Presentation on theme: "World War I War to End All Wars Alliances The alliance system in Europe started with Prussia Prussia wanted to unite the German states into a German."— Presentation transcript:
World War I War to End All Wars
Alliances The alliance system in Europe started with Prussia Prussia wanted to unite the German states into a German nation Germany united (allied) with Austria-Hungary and Italy France and Germany were enemies and so France allied with Russia
Alliances Great Britain remained neutral until Germany started to build up its navy Great Britain loosely allied with France and Russia forming the Triple Entente Nationalism – intense pride for one’s homeland was a powerful idea in Europe Self-determination – the idea that people who belong to a nation should have their own country and government, was a basic idea of nationalism
Alliances A small country called Serbia, allied with Russia, wanted a unified Balkan nation A Serb national assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand This assassination forced Austria-Hungary to declare war with Germany siding with them Russia, allied with Serbia, declared war with France siding with them (France wanted Germany defeated)
Spark: Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary
Chain Reaction: The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Germany declares war on Russia. France pledges their support for Russia. Germany declares war on France. Germany invades Belgium on the way to France. Great Britain supports Belgium and declares war on Germany.
MAIN causes of WW I Militarism / Alliances / Imperialism / Nationalism Spark: Archduke Ferdinand (Austria) assassinated
Alliances Great Britain then joined Russia and France and these three countries made up the Allies. Germany and Austria-Hungary (with smaller nations) made up the Central Powers. Germany and France were locked in a stalemate for 3 years More land was gained on the Eastern front
World War I The war began in Europe in 1914: Central Powers Germany and Austria- Hungary Allies Britain, France, and Russia.
Moving Toward War Wilson declared the U.S. neutral Wilson’s slogan in 1916, “He kept us out of war” Americans, however, began showing their support for one side or the other with immigrants supporting their homeland Wilson’s cabinet was pro-British The British used propaganda – information used to influence opinion, to gain U.S. support
US & the War 1914-1917: America remained neutral Why? George Washington!!!
Moving Toward War U.S. companies had strong ties to Allied countries. Many U.S. banks gave loans to the Allies American prosperity was tied to the war The money would only be paid back if the Allies won. While most Americans supported the Allies, they did not want to enter the war.
Moving Toward War British ships blockaded Germany to keep it from getting supplies To get around the blockade, Germany used submarines, U-boats They threatened to sink all ships, including civilian ships, that entered waters around Britain. They sank the Lusitania, a British passenger liner.
German “unrestricted submarine warfare” Lusitania: 1100 people dead / 120 Americans
Moving Toward War America warned Germany to stop the U-boat attacks. Germany did not want America in the war so they signed a pledge to stop sinking merchant ships, Sussex Pledge Germany agreed not to sink passenger ships without warning in the future A German official, Arthur Zimmerman, sent a message to his ambassador in Mexico proposing that Mexico ally itself with Germany
Moving Toward War The Zimmerman telegram was intercepted by British intelligence and leaked to American newspapers. Germany went back to unrestricted submarine warfare and sunk four American merchant ships On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war against Germany
Zimmerman Telegram Germany to ask Mexico to attack the U.S.
America enters the war The decision to enter the war was the result of continuing German submarine warfare (violating freedom of the seas) and American ties to Great Britain. Americans wanted to “make the world safe for democracy.” (Woodrow Wilson) America’s military resources of soldiers and war materials tipped the balance of the war and led to Germany’s defeat.
What is the main idea of this cartoon?
Building Up The Military As the U.S. entered the war, it was necessary to recruit more soldiers. Many progressives thought conscription, or forced military service, violated both democratic and republican principles A new system, selective service, resulted in about 2.8 million Americans being drafted. It required all men ages 21-30 to register to be drafted for war. A lottery randomly decide the order in which they were called to service.
1917 – Selective Service Act 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of 1918. 2.8 million drafted 4,800,000 men served in WW1 400,000 African-Americans served in segregated units. 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers
Building Up The Military African Americans faced discrimination and prejudice They served in segregated units with white officers. Many won praise from their commanders and received war medals World War I was the first war in which women officially served. Army nurses were the only women in the military to go overseas
Organizing Industry The War Industries Board(WIB) was created to coordinate the production of war materials The Food Administration was responsible for increasing food production while reducing consumption The director, Herbert Hoover, asked people to plant victory gardens to raise their own vegetables in order to leave more food for the troops.
Victory Gardens Civilians should raise their own food, so the troops could have more
Organizing Industry The Fuel Administration encouraged people to conserve coal and oil. Daylight savings time was introduced to conserve energy. To raise money to pay for the war, the government began selling Liberty Bonds and Victory Bonds. This was loaning the government money that would be paid back with interest in a specified number of years.
Financing the War Liberty Bonds & Victory Bonds: Sold to the public to raise $$$ for the war
Mobilizing the Workforce To prevent strikes, the government made deals with labor leaders The war increased the need for women in the workforce They took factory and manufacturing jobs The war stopped the flow of immigrants to the United States, which allowed African Americans wartime jobs.
Mobilizing the Workforce Between 300,000 and 500,000 African Americans left the South to settle in the North. This “Great Migration” changed the racial makeup of many Northern cities. Many Mexicans moved north, providing labor for farmers an ranchers in the Southwest They also moved to cities for wartime jobs They faced discrimination and hostility
Ensuring Public Support Espionage, or spying to acquire secret government information, was addressed in the Espionage Act of 1917 The Sedition Act of 1918 went a step further by making it illegal to criticize the president or the government Suspicions of disloyalty led to the mistreatment of German Americans.
Espionage and Sedition Act Illegal to criticize, oppose, interfere, in the war effort Limited free speech 1500 people arrested during the war
American Dissent Espionage & Sedition Act Speaking Out was a “clear & present danger” Freedom of Speech limited
Ensuring Public Support In the case of Schenck v. the United States, the Supreme Court ruling limited an individual’s freedom of speech if the words spoken constituted a “clear and present danger.”
Was the Espionage and Sedition Acts Constitutional? Supreme Court Case Schenck v. US Background Charles Schenck Socialist Arrested for mailing thousands of leaflets urging people to resist the draft
What did the Supreme Court decide? Schenck’s actions were creating a “clear and present danger” Speech that create a “clear and present danger” are not protected by the 1 st Amendment You can’t yell fire in a crowed movie theatre
Combat in World War I Soldiers dug trenches as a means of protection from modern weapons “No man’s land” was the space between the opposing trenches Soldiers charge the enemy which made them easy targets Both sides lost several hundred thousand men To break enemy lines and reduce casualties, new technologies were created
“No Man’s Land”
Combat in World War I Poison gas, first used by the Germans, caused vomiting, blindness, and suffocation. Tanks were unsuccessfully used Airplanes dropped small bombs on the enemy and engaged in air battles (dog fights) Flame throwers were also used for the first time
Advanced Weapons Tanks Gas Airplane
The Americans and Victory “Doughboys” was a nickname for American soldiers. Although inexperienced, they boosted the morale of the Allied forces Although Russians supported the war effort, their government could not handle major problems. In 1917 Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Bolshevik Party, overthrew the govt. and replaced it with a Communist one.
Eastern Front: Russia Drop out of war in 1917 after Bolshevik Revolution
The Yanks Are Coming! The Yanks Are Coming! “To Make The World Safe For Democracy”
The Americans and Victory Lenin pulled Russia out of the war allowing the Germans to leave and concentrate on France. American and French forces kept Germany from gaining Paris In September 1918, Pershing put together the most massive attack in American history On November 11, 1918, Germany finally signed an armistice, or cease-fire, that ended the war
11 a.m., November 11, 1918 End of WW I
A Flawed Peace Wilson’s peace plan was known as the Fourteen Points, and it addressed “the principle of justice to all people and nationalities.” The points included eliminating the general causes of the war through free trade and disarmament Open diplomacy instead of secret agreements
Wilson’s 14 Points Wilson’s goals for the world after the war “War to end all wars!”
A Flawed Peace The right to self-determination The fourteenth point, known as the League of Nations, called for member nations to help preserve peace and prevent future wars The other Allied governments felt it was too lenient toward Germany The Treaty of Versailles weakened Wilson’s proposal
Principles of 14 Points Self determination Freedom of the seas Non punishment Mandate system No secret treaties Free trade
14 th Point League of Nations Settle conflicts before they turn into war Wilson’s most important point Most controversial
Treaty of Versailles Germany – Full blame for war – Demilitarized – $30 Billion bill (reparations) League of Nations created – No Germany – No U.S.
A Flawed Peace The Treaty of Versailles stripped Germany of its armed forces It forced Germany to pay reparations, or war damages to the Allies. The Treaty and the League of Nations were opposed by US lawmakers because they did not want US foreign policy decisions being made by an international organization Wilson, exhausted by trying to sell his plan, suffered a stroke The Senate refused to ratify the treaty
Treaty of Versailles 1- Germany was forced to -Reduce size of military -Hand over all of its colonies -Agree to pay Reparations -Accept all of the blame 2- New countries were created 3- Creation of a League of Nations “Big Four”: David Lloyd George of Britain, Vittorio Orlando of Italy, Georges Clemenceau of France, and Woodrow Wilson the principal architects of the Treaty of Versailles.
The President makes Treaties The Senate ratifies Treaties An example of Checks and Balances
Why did the Senate reject the Treaty? US would have to join the League of Nations What happens if the League needs to use military force? Could be dragged into a war without Congressional approval. This weakens the power of Congress
Never ratifies treaty or joins League of Nations Return to Normalcy= Isolationism World War I had many changes in the U.S. – Strengthened military – Social change for African Americans and Women THE LEGACY OF THE WAR