Presentation on theme: "Genetically Modified Corn Proudly present by : Khesia Kalistyatika (H0910040) M. Fatchurohman (H0910042) Mita Nurul Azkia (H0910046) Muhammad Luqman A.H."— Presentation transcript:
Genetically Modified Corn Proudly present by : Khesia Kalistyatika (H ) M. Fatchurohman (H ) Mita Nurul Azkia (H ) Muhammad Luqman A.H (H ) Nur Wahyu (H )
Welcome to the world of Genetically Modified Foods!
First introduced in the early 1990's, Genetically Modified Foods have since gradually become a major part of our everyday lives. However, most people are unaware of how much of an impact biotechnology has on their diet… Have you imagined, how common the practice of genetically engineering food is around them… ??
Approximately ± 80% of American processed foods contain some form of genetic modification. These products include foods, feeds, medicines and vaccines. So what is genetic modification? According to experts, "GM is the alteration of the genome of plants grown for food in order to produce crops with specific advantages."
What is agricultural biotechnology? Biotechnology refers to any technique uses living organisms, or parts of these organisms. used to make or modify products for a practical purpose. the examples: Modern medicine, agriculture, and industry make use of biotechnology on a large scale
Little bit more about the method……. Transgenic maize (corn) has been deliberately genetically modified (GM) to have agronomically desirable traits. Traits that have been engineered into corn include resistance to herbicides and resistance to insect pests, the latter being achieved by incorporation of a gene that codes for the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin. Hybrids with both herbicide and pest resistance have also been produced.
Check this out, for further GM Corn Method.. Bt corn is a variant of maize, genetically altered to express the bacterial Bt toxin, which is poisonous to insect pests. In the case of corn, the pest is the European corn borer.
Making Bt corn to many flowering plants including grasses such as corn and rice. Cry- transformed corn varieties, called ‘Bt corn’, produce sufficient levels of Cry proteins to provide an effective measure of resistance against ECB Agrobacterium tumefaciens induces the growth of tumours on woody plants. These tumours are engineered by A.tumefaciens produce a special food for the bacteria (opines) that plants normally cannot make. These tumours arise from a unique bacterial transformation mechanism involving the Ti-plasmid which coordinates the random insertion of a subset of its DNA (t-DNA) containing opine synthase genes into a plant chromosome. By replacing portions of the t-DNA sequence with genes of interest (such as Cry), researchers have been able to harness this transformational mechanism and confer new traits
Expressing the toxin was achieved by inserting a gene from the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis into the corn genome. This gene codes for a toxin that causes the formation of pores in the Lepidoptera larval digestive tract. These pores allow naturally occurring enteric bacteria, such as E. coli and Enterobacter, to enter the hemocoel, where they multiply and cause sepsis.
Engineering resistant corn. Following the insertion of a gene from the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis, corn becomes resistant to corn borer infection. This allows farmers to use fewer insecticides
agrobacterium tumefaciens infection & gene transfer
transgenic maize was grown commercially in some countries, including the United States (where 85% of the maize crop was genetically modified), Brazil (36% GM), Argentina (83% GM), South Africa (57% GM), Canada (84% GM), the Philippines (19% GM) and Spain (20% GM)
advantages Bt Corn and Reduction of Human Health Infections Using genetically modified hybrids allows us to control the ability of insects and diseases to attack our crops while at the same time reducing our dependence on chemical sprays that are harmful to us and to the environment. A gene (Bt) from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis can be inserted into a crop such as corn. When a pest such as the European corn borer begins feeding on this plant, it ingests the protein that is encoded by the Bt gene and translated in the corn plant. This protein forms crystals that penetrate the cells lining the insect's gut and the insect subsequently dies.
disadvantages Bt Corn perhaps cause allergic, may emerge unknown new protein combination. elevates blood sugar levels it raises concentrations of fatty substances called triglycerides
Does Bt Corn have high risk to human living ? Scientists haven’t been able to find any good reason why we shouldn’t eat genetically modified corn. Experiment shows how rat’s kidney and liver function which ate GM corn were impaired!!! Because: it elevates rat’s blood sugar levels it raises concentrations of fatty substances called triglycerides how the impact for human? Same affect for human, and it is probably raising the risk of damaging organs. Clearly not proof of toxicity, but signs of toxicity. There is no acute toxicity
Market’s paradigm about GM Corn industrial farmers in the north are pushing the government to ease the establishment of commercial transgenic corn operations The transnational is claiming that its modified corn seeds are the only solution to scarcity and rising grain price
We are thankfull for the sophisticated of genetically modified food, especially Corn. From Bt Corn we obtain adventages too. For eco-friendly aspect we don’t use chemical sprays anymore in controlling insect. But we realize that all artificial foods aren’t good for our healty if we consume it continously, and sometimes it brings resistance impact for insect. We prefer to consume natural corn for our safety. Just advice, suppose you consume GM Corn adequately. If you are ‘R n D’ wanna be, please use Bt Corn dosis properly because we don’t know exactly other effects will be.