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BACK GROUND AND FRAMEWORK OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS.

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Presentation on theme: "BACK GROUND AND FRAMEWORK OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS."— Presentation transcript:

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2 BACK GROUND AND FRAMEWORK OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

3 Introduction Introduction originated in the USA Concept of IR originated in the USA in the early 20 th century. extended to Great Britain It soon extended to Great Britain entered public discourse in 1912 It entered public discourse in 1912 in the aftermath of violent industrial conflicts

4 Introduction IR became known as the processes and institutions through which employment is managed, such as trade unions and employers’ associations, collective negotiations, labour legislation and organized conflict.

5 Introduction IR became known as the processes and institutions through which employment is managed, such as trade unions and employers’ associations, collective negotiations, labour legislation and organized conflict.

6 Introduction basis for academic research and teaching It provided the basis for academic research and teaching. Some writers: positive forces for social improvement. – Labour and trade unions were regarded as positive forces for social improvement. perspectives converged with – Their perspectives converged with progressive employers.

7 Introduction Their common belief better understanding of the sources of industrial conflict the mechanics of collective regulation Their common belief was that social peace could be encouraged by a better understanding of the sources of industrial conflict and the mechanics of collective regulation.

8 Model of Industrial Relations Model of Industrial Relations came from a variety of backgrounds.  Early writers on IR came from a variety of backgrounds. it became a study in its own right  As the study became increasingly institutionalized it became a study in its own right. most notable writer  A most notable writer was John Thomas Dunlop Industrial Relations System appeared in 1958

9 Model of Industrial Relations the defining characteristics  For Dunlop the defining characteristics were full range of rule making  The full range of rule making governing the workplace.  Analysis of the rules  Analysis of the rules of employment. John Thomas Dunlop

10 Model of Industrial Relations the defining characteristics  For Dunlop the defining characteristics were  The actors  The actors (employers, workers and their organizations and governments) involves in their formation and administration John Thomas Dunlop

11 Model of Industrial Relations the defining characteristics  For Dunlop the defining characteristics were  The Contextual Influences  The Contextual Influences (economic, technological and political) required a distinctive theoretical apparatus which identified industrial relations as a separate discipline. John Thomas Dunlop

12 Model of Industrial Relations  JD’s Model was 1 st published in 1958 and revised in 1993 John Thomas Dunlop

13 Model of Industrial Relations the study of interaction  It defines IR as the field defined by the study of interaction between:  Workers,  Employers,  Their Associations  and The State. John Thomas Dunlop

14 Model of Industrial Relations  The interactions  The interactions take places against the background of several variables:  Technology  The design of work  Power relations within society at large. John Thomas Dunlop

15 Model of Industrial Relations  The system  The system is kept in tact by shared ideology,  Its product  Its product is the norms that govern  The Employment Relationship  and the Labour Market John Thomas Dunlop

16 Model of Industrial Relations  The IR system  The IR system is Flexible and can be applied at:  Enterprise  Domestic  Occupational and Sectoral  National  And International Level John Thomas Dunlop

17 Model of Industrial Relations  IR system as a distinct subset of the Economic System and separate of the Political System. John Thomas Dunlop Political System Industrial Relations System Economic System

18 Model of Industrial Relations  Criticisms of JD IR System  Criticisms of JD IR System: 1.The assumption of shared a ideology 1.The assumption of shared a ideology driving the system rather than power and conflict was excessive. John Thomas Dunlop

19 Model of Industrial Relations  Criticisms of JD IR System  Criticisms of JD IR System: 2.The separation of the industrial relations system 2.The separation of the industrial relations system from the other systems namely the political system, was problematic. John Thomas Dunlop

20 Properties of John Dunlop’s Model Properties of John Dunlop’s Model why particular rules are established. 1.Model which explains why particular rules are established.  How and why they change in response to changes

21 Properties of John Dunlop’s Model Properties of John Dunlop’s Model 2.Argument – 2.Argument – IR is a discipline in its own right 3.It is related to economics and to social systems in general.

22 Properties of John Dunlop’s Model 4.He envisaged the following:  Regulated relationships  Regulated relationships at the workplace as a social product.  Concerns with analysis  Concerns with analysis at the level of the individual or even the primary group

23 Properties of John Dunlop’s Model The main elements of the Model are:The main elements of the Model are:  Interrelatedness of institutions and behaviour.  Rules that govern the relationship between actors and institutions.

24 The Impact of Dunlop’s Work The Impact of Dunlop’s Work (i)Dominated IR Research (i)Dominated IR Research for decades (ii)It became the starting point (ii)It became the starting point from which most other influential commentators proceeded.

25 The Impact of Dunlop’s Work The Impact of Dunlop’s Work no difficulty in appreciating the impact (iii)There was no difficulty in appreciating the impact of his work. mechanism for grounding the subject area (iv)It provided a mechanism for grounding the subject area.

26 The Impact of Dunlop’s Work movement away from the narrow concentration on collective (v)It enabled the movement away from the narrow concentration on collective bargaining. discipline in its own right (vi)It enabled the claim that IR as a discipline in its own right

27 The Impact of Dunlop’s Work the thinking of Industrial Relations as having a theoretical core (vii)He developed the thinking of Industrial Relations as having a theoretical core through the study of the Industrial Relations Systems.

28 The Impact of Dunlop’s Work  NOTE a.Views the IR System as a subsystem of the wider society or the total social system.  It is seen as providing certain essential influences and constraints b.IR System is regarded as comprising actors, context & ideology  They bind the IR Systems together and a body of rules created to govern the actors at the place of work

29 The Creation of Rules The Creation of Rules the central aim of the Industrial Relations System  The creation of rules is seen to be the central aim of the Industrial Relations System IR Rules

30 The Creation of Rules  There three (3) groups of actors who take part in the rule making process. (i)Managers (i)Managers and their supervisors. workers their Spokesmen (ii)Non-managerial workers and their Spokesmen. (iii)Specialized government agencies (iii)Specialized government agencies and specialized private agencies

31 Impact of the Environment on the Industrial Relations System Impact of the Environment on the Industrial Relations System  Impacts are (i)Technological aspects (i)Technological aspects of the work place. (ii)Markets and budgetary (ii)Markets and budgetary constraints distribution of power. (iii)The focus and distribution of power in the larger society.

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33 BACK GROUND AND FRAMEWORK OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

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41 Model of Allan Flanders Model of Allan Flanders Allan Flanders ( ) Member of the Oxford School of Industrial Relations. institutional approach to the analysis Developed a particular institutional approach to the analysis of industrial relations. Published “The System of Industrial Relations in Great Britain” (1954)

42 Model of Allan Flanders Other Contributions State Income Policy  The design of State Income Policy, Collective Bargaining  The reform of Collective Bargaining,  Productivity Bargaining Donovan Report of the UK  And his impact of the Donovan Report of the UK in 1968.

43 Model of Allan Flanders Alan Flanders furthered the work of Dunlop He focused on He focused on Why management on the whole is slow to innovate labour relations and have little to do with labour relations? Why management on the whole is slow to innovate labour relations and have little to do with labour relations?

44 Model of Allan Flanders He believed that He believed that An immense amount of experimenting and education was needed about changes in management methods and outlook that he considered necessary. An immense amount of experimenting and education was needed about changes in management methods and outlook that he considered necessary.

45 Model of Allan Flanders He believed that He believed that An immense amount of experimenting and education was needed about changes in management methods and outlook that he considered necessary. An immense amount of experimenting and education was needed about changes in management methods and outlook that he considered necessary.

46 Model of Allan Flanders He believed that He believed that An Industrial Relations System required that ideology be sufficiently compatible and consistent, so as to commit a common set of ideas which recognizes an acceptable role for each other. An Industrial Relations System required that ideology be sufficiently compatible and consistent, so as to commit a common set of ideas which recognizes an acceptable role for each other.

47 Model of Allan Flanders He claimed that He claimed that “Voluntarism” is in a way common to all actors, and prescribed a limited role for specialized public agencies. “Voluntarism” is in a way common to all actors, and prescribed a limited role for specialized public agencies.

48 Marxist Approach to Industrial Relations Marxist Approach to Industrial Relations rooted in the theory of conflict founded by Karl Marx. The Marxist approach to the study of Industrial Relations is rooted in the theory of conflict founded by Karl Marx.

49 Marxist Approach to Industrial Relations premise Conflict theory is based on the premise that:  Conflict exists  Conflict exists in society and in organization,  It is essential to reorganize  It is essential to reorganize this and have a framework to deal with it.

50 Marxist Approach to Industrial Relations different values and interests, Marx argues that conflict arises in organizations because of different values and interests,

51 Marxist Approach to Industrial Relations the conflict is pitted between employers and employees. In the context of trade unionism and the industrial environment, the conflict is pitted between employers and employees.

52 Marxist Approach to Industrial Relations industrialisation engerders the polarization According to Marx, industrialisation engerders the polarization of societies into two (2) classes:  The Bourgeoisie  The Proletariat

53 Marxist Approach to Industrial Relations  The Bourgeoisie  The Bourgeoisie – those who owns the means of production (factors, land, etc.) and  The Much Larger Proletariat –  The Much Larger Proletariat – the working class who actually perform the labour necessary for the means of production.

54 Marxist Approach to Industrial Relations  The Pyramid

55 Marxist Approach to Industrial Relations Fundamentally Parasitic He argues that relationship between the two (2) classes is Fundamentally Parasitic

56 Marxist Approach to Industrial Relations the proletariat are always under- compensated for the true value of their labour It remains this way along as the proletariat are always under- compensated for the true value of their labour by the bourgeoisie  (according to the labour theory of value)

57 Marxist Approach to Industrial Relations bourgeoisie to grow absurdly wealthy through the exploitation This allows the bourgeoisie to grow absurdly wealthy through the exploitation of the proletarian’s labour.

58 Marxist Approach to Industrial Relations sees no difference The Marxist sees no difference in the conflicts between:  Society and Individual,  and even within organizations.

59 Marxist Approach to Industrial Relations class conflict in industry is a reflection in society as a whole Hence the class conflict in industry is a reflection in society as a whole and this outcome is the same leading to revolution.

60 Marxist Approach to Industrial Relations The Marxist perspective also has the following: The Marxist perspective also has the following: i.The institution of the capitalist society grows out of the power base of the bourgeoisie i.The institution of the capitalist society grows out of the power base of the bourgeoisie, and do not represent a permanent solution of the conflict.

61 Marxist Approach to Industrial Relations The Marxist perspective also has the following: The Marxist perspective also has the following: ii.Trade Unions exist to enable the workers to gain a power base ii.Trade Unions exist to enable the workers to gain a power base on which they can secure improved terms and conditions from the capitalists.

62 Marxist Approach to Industrial Relations The Marxist perspective also has the following: The Marxist perspective also has the following: iii.Unions offer protections against the owners and managers iii.Unions offer protections against the owners and managers, hence the need for collectivism which is more powerful than individualism.

63 Marxist Approach to Industrial Relations The Marxist perspective also has the following: The Marxist perspective also has the following: iv.Trade Unions are not necessarily seen as the basis for revolution, but they contribute to the wider class struggle in society.

64 Marxist Approach to Industrial Relations Note: ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION (A.D.R.) Note:In the essence of equal opportunity and difference among human beings, Marx developed ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION (A.D.R.)

65 Marxist Approach to Industrial Relations Criticism of the Marxist Approach Criticism of the Marxist Approach fails to recognize changes that have taken place in society i.The Marxist Approach fails to recognize changes that have taken place in society since Marx wrote over 100 years ago.

66 Marxist Approach to Industrial Relations Criticism of the Marxist Approach Criticism of the Marxist Approach is also not relevant since today the distribution of power ii.The Marxist view on power and property is also not relevant since today the distribution of power and property has changed, and it is more widely spread than before.

67 Marxist Approach to Industrial Relations Criticism of the Marxist Approach Criticism of the Marxist Approach  There is much more social mobility today, and the simple division of society described by Marx no longer exists.


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