Presentation on theme: "A FRAMEWORK FOR A MECHANISM TO REVIEW THE APPEAL ON THE CONSIDERATION TO DO STUFF The United Nations."— Presentation transcript:
A FRAMEWORK FOR A MECHANISM TO REVIEW THE APPEAL ON THE CONSIDERATION TO DO STUFF The United Nations
The United Nations – History Formally established on October 24, 1945. Designed at the United Nations Conference on International Organization from April 25 – June 26, 1945, upon the conclusion of the Second World War.
The United Nations – History constructed to replace the failed League of Nations by: 1. greater provisions of resources and responsibilities, 2. nonpartisan review of new applicants, and 3. catering to contemporary world powers in order to ensure legitimacy and enforcement.
The United Nations – History The 51 original member- states set its initial functions as: 1. international peace and security, 2. amicable relations among members, 3. advocating for social progress, 4. higher standards of living, and 5. a universal framework of human rights.
The United Nations – History At present day, the UN includes representatives of 193 member states, two permanent observers, and a perpetually changing plethora of recognized non- governmental organizations. As of 2008-2009, the UN was engaged in 16 peacekeeping operations, possessed an approved budget of USD 4.171 billion, and contained a Secretariat staff numbering approximately 40 000.
The United Nations – Charter The Charter was signed on June 26, 1945, essentially functioning as the UN constitution, outlining both the principles and structure of the organization. It also includes procedures for passively settling hostilities, appropriate measures for neutralizing security threats and violations of international covenants, frameworks for establishing legitimate multilateral agreements, development of the trusteeship system for managing protectorates and entrusted territories, as well as the administration of internationally-governed regions.
The United Nations – Charter Aside from implementation, the Charter also dictates structure for several sub- branches of the United Nations, such as the International Court of Justice, and provisions detailing mutual respects and guarantees of rights to fellow member states and their citizens.
The United Nations – Structure The UN is comprised of six primary bodies: the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice, and the Secretariat. These bodies compose a variety of committees and commissions designed to develop policy and services within the principal fields of peace and security, development, human rights, humanitarian affairs, and international law.
The United Nations – Structure The UN also consists of 15 agencies, and a myriad of programmes, and regulatory bodies that fall outside of the principal organs listed above. Committee and commission members are chosen either by election, or assigned according to signatory status or the relevancy of a committee or issue to one’s state.
The United Nations – The General Assembly The General Assembly is the de jure chief policymaking organ of the UN, and de facto lower house. The GA consists of representation from all 192 member-states, as well as all observers and NGOs.
The United Nations – The General Assembly As outlined by the Charter, the GA is able to: 1. Develop and review policy in regard to the general principles of international peace and security, and cooperation; 2. Provide a forum for deliberations concerning international issues, and draft resolutions on said issues except for matters currently under discussion in the Security Council; 3. Provide a similar role concerning the Charter, as well as the intent or structure of any UN body; 4. Launch studies and research reports with the intent of promoting international peace and awareness concerning matters related to the general principles of the UN Charter;
The United Nations - The General Assembly 4. Pursue conflict resolution and preside over any disagreements between states with the potential to damage peaceful relations; 5. Consider reports from the Security Council; 6. Approve the budget and contribution responsibilities of member states; 7. Elect members of UN committees, nonpermanent members of the Security Council, and appoint the Secretary General under the advice of the Security Council.
The United Nations – The General Assembly Due to the GA’s broad jurisdiction, it delegates responsibilities to six major committees: 1. the GA1, disarmament and international security committee; 2. GA2, economic and financial committee; 3. GA3, social, humanitarian and cultural committee; 4. GA4, special political and decolonization committee; 5. GA5, administrative and budgetary committee; and 6. GA6, legal committee.
The United Nations – The Security Council The Security Council holds the primary responsibility of upholding international peace and security in the international community. It is comprised of five permanent members and ten nonpermanent members elected for two year terms. Procedural votes require the support of nine members, while substantive votes require the support of nine members, including unanimous consensus by the P5.
The United Nations – The Security Council The Council is structurally composed of three standing (permanent) committees: SC Committee of Experts, SC Committee on Admission of New Members, and SC Committee on Council meetings away from Headquarters. The Council is also currently composed of three Ad Hoc (temporary) committees: 1. the Governing Council of the UN Compensation Commission, meant to provide reparation payments to victims of Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait; 2. the Counter-Terrorism Committee, and 3. the 1540 Committee, designed to prevent non-state entities from procuring weapons of mass destruction.
The United Nations – The Security Council The Council also consists of: 1. sanctions committees, concerning specific member states deemed to represent threats to international security or human rights; 2. working groups on persisting matters warranting special consideration; 3. organizations of peacekeeping operations; and 4. International Tribunals concerning instances of gross transgressions of international law.
The United Nations – The Economic and Social Council ECOSOC is the primary deliberative and policymaking body in reference to international economic and social issues. ECOSOC consists of: 1. 9 functional commissions, regarding specific problems under ECOSOC jurisdiction; 2. 5 regional commissions designed to coordinate the Council’s operations and policies within the continents aside from North America; 3. 3 standing committees concerning administration and negotiation;
4. 1 general Ad Hoc Working Group; 5. 3 bodies of government experts; 6. 5 bodies of independent experts; and 7. 4 bodies pertaining to the implementation of various bureaucratic initiatives. The United Nations – The Economic and Social Council
The United Nations – The International Court of Justice The ICJ is charged with the role of adjudicating legal disputes between member states that have been submitted to the court by one of the aggrieved parties. The Court consists of fifteen justices elected for nine year terms by the General Assembly and the Security Council. While typically operating as a collective, the Court occasionally finds it necessary to disperse into more specific chambers: the Chamber of Summary Procedure, used in order to expedite rulings; Chambers relating to a certain field, and Ad Hoc Chambers, of which none are currently in operation. The Court is also serviced by 3 administrative committees: the budgetary and advisory committee, the library committee, and the rules committee.
The United Nations – The International Court of Justice While typically operating as a collective, the Court occasionally finds it necessary to disperse into more specific chambers: the Chamber of Summary Procedure, used in order to expedite rulings; Chambers relating to a certain field, and Ad Hoc Chambers, of which none are currently in operation. The Court is also serviced by 3 administrative committees: the budgetary and advisory committee, the library committee, and the rules committee.
The United Nations – The Secretariat The Secretariat serves as the international bureaucracy of the UN. Responsibilities are varied, concerning policy implementation, research, press releases, organizing forums and conferences, and providing interpretation and translation services.
The United Nations – The Secretariat As well as these principle organs, the Secretariat also constitutes a variety of specialized agencies, funds, organizations, agencies, and conventions that concern issues deemed to hold special importance or a need for greater objectivity and independence in order to provide specific services.
Conclusion – Problems… While the UN is a highly intricate organization, it continues to “handle” issues of reform, examining ways in which its role can be expanded and ensured or ways to reach groups that have been overlooked by past resolutions. The UN must also regularly deal with questions of state sovereignty, and the extent to which its policies are seen as legitimate or enforceable. Furthermore, several states have also claimed that the UN is a renewed form of western cultural imperialism, designed to promote liberal values and dictate policy to disadvantaged countries, claims often justified by the lack of collective rights in UN discourse and the power distribution of the P5.