TCP/IP TCP and IP working together TCPIP Takes care of communication between Your application software and your network software Other computers Responsible forBreaking data into IP packets before they are sent, and assembling packets when they arrive Sending the packets to the correct destination

14 IP Addresses Each computer must have an IP address before it can connect to the internet Each IP packet must have an address before it can be sent to another computer This is an IP address: This might be the same IP address:

15 IP Address Contains 4 numbers Each computer must have a unique IP address My IP Address: Uses 4 numbers to address a computer (between 0 and 255) 4 numbers separated by a period

16 Domain name A name is much easier to remember than a 12 digit number. Names used for TCP/IP addresses are called domain names. is a domain name. When you address a web site, like, the name is translated to a number by a Domain Name Server (DNS). DNS servers are connected to the Internet. DNS servers are responsible for translating domain names into TCP/IP addresses.

17 Examples of Domain Names - a typical name - the world's best-known name - a popular EDU name - a Web server that does not start with www - a name using four parts rather than three - an FTP server rather than a Web serverFTP

18 Parts of a Domain Name Top-level domain or First-level domain – COM, EDU, GOV, MIL, NET, ORG, INT – Unique two letter combination for every country Second-level domains – e.g. for COM first level domain: – Howstuffworks – Yahoo – msn – Microsoft, etc..

19 Parts of a Domain Name Third-level domain: – Up to 127 levels are possible Host name – Specifies name of a specific machine (with a specific IP address) in a domain. – E.g. www or encarta

20 Domain names need to be unique Network Solutions – Company responsible for maintaining a list of unique COM domain names Register a Domain Name – Goes through several registrars who work with Network Solutions – Keeps the whois database. Info of owners and name servers for each domain.

21 SEATWORK What is the Goliath of All Computer Networks? What does TCP mean? What does IP mean? Each of the four numbers in an IP address is from the range of numbers between __ and __, inclusive What is another name for First-level domain? What countries do these first-level domains represent?.tw,.ph,.mx,.dk

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