ANATOMY Topographic Foot Ankle Int. 2000 Oct;21(10):860-3. Fourth toe flexion sign: a new clinical sign for identification of the superficial peroneal nerve. Stephens MM, Kelly PM.Foot Ankle Int.Stephens MMKelly PM
ANATOMY Topographic The course of the superficial peroneal nerve in relation to the ankle position: anatomical study with ankle arthroscopic implications. Peter A. J. de Leeuw, 1 Pau Golanó, 2 Inger N. Sierevelt, 3 and C. Niek van Dijk 3
ANKLE WASHOUT? Cochrane Database Syst Rev.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 May 12;(5):CD007320. Joint lavage for osteoarthritis of the knee. CONCLUSIONS: Joint lavage does not result in a relevant benefit for patients with knee osteoarthritis in terms of pain relief or improvement of function. N Engl J Med.N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 11;347(2):81-8. A controlled trial of arthroscopic surgery for osteoarthritis of the knee. CONCLUSIONS: Sham-controlled - outcomes after arthroscopic lavage or arthroscopic debridement were no better than those after a placebo procedure.
Scranton PE Jr, McDermott JE. Anterior tibiotalar spurs: A comparison of open versus arthroscopic debridement. Foot Ankle. 1992;13:125-129. Shorter recovery time with arthroscopy The bigger the spur, the longer the recovery
Kim SH, Ha KI. Arthroscopic treatment for impingement of the anterolateral soft tissues of the ankle. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2000;82:1019-1021.. Anterolateral impingement of the ankle should be considered in a patient with chronic anterolateral pain after an injury, regardless of the stability of the ankle.
It has been noted that early resection of impinging synovium inhibits the progression of the cascade to chronic synovitis and scar-tissue formation. Meislin RJ, Rose DJ, Parisien JS, et al. Arthroscopic treatment of synovial impingement of the ankle. Am J Sports Med 1993;21:186–9.
Bassett FH, Gates HS, Billys JB, et al. Talar impingement by the anteroinferior tibiofibular ligament. A cause of chronic pain in the ankle after inversion sprain. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1990;72:55–9.
Perpendicular edges provide a circumferential barrier to hold the fibrocartilage plug in place during the healing process. Promote bleeding of the trabecular bone beneath the subchondral bone plate to facilitate fibrocartilage formation.
Ferkel RD, Zanotti RM, Komenda GA, et al. Arthroscopic treatment of chronic osteochondral lesions of the talus: long-term results. Am J Sports Med 2008; 36(90):1750–62.
OSTEOCHONDRAL LESIONS For arthroscopic debridement of OCD lesions associated with any technique of subchondral bone penetration (curettage, drilling, or microfracture) in lesions under 15 mm in diameter, there is no evidence that one technique is superior to another.
OSTEOCHONDRAL LESIONS Parisien JS. Arthroscopic treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus. Am J Sports Med 1986;14:211-217. Compared 10 patients who were non–weight bearing for 6 weeks with 8 patients who were allowed to bear weight as tolerated after an arthroscopic debridement and curettage or drilling. There was no difference in outcomes, with good results in nearly 90% of patients in both groups.
ANKLE ARTHRODESIS Myerson and Quill published the first comparative study between open and arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis. They noted a similar fusion rate (94% v 100%), but significant shorter time to fusion in the arthroscopic group (8.7 weeks) compared with the open group (14.5 weeks). Myerson MS, Quill G. Ankle arthrodesis. A comparison of an arthroscopic and an open method of treatment. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1991:84-95.
ANKLE ARTHRODESIS Gougoulias NE, Agathangelidis FG, Parsons SW. Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis. Foot Ankle Int 2007;28:695-706. Gougoulias compared patients with arthroscopic ankle fusions that had minor deformity before surgery with patients who had varus or valgus deformity of more than 15° (maximum, 45°). There was 1 nonunion in each group, and the mean time to union was similar (13.1 and 11.6 weeks, respectively). Outcomes were similar, with good results in 79% and 80%, respectively. The authors suggested that contrary to the generally accepted opinion that deformity over 15° is a contraindication to arthroscopic ankle fusion, a good correction and fusion rate could be achieved with arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis in those patients.