Presentation on theme: "English Language B ENGB1"— Presentation transcript:
1English Language B ENGB1 Section A: Categorising Texts
2Overview1 hour48 marks‘Group’ texts together and analyse them
3Groupings • purpose • audience • genre • formality • speech • writing • multimodality• representation• linguistic areas (e.g. lexis, grammar, phonetics /phonology etc).BUT- think of your own too! Some students may consider subtle groupings such as use of humour,
4Genre- for example adverts, narratives, poetry, instructions, recipes etc. Formal register Informal register Intended audience- for example children, females, males or simply a specific audience such as gamers or birdwatchers etc. Mixed mode Spoken Purpose- for example to persuade, to instruct, to inform, to teach, to entertain etc. Use of second person pronouns Use of first person pronouns Use of adjectives Spontaneous speech Planned speech Represented speech Lexical fields Imperative mood Interrogative mood Declarative mood Exclamative mood Rhyme Minor sentences Complex sentences Dynamic verb Stative verbs Comparatives Superlatives Idiolect Modal verb- epistemic or deontic Phonological features such as alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeias etc. Grice’s maxims Subject specific lexis/ jargon Deixis (context dependent) Distance between intended reader/listener and writer/speaker Abstract nouns Figurative language such as metaphors, similes, hyperboles, oxymoron’s etc. Whether a text is ephermal or not Tense for example present tense, past tense or future tense Interesting graphology
5You should use the following linguistic methods to explore the groupings Lexisthe vocabulary system; meaning at word and phrase levelGrammarthe structural relationships within and between sentences and utterancesPhonetics/ Phonologythe sounds of English, how they are produced and how they are described; including aspects of prosodyPragmaticsthe ways in which social conventions and implied meanings are encoded in spoken and written languageDiscourse(i) longer stretches of text, looking particularly at aspects of cohesion(ii) the way texts create identities for particular individuals, groups or institutionsGraphologylanguage as a semiotic system creating meaning through textual design, signs and images.Registersituational variation and register: how language varies in relation to audiences, purposes and contextsModehow language may vary as a consequence of the channel of communication (speech, writing and mixed modes)idiolectthe language style acquired by individuals as a result of their personal characteristics, systems of belief and social experiencedialectthe variations in language produced as a result of local community and regional diversitysociolectlanguage variations produced by the effects of education, socio-economic class, systems of belief, occupation
6Use linguistic methods Select 2 or 3 textsDecide on a way togroup themUse linguistic methodsto analyse/compare
7Tips for this sectionSuccessful students will explore 2,3 or 4 groupingsSuccessful students will look at 2 or 3 texts per groupingIt is perfectly fine to use different texts for different groupingsIn this section you REALLY need to show off your knowledge of linguistic methods and linguistic terminology
8Examiners’ report- successful candidates have good coverage of the textsemploy terminology accuratelyuse a good range of language methodschoose a range of interesting groupshave an open-minded approach to grouping texts . avoiding approaching the texts in a pre-planned waylink groups together to show cross-boundary texts for example, Text C can also be grouped with A and D as well as with B and Eplace the same texts in different groups showing the complex nature of the taskexplore differences between texts within one group using comparative vocabulary to aid cohesionmove beyond feature spotting and describinglink language methods to contextual factors consistentlyuse graphology as a focus in often subtle ways; the significance of colour was frequently explored.
9Examiners’ report- less successful students offer groups on the sole basis of grammatical reasons - less able candidates were sometimes confused in their terminology while more able candidates were restricted in their approachmove into theoretical ideas in detail (an approach more appropriate for section Bemploy a pre-planned approach which often led to unconvincing groupings as the texts did not fit their planuse one text as a group- this is a misinterpretation of the task and limits achievement as discussion of differences and complexities is not possiblefeature spot with no discussion of influential contextual factorsemploy limited terminologyuse a narrow range of language methodslist many groups, often with very limited discussion and developmentproduce groups which were used only to discuss differences rather than exploring the connections between the texts.
10How you are being marked: AO1, AO2 and AO3 are all assessed equally in this section:AO1: Select and apply a range of linguistic methods to communicate relevant knowledge using appropriate terminology and coherent, accurate written expression (16 marks available)AO2:Demonstrate critical understanding of a range of concepts and issues related to the construction and analysis of meanings in spoken and written language, using knowledge of linguistic approaches (16 marks available)AO3: Analyse and evaluate the influence of contextual factors on the production and reception of spoken and written language, showing knowledge of the key constituents of language (16 marks available)
11Summarising the AOs- what the examiners want to see Excellent written expression (your writing making sense!)Perceptive linguistic knowledge (understanding all the areas such as lexis, grammar etc)An excellent and accurate use of sophisticated terminologyExplaining your reasons for grouping textsWhen analysing, looking for subtleties not just the obviousAnalysing and interpreting contextual factors
12PurposeOf the texts you have in front of you, select three that interest you in terms of PURPOSE. This is a ‘grouping’ and in the exam you might spend minutes writing about just this one grouping
13Purposes- avoid ‘broad’ purpose and focus in on the specific ‘Broad’ purposes=InformPersuadeAdviseInstructdescribe‘Specific’ purposes=Raise brand awarenessCreate public sympathyGive assistance and advice to people with addictions
14‘Purpose’- what to cover Is it a multi-purpose text or dual-purpose text? What are the primary and secondary purposes?How does context affect purpose?Which elements of the lexis help to achieve the purpose? Does the intended effect match the actual effect?Any other linguistic methods you find relevant. E.g: Does grammar aid the purpose? Graphology- how do things such as the images, the typography etc complement/detract from the purpose? Does the text have a strong pragmatic meaning which helps achieve the purpose?Similarites/differences to other texts within the group. Is one text more effective? Are there texts with similar purpose? How have the text producers tried to achieve the same purpose through different methods?
15Audience: Elements to consider Actual writer (Text producer)Implied writer (narrative ‘voice’ of a text)Implied reader (the created, often idealised, persona)Actual reader (Text receiver)Context of productionContext of receptionWho is the intended audience? (& how you know this)How the text producer communicates with the audience (lexis, grammar, register, formality etc)
16Examples from A grade response to June 2013 paper
18Developing analysis Explain how the text fits into the group. Context- significance/impact/influenceWhich linguistic features can you use to explore the text IN TERMS OF THE GROUP IT IS INHow have the linguistic features been used in the text?What are the effects of the features?How important/effective IN TERMS OF THE GROUP IT IS IN?