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Pengenalan Teknologi Industri Program Studi Teknik Kimia FTI - ITB

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1 Pengenalan Teknologi Industri Program Studi Teknik Kimia FTI - ITB
Chemical Engineering Pengenalan Teknologi Industri Program Studi Teknik Kimia FTI - ITB

2 Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

3 Course Objectives to describe the Chemical Engineering,
to explain the Chemical Engineering body of knowledge, to show the opportunities of new Chemical Engineering directions , to describe the ITB Chemical Engineering curriculum, to introduce the Department of Chemical Engineering, FTI – ITB. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

4 References Solen, K. dan J.N. Harb, Introduction to Chemical Processes: Fundamentals & Design, 3rded., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1998. Peters. M.S., Elementary Chemical Engineering, 2nded., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1984. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

5 What is a Chemical Engineer?
An Engineer who manufactures chemicals A Chemist who works in a factory A glorified Plumber? Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

6 None of the above No universally accepted definition of ChE.
However, aimed towards design of processes that change materials from one form to another more useful (and so more valuable) form, economically, safely and in an environmentally acceptable way. Application of basic sciences (math, chemistry, physics & biology) and engineering principles to the design, development, operation & maintenance of processes to convert raw materials to useful products and improve the human environment. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

7 Chemical Engineering ChE involves specifying equipment, operating conditions, instrumentation and process control for all these changes. Air, Gas, Crude Oil, Coal, Mineral, Biomass, Energy Chemistry, Physics, Mathematic, Biology, Economics Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

8 Chemical Engineering Ilmu tentang proses kimia berskala niaga/komersial dan sarana pelaksanaannya.

9 Chemical Engineering Proses Kimia Berskala Niaga
Pengolahan yang memanfaatkan reaksi kimia dan peristiwa kimia-fisik untuk mengubah keadaan, kandungan energi dan/atau komposisi bahan sehingga menghasilkan produk yang, karena nilai gunanya, dapat dijual secara menguntungkan.

10 What are the fields of ChE?
The fields of ChE are: petrochemicals, petroleum and natural gas processing extraction and processing of natural resources plastics and polymers pulp and paper instrumentation and process control energy conversion and utilization environmental control Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

11 What are the fields of ChE?
biotechnology biomedical and Biochemical food processing composite materials, corrosion and protective coatings manufacture of microelectronic components pharmaceuticals nanotechnology Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

12 What do Chemical Engineers do?
Chemical Engineers: it is not what we do, but how we think about the world, that makes us different. Problem Best solution(s) Quantitative Engineering Analysis understanding of math, chemistry, physics, biology, and economic design/synthesize products, services, and processes Chemical Engineering Body of Knowledge Fundamental Engineering Process Engineering, Product Engineering, Energy and Process System, Caption Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

13 What do Chemical Engineers do?
design, development and operation of process plants management of technical operations and sales research and development of novel products and processes Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

14 Where do Chemical Engineers work?
The majority of Chemical Engineers work in businesses known collectively as the Chemical Process Industries (CPI) Chemicals, Oil and Gas (upstream and downstream) Energy conversion and utilization Pulp and Paper, Rubber and Plastics, Food and Beverage, Textile, Electronics/IT Metals, mineral processing Electronics and microelectronics Agricultural Chemicals Industries Cosmetics/ Pharmaceutical Biotechnology/Biomedical Environmental, technical, and business consulting Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

15 Where do Chemical Engineers work?
Many Chemical Engineers also work in supplier, consulting and governmental agencies related to the CPI by engaging in equipment manufacture, plant design, consulting, analytical services and standards development. governmental agencies concerned with environmental protection Chemical engineers have been referred to as “universal engineers.” Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

16 Where do Chemical Engineers work
Where do Chemical Engineers work? Initial placement of 2001/1999 graduates (USA) 3.9 5.8 2.4 1.8 5.6 2.1 9.3 3.1 10.6 15.9 15.7 23.3 4.8 Other Industries 6.4 Business Services 2.6 Engineering Services (Environmental Engineering) Engineering Services (Research & Testing) Engineering Services (Design & Construction) Pulp & paper 6.9 Biotech & Related Industries 3.3 Materials 11.4 Food/Consumer Products 15.6 Electronics 12.6 Fuels 26.7 Chemical Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

17 A History of Chemical Engineering
Pengenalan Teknologi Industri Program Studi Teknik Kimia FTI - ITB

18 Early Industrial Chemistry
As the Industrial Revolution (18th Century to the present) steamed along certain basic chemicals quickly became necessary to sustain growth. Sulphuric acid was first among these "industrial chemicals". It was said that a nation's industrial might could be gauged solely by the vigour of its sulphuric acid industry With this in mind, it comes as no surprise that English industrialists spent a lot of time, money, and effort in attempts to improve their processes for making sulphuric acid. A slight savings in production led to large profits because of the vast quantities of sulphuric acid consumed by industry. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

19 Penggunaan Asam Sulfat
Bahan baku untuk pembuatan asam-asam yang lain Bahan baku industri pupuk (NH4)2SO4 Bahan koagulan untuk industri kertas dan penjernihan air : Al2(SO4)3 Pelarut mill scale di industri besi – baja Bahan baku industri deterjen (ABS) dll Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

20 Lead Chamber Process 1749 John Roebuck developed the process to make relatively concentrated (30-70%) sulfuric acid in lead lined chambers rather than the more expensive glass vessels. air, water, sulphur dioxide, a nitrate (potassium, sodium, or calcium) and a large lead container. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

21 Additional nitrate (sodium nitrate) was imported from Chile - costly!
The nitrate was the most expensive ingredient because during the final stage of the process, it was lost to the atmosphere (in the form of nitric oxide). Additional nitrate (sodium nitrate) was imported from Chile - costly! In 1859, John Glover helped solve this problem with a mass transfer tower to recover some of this lost nitrate. Acid trickled down against upward flowing burner gases which absorbed some of the previously lost nitric oxide. When the gases were recycled back into the lead chamber the nitric oxide could be re-used. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

22 Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

23 Figure 1-1, Source: "US Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics from Colonial Times to 1970."
Notice how sulphuric acid production closely mirrors historical events affecting the American economy. Sulphuric acid production dropped after the American involvement in World War I ( ) and open world trade resumed. The stock market crash of 1929 further stagnated growth which was restored at the outbreak of World War II (1938). As the U.S. entered the war (1941) economy was rapidly brought up to full production capacity. The post war period ( ) saw the greatest economic growth in America's history, and this was reflected in ever increasing sulphuric acid production. Massive inflation during the late sixties and the energy crisis and economic recession of the early seventies also reveal themselves in the sulphuric acid curve Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

24 The need of alkali compounds
1700’s the demand for soap increased due to washing of clothes, requiring Na2CO3 The Alkali compounds, Soda ash (Na 2CO3) and potash (K2CO3), were used in making glass, soap, and textiles and were therefore in great demand. This alkali was imported to France from Spanish and Irish peasants who burned seaweed and New England settlers who burned bush, both to recover the ash At the end of the 1700's, English trees became scarce and the only native source of soda ash in the British Isles was kelp (seaweed). Alkali imported from America in the form of wood ashes (potash), Spain in the form of barilla (a plant containing 25% alkali), or from soda mined in Egypt, were all very expensive due to high shipping costs. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

25 A factory was built, but the Duke was executed and the factory seized.
King Louis XVI of France offered an award (equivalent to half a million dollars) to anyone who could turn NaCl (common table salt) into Na2CO3 because French access to these raw materials was threatened. Nicolas Leblanc was a poor young man working in a chemistry research lab established by the wealthiest man in France, the Duke of Orleans. It took Le Blanc 5 years to stumble upon the idea of reacting NaCl with sulfuric acid to form sodium sulfate, and then converting to sodium carbonate with limestone. In 1789 he went to collect his prize…unfortunately this was during the time of the French Revolution. A factory was built, but the Duke was executed and the factory seized. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

26 Alkali and the Le Blanc Process
Dependence on imported soda ended with the Le Blanc Process which converted common salt into soda ash using sulfuric acid, limestone and coal as feedstock (raw materials) and produced hydrochloric acid as a by-product. 2 NaCl + H2SO4  Na2SO4 (saltcake, intermediate) + 2 HCl (hydrochloric acid gas, a horrible waste product) Na2SO4 + CaCO3 (limestone) + 4 C(s) (coal)  Na2CO3 (soda ash extracted from black ash) + CaS (dirty calcium sulfide waste) + 4 CO Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

27 Alkali and the Le Blanc Process
In many ways, this process began the modern chemical industry. From its adoption in 1810 it was continually improved over the next 80 years through elaborate engineering efforts mainly directed at recovering or reducing the terrible by- products of the process, namely: hydrochloric acid, nitrogen oxides, sulfur, manganese, and chlorine gas. Indeed because of these polluting chemicals many manufacturing sites were surrounded by a ring of dead and dying grass and trees. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

28 Alkali and the Le Blanc Process
A petition against the Le Blanc Process in 1839 complained that: "the gas from these manufactories is of such a deleterious nature as to blight everything within its influence, and is alike baneful to health and property. The herbage of the fields in their vicinity is scorched, the gardens neither yield fruit nor vegetables; many flourishing trees have lately become rotten naked sticks. Cattle and poultry droop and pine away. It tarnishes the furniture in our houses, and when we are exposed to it, which is of frequent occurrence, we are afflicted with coughs and pains in the head...all of which we attribute to the Alkali works." Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

29 Soda Ash and the Solvay Process
In 1873 a new process - the Solvay Process - replaced Le Blanc's method for producing Alkali. The process was perfected in 1863 by a Belgian chemist, Ernest Solvay. The chemistry was based upon an old discovery by A. J. Fresnel who in 1811 had shown that Sodium Bicarbonate could be precipitated from a salt solution containing ammonium bicarbonate. This chemistry was far simpler than that devised by Le Blanc, however to be used on an industrial scale many engineering obstacles had to be overcome. Sixty years of attempted scale-up had failed until Solvay finally succeeded. Solvay's contribution was therefore one of chemical engineering. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

30 Soda Ash and the Solvay Process
The heart of his design was an 80 foot tall high-efficiency carbonating tower in which ammoniated brine trickled down and carbon dioxide flowed up. Plates and bubble caps created a large surface area (contacting area) over which the two chemicals could react forming sodium bicarbonate. Solvay's engineering resulted in a continuously operating process free of hazardous by-products and with an easily purified final product. By 1880 it was evident that it would rapidly replace the traditional Le Blanc Process. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

31 The dawn of Chemical Engineering
The term "chemical engineer" had been floating around technical circles throughout the 1880's, but there was no formal education for such a person. The "chemical engineer" of these years was either a mechanical engineer who had gained some knowledge of chemical process equipment, a chemical plant foreman with a lifetime of experience but little education, or an applied chemist with knowledge of large scale industrial chemical reactions. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

32 The dawn of Chemical Engineering
In 1887 George Davis, an Alkali Inspector from the "Midland" region of England molded his knowledge into a series of 12 lectures on chemical engineering, which he presented at the Manchester Technical School. This chemical engineering course was organized around individual chemical operations, later to be called “unit operations”. Davis explored these operations empirically and presented operating practices employed by the British chemical industry. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

33 A new profession “Chemical Engineering”
For all intents and purposes the chemical engineering profession began in 1888 when Professor Lewis Norton of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) initiated the first four year bachelor program in chemical engineering entitled "Course X" (ten). Soon other colleges, such as the University of Pennsylvania and Tulane University followed MIT's lead in 1892 and 1894 respectively. Pengenalan Teknologi Industri

34 …so then, Chemical Engineering was emerged! Selesai
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