Presentation on theme: "English Language B ENGB1 Section A: Categorising Texts."— Presentation transcript:
English Language B ENGB1 Section A: Categorising Texts
Overview n 1 hour n 48 marks n ‘Group’ texts together and analyse them
Groupings n purpose n audience n genre n formality n speech n writing n multimodality n representation n linguistic areas (e.g. lexis, grammar, phonetics /phonology etc). BUT- think of your own too! Some students may consider subtle groupings such as use of humour,
Genre- for example adverts, narratives, poetry, instructions, recipes etc. Formal register Informal register Intended audience- for example children, females, males or simply a specific audience such as gamers or birdwatchers etc. Mixed mode Spoken Purpose- for example to persuade, to instruct, to inform, to teach, to entertain etc. Use of second person pronouns Use of first person pronouns Use of adjectives Spontaneous speech Planned speech Represented speech Lexical fields Imperative mood Interrogative mood Declarative mood Exclamative mood Rhyme Minor sentences Complex sentences Dynamic verb Stative verbs Comparatives Superlatives Idiolect Modal verb- epistemic or deontic Phonological features such as alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeias etc. Grice’s maxims Subject specific lexis/ jargon Deixis (context dependent) Distance between intended reader/listener and writer/speaker Abstract nouns Figurative language such as metaphors, similes, hyperboles, oxymoron’s etc. Whether a text is ephermal or not Tense for example present tense, past tense or future tense Interesting graphology
You should use the following linguistic methods to explore the groupings Lexis n the vocabulary system; meaning at word and phrase level Grammar n the structural relationships within and between sentences and utterances Phonetics/ Phonology n the sounds of English, how they are produced and how they are described; including aspects of prosody Pragmatics n the ways in which social conventions and implied meanings are encoded in spoken and written language Discourse n (i) longer stretches of text, looking particularly at aspects of cohesion n (ii) the way texts create identities for particular individuals, groups or institutions Graphology n language as a semiotic system creating meaning through textual design, signs and images. Register n situational variation and register: how language varies in relation to audiences, purposes and contexts Mode n how language may vary as a consequence of the channel of communication (speech, writing and mixed modes) idiolect n the language style acquired by individuals as a result of their personal characteristics, systems of belief and social experience dialect n the variations in language produced as a result of local community and regional diversity sociolect n language variations produced by the effects of education, socio-economic class, systems of belief, occupation
Select 2 or 3 texts Decide on a way to group them Use linguistic methods to analyse/compare
Tips for this section n Successful students will explore 2,3 or 4 groupings n Successful students will look at 2 or 3 texts per grouping n It is perfectly fine to use different texts for different groupings n In this section you REALLY need to show off your knowledge of linguistic methods and linguistic terminology
Examiners’ report- successful candidates n have good coverage of the texts n employ terminology accurately n use a good range of language methods n choose a range of interesting groups n have an open-minded approach to grouping texts. avoiding approaching the texts in a pre-planned way n link groups together to show cross-boundary texts for example, Text C can also be grouped with A and D as well as with B and E n place the same texts in different groups showing the complex nature of the task n explore differences between texts within one group using comparative vocabulary to aid cohesion n move beyond feature spotting and describing n link language methods to contextual factors consistently n use graphology as a focus in often subtle ways; the significance of colour was frequently explored.
Examiners’ report- less successful students n offer groups on the sole basis of grammatical reasons - less able candidates were sometimes confused in their terminology while more able candidates were restricted in their approach n move into theoretical ideas in detail (an approach more appropriate for section B n employ a pre-planned approach which often led to unconvincing groupings as the texts did not fit their plan n use one text as a group- this is a misinterpretation of the task and limits achievement as discussion of differences and complexities is not possible n feature spot with no discussion of influential contextual factors n employ limited terminology n use a narrow range of language methods n list many groups, often with very limited discussion and development n produce groups which were used only to discuss differences rather than exploring the connections between the texts.
How you are being marked: n AO1, AO2 and AO3 are all assessed equally in this section: n AO1: Select and apply a range of linguistic methods to communicate relevant knowledge using appropriate terminology and coherent, accurate written expression (16 marks available) n AO2:Demonstrate critical understanding of a range of concepts and issues related to the construction and analysis of meanings in spoken and written language, using knowledge of linguistic approaches (16 marks available) n AO3: Analyse and evaluate the influence of contextual factors on the production and reception of spoken and written language, showing knowledge of the key constituents of language (16 marks available)
Summarising the AOs- what the examiners want to see n Excellent written expression (your writing making sense!) n Perceptive linguistic knowledge (understanding all the areas such as lexis, grammar etc) n An excellent and accurate use of sophisticated terminology n Explaining your reasons for grouping texts n When analysing, looking for subtleties not just the obvious n Analysing and interpreting contextual factors
Purpose n Of the texts you have in front of you, select three that interest you in terms of PURPOSE. This is a ‘grouping’ and in the exam you might spend 15-20 minutes writing about just this one grouping
Purposes- avoid ‘broad’ purpose and focus in on the specific ‘Broad’ purposes= n Inform n Persuade n Advise n Instruct n describe ‘Specific’ purposes= n Raise brand awareness n Create public sympathy n Give assistance and advice to people with addictions
‘Purpose’- what to cover n Is it a multi-purpose text or dual-purpose text? What are the primary and secondary purposes? n How does context affect purpose? n Which elements of the lexis help to achieve the purpose? Does the intended effect match the actual effect? n Any other linguistic methods you find relevant. E.g: Does grammar aid the purpose? Graphology- how do things such as the images, the typography etc complement/detract from the purpose? Does the text have a strong pragmatic meaning which helps achieve the purpose? n Similarites/differences to other texts within the group. Is one text more effective? Are there texts with similar purpose? How have the text producers tried to achieve the same purpose through different methods?
Audience: Elements to consider n Actual writer (Text producer) n Implied writer (narrative ‘voice’ of a text) n Implied reader (the created, often idealised, persona) n Actual reader (Text receiver) n Context of production n Context of reception n Who is the intended audience? (& how you know this) n How the text producer communicates with the audience (lexis, grammar, register, formality etc)
Examples from A grade response to June 2013 paper
Developing analysis n Explain how the text fits into the group. n Context- significance/impact/influence n Which linguistic features can you use to explore the text IN TERMS OF THE GROUP IT IS IN n How have the linguistic features been used in the text? n What are the effects of the features? n How important/effective IN TERMS OF THE GROUP IT IS IN?