2Alliances The alliance system in Europe started with Prussia Prussia wanted to unite the German states into a German nationGermany united (allied) with Austria-Hungary and ItalyFrance and Germany were enemies and so France allied with Russia
3AlliancesGreat Britain remained neutral until Germany started to build up its navyGreat Britain loosely allied with France and Russia forming the Triple EntenteNationalism – intense pride for one’s homeland was a powerful idea in EuropeSelf-determination – the idea that people who belong to a nation should have their own country and government, was a basic idea of nationalism
4AlliancesA small country called Serbia, allied with Russia, wanted a unified Balkan nationA Serb national assassinated Archduke Franz FerdinandThis assassination forced Austria-Hungary to declare war with Germany siding with themRussia, allied with Serbia, declared war with France siding with them (France wanted Germany defeated)
5Spark: Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary
6The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Chain Reaction:The Assassination of Archduke Franz FerdinandGermany declares war on Russia.France pledges their support for Russia.Germany declares war on France.Germany invades Belgium on the way to France.Great Britain supports Belgium and declares war on Germany.
7Militarism / Alliances / Imperialism / Nationalism MAIN causes of WW IMilitarism / Alliances / Imperialism / NationalismSpark: Archduke Ferdinand (Austria) assassinated
8AlliancesGreat Britain then joined Russia and France and these three countries made up the Allies.Germany and Austria-Hungary (with smaller nations) made up the Central Powers.Germany and France were locked in a stalemate for 3 yearsMore land was gained on the Eastern front
9Germany and Austria-Hungary World War IThe war began in Europe in 1914:Central PowersGermany and Austria-HungaryAlliesBritain, France, and Russia.
10Moving Toward War Wilson declared the U.S. neutral Wilson’s slogan in 1916, “He kept us out of war”Americans, however, began showing their support for one side or the other with immigrants supporting their homelandWilson’s cabinet was pro-BritishThe British used propaganda – information used to influence opinion, to gain U.S. support
11US & the War 1914-1917: America remained neutral Why? George Washington!!!
12Moving Toward War U.S. companies had strong ties to Allied countries. Many U.S. banks gave loans to the AlliesAmerican prosperity was tied to the warThe money would only be paid back if the Allies won.While most Americans supported the Allies, they did not want to enter the war.
13Moving Toward WarBritish ships blockaded Germany to keep it from getting suppliesTo get around the blockade, Germany used submarines, U-boatsThey threatened to sink all ships, including civilian ships, that entered waters around Britain.They sank the Lusitania, a British passenger liner.
14German “unrestricted submarine warfare” Lusitania: 1100 people dead / 120 Americans
15Moving Toward War America warned Germany to stop the U-boat attacks . Germany did not want America in the war so they signed a pledge to stop sinking merchant ships, Sussex PledgeGermany agreed not to sink passenger ships without warning in the futureA German official, Arthur Zimmerman, sent a message to his ambassador in Mexico proposing that Mexico ally itself with Germany
16Moving Toward WarThe Zimmerman telegram was intercepted by British intelligence and leaked to American newspapers.Germany went back to unrestricted submarine warfare and sunk four American merchant shipsOn April 6, 1917, the United States declared war against Germany
17Zimmerman TelegramGermany to ask Mexico to attack the U.S.
18America enters the warThe decision to enter the war was the result of continuing German submarine warfare (violating freedom of the seas) and American ties to Great Britain.Americans wanted to “make the world safe for democracy.” (Woodrow Wilson)America’s military resources of soldiers and war materials tipped the balance of the war and led to Germany’s defeat.
20Building Up The Military As the U.S. entered the war, it was necessary to recruit more soldiers.Many progressives thought conscription, or forced military service, violated both democratic and republican principlesA new system, selective service, resulted in about 2.8 million Americans being drafted.It required all men ages to register to be drafted for war. A lottery randomly decide the order in which they were called to service.
211917 – Selective Service Act 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of 1918.2.8 million drafted4,800,000 men served in WW1400,000 African-Americans served in segregated units.15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers
22Building Up The Military African Americans faced discrimination and prejudiceThey served in segregated units with white officers.Many won praise from their commanders and received war medalsWorld War I was the first war in which women officially served. Army nurses were the only women in the military to go overseas
23Organizing IndustryThe War Industries Board(WIB) was created to coordinate the production of war materialsThe Food Administration was responsible for increasing food production while reducing consumptionThe director, Herbert Hoover, asked people to plant victory gardens to raise their own vegetables in order to leave more food for the troops.
24Victory GardensCivilians should raise their own food, so the troops could have more
25Organizing IndustryThe Fuel Administration encouraged people to conserve coal and oil.Daylight savings time was introduced to conserve energy.To raise money to pay for the war, the government began selling Liberty Bonds and Victory Bonds.This was loaning the government money that would be paid back with interest in a specified number of years.
26Financing the WarLiberty Bonds & Victory Bonds: Sold to the public to raise $$$ for the war
27Mobilizing the Workforce To prevent strikes, the government made deals with labor leadersThe war increased the need for women in the workforceThey took factory and manufacturing jobsThe war stopped the flow of immigrants to the United States, which allowed African Americans wartime jobs.
28Mobilizing the Workforce Between 300,000 and 500,000 African Americans left the South to settle in the North.This “Great Migration” changed the racial makeup of many Northern cities.Many Mexicans moved north, providing labor for farmers an ranchers in the SouthwestThey also moved to cities for wartime jobsThey faced discrimination and hostility
29Ensuring Public Support Espionage, or spying to acquire secret government information, was addressed in the Espionage Act of 1917The Sedition Act of 1918 went a step further by making it illegal to criticize the president or the governmentSuspicions of disloyalty led to the mistreatment of German Americans.
30Espionage and Sedition Act Illegal to criticize, oppose, interfere, in the war effortLimited free speech1500 people arrested during the war
31American Dissent Espionage & Sedition Act Speaking Out was a “clear & present danger”Freedom of Speech limited
32Ensuring Public Support In the case of Schenck v. the United States, the Supreme Court ruling limited an individual’s freedom of speech if the words spoken constituted a “clear and present danger.”
33Was the Espionage and Sedition Acts Constitutional? Supreme Court CaseSchenck v. USBackgroundCharles SchenckSocialistArrested for mailing thousands of leaflets urging people to resist the draft
34What did the Supreme Court decide? Schenck’s actions were creating a “clear and present danger”Speech that create a “clear and present danger” are not protected by the 1st AmendmentYou can’t yell fire in a crowed movie theatre
35Combat in World War ISoldiers dug trenches as a means of protection from modern weapons“No man’s land” was the space between the opposing trenchesSoldiers charge the enemy which made them easy targetsBoth sides lost several hundred thousand menTo break enemy lines and reduce casualties, new technologies were created
39Combat in World War IPoison gas, first used by the Germans, caused vomiting, blindness, and suffocation.Tanks were unsuccessfully usedAirplanes dropped small bombs on the enemy and engaged in air battles (dog fights)Flame throwers were also used for the first time
44The Americans and Victory “Doughboys” was a nickname for American soldiers.Although inexperienced, they boosted the morale of the Allied forcesAlthough Russians supported the war effort, their government could not handle major problems.In 1917 Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Bolshevik Party, overthrew the govt. and replaced it with a Communist one.
45Drop out of war in 1917 after Bolshevik Revolution Eastern Front: RussiaDrop out of war in 1917 after Bolshevik Revolution
46“To Make The World Safe For Democracy” The Yanks Are Coming!“To Make The World Safe For Democracy”
47The Americans and Victory Lenin pulled Russia out of the war allowing the Germans to leave and concentrate on France.American and French forces kept Germany from gaining ParisIn September 1918, Pershing put together the most massive attack in American historyOn November 11, 1918, Germany finally signed an armistice, or cease-fire, that ended the war
49A Flawed PeaceWilson’s peace plan was known as the Fourteen Points, and it addressed “the principle of justice to all people and nationalities.”The points included eliminating the general causes of the war through free trade and disarmamentOpen diplomacy instead of secret agreements
50Wilson’s 14 Points Wilson’s goals for the world after the war “War to end all wars!”
51A Flawed Peace The right to self-determination The fourteenth point, known as the League of Nations, called for member nations to help preserve peace and prevent future warsThe other Allied governments felt it was too lenient toward GermanyThe Treaty of Versailles weakened Wilson’s proposal
52Principles of 14 Points Self determination Freedom of the seas Non punishmentMandate systemNo secret treatiesFree trade
5314th Point League of Nations Settle conflicts before they turn into warWilson’s most important pointMost controversial
54Treaty of Versailles Germany League of Nations created Full blame for warDemilitarized$30 Billion bill (reparations)League of Nations createdNo GermanyNo U.S.
55A Flawed PeaceThe Treaty of Versailles stripped Germany of its armed forcesIt forced Germany to pay reparations, or war damages to the Allies.The Treaty and the League of Nations were opposed by US lawmakers because they did not want US foreign policy decisions being made by an international organizationWilson, exhausted by trying to sell his plan, suffered a strokeThe Senate refused to ratify the treaty
56Treaty of Versailles 1- Germany was forced to -Reduce size of military -Hand over all of its colonies-Agree to pay Reparations-Accept all of the blame2- New countries were created3- Creation of a League of Nations“Big Four”: David Lloyd George of Britain, Vittorio Orlando of Italy, Georges Clemenceau of France, and Woodrow Wilson the principal architects of the Treaty of Versailles.
57The President makes Treaties The Senate ratifies TreatiesAn example of Checks and Balances
58Why did the Senate reject the Treaty? US would have to join the League of NationsWhat happens if the League needs to use military force?Could be dragged into a war without Congressional approval.This weakens the power of Congress
59THE LEGACY OF THE WAR Never ratifies treaty or joins League of Nations Return to Normalcy= IsolationismWorld War I had many changes in the U.S.Strengthened militarySocial change for African Americans and Women