Presentation on theme: "Pengenalan Teknologi Industri Program Studi Teknik Kimia FTI - ITB."— Presentation transcript:
Pengenalan Teknologi Industri Program Studi Teknik Kimia FTI - ITB
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to describe the Chemical Engineering, to explain the Chemical Engineering body of knowledge, to show the opportunities of new Chemical Engineering directions, to describe the ITB Chemical Engineering curriculum, to introduce the Department of Chemical Engineering, FTI – ITB. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 3
Solen, K. dan J.N. Harb, Introduction to Chemical Processes: Fundamentals & Design, 3 rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, Peters. M.S., Elementary Chemical Engineering, 2 nd ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 4
An Engineer who manufactures chemicals A Chemist who works in a factory A glorified Plumber? Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 5
No universally accepted definition of ChE. However, aimed towards design of processes that change materials from one form to another more useful (and so more valuable) form, economically, safely and in an environmentally acceptable way. Application of basic sciences (math, chemistry, physics & biology) and engineering principles to the design, development, operation & maintenance of processes to convert raw materials to useful products and improve the human environment. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 6
Air, Gas, Crude Oil, Coal, Mineral, Biomass, Energy Chemistry, Physics, Mathematic, Biology, Economics ChE involves specifying equipment, operating conditions, instrumentation and process control for all these changes. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 7
8 Ilmu tentang proses kimia berskala niaga/komersial dan sarana pelaksanaannya.
9 Proses Kimia Berskala Niaga Pengolahan yang memanfaatkan reaksi kimia dan peristiwa kimia-fisik untuk mengubah keadaan, kandungan energi dan/atau komposisi bahan sehingga menghasilkan produk yang, karena nilai gunanya, dapat dijual secara menguntungkan.
The fields of ChE are: petrochemicals, petroleum and natural gas processing extraction and processing of natural resources plastics and polymers pulp and paper instrumentation and process control energy conversion and utilization environmental control Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 10
biotechnology biomedical and Biochemical food processing composite materials, corrosion and protective coatings manufacture of microelectronic components pharmaceuticals nanotechnology Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 11
Chemical Engineers: it is not what we do, but how we think about the world, that makes us different. Problem Best solution(s ) Quantitative Engineering Analysis understanding of math, chemistry, physics, biology, and economic design/synthesiz e products, services, and processes Chemical Engineering Body of Knowledge Fundamental Engineering Process Engineering, Product Engineering, Energy and Process System, Caption Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 12
design, development and operation of process plants management of technical operations and sales research and development of novel products and processes Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 13
The majority of Chemical Engineers work in businesses known collectively as the Chemical Process Industries (CPI) Chemicals, Oil and Gas (upstream and downstream) Energy conversion and utilization Pulp and Paper, Rubber and Plastics, Food and Beverage, Textile, Electronics/IT Metals, mineral processing Electronics and microelectronics Agricultural Chemicals Industries Cosmetics/ Pharmaceutical Biotechnology/Biomedical Environmental, technical, and business consulting Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 14
Many Chemical Engineers also work in supplier, consulting and governmental agencies related to the CPI by engaging in equipment manufacture, plant design, consulting, analytical services and standards development. governmental agencies concerned with environmental protection Chemical engineers have been referred to as “universal engineers.” Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 15
Pengenalan Teknologi Industri Other Industries 6.4Business Services 2.6Engineering Services (Environmental Engineering) 2.4Engineering Services (Research & Testing) 4.8Engineering Services (Design & Construction) 2.4Pulp & paper 6.9Biotech & Related Industries 3.3Materials 11.4Food/Consumer Products 15.6Electronics 12.6Fuels 26.7Chemical
Pengenalan Teknologi Industri Program Studi Teknik Kimia FTI - ITB
As the Industrial Revolution (18th Century to the present) steamed along certain basic chemicals quickly became necessary to sustain growth. Sulphuric acid was first among these "industrial chemicals". It was said that a nation's industrial might could be gauged solely by the vigour of its sulphuric acid industry With this in mind, it comes as no surprise that English industrialists spent a lot of time, money, and effort in attempts to improve their processes for making sulphuric acid. A slight savings in production led to large profits because of the vast quantities of sulphuric acid consumed by industry. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 18
Bahan baku untuk pembuatan asam-asam yang lain Bahan baku industri pupuk (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 Bahan koagulan untuk industri kertas dan penjernihan air : Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Pelarut mill scale di industri besi – baja Bahan baku industri deterjen (ABS) dll Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 19
1749 John Roebuck developed the process to make relatively concentrated (30-70%) sulfuric acid in lead lined chambers rather than the more expensive glass vessels. air, water, sulphur dioxide, a nitrate (potassium, sodium, or calcium) and a large lead container. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 20
The nitrate was the most expensive ingredient because during the final stage of the process, it was lost to the atmosphere (in the form of nitric oxide). Additional nitrate (sodium nitrate) was imported from Chile - costly! In 1859, John Glover helped solve this problem with a mass transfer tower to recover some of this lost nitrate. Acid trickled down against upward flowing burner gases which absorbed some of the previously lost nitric oxide. When the gases were recycled back into the lead chamber the nitric oxide could be re-used. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 21
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Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 23 Notice how sulphuric acid production closely mirrors historical events affecting the American economy. Sulphuric acid production dropped after the American involvement in World War I ( ) and open world trade resumed. The stock market crash of 1929 further stagnated growth which was restored at the outbreak of World War II (1938). As the U.S. entered the war (1941) economy was rapidly brought up to full production capacity. The post war period ( ) saw the greatest economic growth in America's history, and this was reflected in ever increasing sulphuric acid production. Massive inflation during the late sixties and the energy crisis and economic recession of the early seventies also reveal themselves in the sulphuric acid curve Figure 1-1, Source: "US Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics from Colonial Times to 1970."
1700’s the demand for soap increased due to washing of clothes, requiring Na 2 CO 3 The Alkali compounds, Soda ash (Na 2 CO 3 ) and potash (K 2 CO 3 ), were used in making glass, soap, and textiles and were therefore in great demand. This alkali was imported to France from Spanish and Irish peasants who burned seaweed and New England settlers who burned bush, both to recover the ash At the end of the 1700's, English trees became scarce and the only native source of soda ash in the British Isles was kelp (seaweed). Alkali imported from America in the form of wood ashes (potash), Spain in the form of barilla (a plant containing 25% alkali), or from soda mined in Egypt, were all very expensive due to high shipping costs. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 24
Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 25 Nicolas Leblanc was a poor young man working in a chemistry research lab established by the wealthiest man in France, the Duke of Orleans. It took Le Blanc 5 years to stumble upon the idea of reacting NaCl with sulfuric acid to form sodium sulfate, and then converting to sodium carbonate with limestone. In 1789 he went to collect his prize…unfortunately this was during the time of the French Revolution. A factory was built, but the Duke was executed and the factory seized. King Louis XVI of France offered an award (equivalent to half a million dollars) to anyone who could turn NaCl (common table salt) into Na 2 CO 3 because French access to these raw materials was threatened.
2 NaCl + H 2 SO 4 Na 2 SO 4 (saltcake, intermediate) + 2 HCl (hydrochloric acid gas, a horrible waste product) Na 2 SO 4 + CaCO 3 (limestone) + 4 C(s) (coal) Na 2 CO 3 (soda ash extracted from black ash) + CaS (dirty calcium sulfide waste) + 4 CO Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 26 Dependence on imported soda ended with the Le Blanc Process which converted common salt into soda ash using sulfuric acid, limestone and coal as feedstock (raw materials) and produced hydrochloric acid as a by-product.
In many ways, this process began the modern chemical industry. From its adoption in 1810 it was continually improved over the next 80 years through elaborate engineering efforts mainly directed at recovering or reducing the terrible by- products of the process, namely: hydrochloric acid, nitrogen oxides, sulfur, manganese, and chlorine gas. Indeed because of these polluting chemicals many manufacturing sites were surrounded by a ring of dead and dying grass and trees. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 27
A petition against the Le Blanc Process in 1839 complained that: "the gas from these manufactories is of such a deleterious nature as to blight everything within its influence, and is alike baneful to health and property. The herbage of the fields in their vicinity is scorched, the gardens neither yield fruit nor vegetables; many flourishing trees have lately become rotten naked sticks. Cattle and poultry droop and pine away. It tarnishes the furniture in our houses, and when we are exposed to it, which is of frequent occurrence, we are afflicted with coughs and pains in the head...all of which we attribute to the Alkali works." Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 28
In 1873 a new process - the Solvay Process - replaced Le Blanc's method for producing Alkali. The process was perfected in 1863 by a Belgian chemist, Ernest Solvay. The chemistry was based upon an old discovery by A. J. Fresnel who in 1811 had shown that Sodium Bicarbonate could be precipitated from a salt solution containing ammonium bicarbonate. This chemistry was far simpler than that devised by Le Blanc, however to be used on an industrial scale many engineering obstacles had to be overcome. Sixty years of attempted scale-up had failed until Solvay finally succeeded. Solvay's contribution was therefore one of chemical engineering. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 29
The heart of his design was an 80 foot tall high-efficiency carbonating tower in which ammoniated brine trickled down and carbon dioxide flowed up. Plates and bubble caps created a large surface area (contacting area) over which the two chemicals could react forming sodium bicarbonate. Solvay's engineering resulted in a continuously operating process free of hazardous by-products and with an easily purified final product. By 1880 it was evident that it would rapidly replace the traditional Le Blanc Process. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 30
The term "chemical engineer" had been floating around technical circles throughout the 1880's, but there was no formal education for such a person. The "chemical engineer" of these years was either a mechanical engineer who had gained some knowledge of chemical process equipment, a chemical plant foreman with a lifetime of experience but little education, or an applied chemist with knowledge of large scale industrial chemical reactions. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 31
In 1887 George Davis, an Alkali Inspector from the "Midland" region of England molded his knowledge into a series of 12 lectures on chemical engineering, which he presented at the Manchester Technical School. This chemical engineering course was organized around individual chemical operations, later to be called “unit operations”. Davis explored these operations empirically and presented operating practices employed by the British chemical industry. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 32
For all intents and purposes the chemical engineering profession began in 1888 when Professor Lewis Norton of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) initiated the first four year bachelor program in chemical engineering entitled "Course X" (ten). Soon other colleges, such as the University of Pennsylvania and Tulane University followed MIT's lead in 1892 and 1894 respectively. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri 33