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FOOT AND ANKLE ARTHROSCOPY Practical Aspects and Indications RJ Stillwell, MS4

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Presentation on theme: "FOOT AND ANKLE ARTHROSCOPY Practical Aspects and Indications RJ Stillwell, MS4"— Presentation transcript:

1 FOOT AND ANKLE ARTHROSCOPY Practical Aspects and Indications RJ Stillwell, MS4

2 ARTHROSCOPY ADVANTAGES Minimal soft tissue dissection Small capsular incisions Decreased postoperative pain Decreased stiffness Early return to function

3 PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF ARTHROSCOPY Arthroscopes 4.0-mm / 2.7-mm 30 deg / 70 deg

4 PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF ARTHROSCOPY Hand Instruments Picks / Osteotomes


6 PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF ARTHROSCOPY Hand Instruments Curettes – cupped / ring

7 PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF ARTHROSCOPY Power Instruments Cutters / Shavers / Burrs / Abraders Thermoablation – RF wands / YAG laser Aspiration when attached to suction

8 PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF ARTHROSCOPY Power Instruments Shavers – side-cutting / open-ended / full-radius Smooth / single incisor / double incisor

9 PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF ARTHROSCOPY Patient positioning Supine / stirrup / distraction Lateral decubitus for STJ Anesthesia Hemostasis Tourniquet / epi





14 ANATOMY Topographic Foot Ankle Int. 2000 Oct;21(10):860-3. Fourth toe flexion sign: a new clinical sign for identification of the superficial peroneal nerve. Stephens MM, Kelly PM.Foot Ankle Int.Stephens MMKelly PM

15 ANATOMY Topographic The course of the superficial peroneal nerve in relation to the ankle position: anatomical study with ankle arthroscopic implications. Peter A. J. de Leeuw, 1 Pau Golanó, 2 Inger N. Sierevelt, 3 and C. Niek van Dijk 3

16 DIAGNOSTIC ARTHROSCOPY? Imaging inconclusive? Diagnostic injections? Conservative treatment exhausted?

17 ANKLE WASHOUT? Cochrane Database Syst Rev.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 May 12;(5):CD007320. Joint lavage for osteoarthritis of the knee. CONCLUSIONS: Joint lavage does not result in a relevant benefit for patients with knee osteoarthritis in terms of pain relief or improvement of function. N Engl J Med.N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 11;347(2):81-8. A controlled trial of arthroscopic surgery for osteoarthritis of the knee. CONCLUSIONS: Sham-controlled - outcomes after arthroscopic lavage or arthroscopic debridement were no better than those after a placebo procedure.

18 Arthroscopy.Arthroscopy. 2009 Dec;25(12):1478-90. Evidence-based indications for ankle arthroscopy. Glazebrook MAGlazebrook MA, Ganapathy V, Bridge MA, Stone JW, Allard JP.Ganapathy VBridge MAStone JWAllard JP

19 Scranton PE Jr, McDermott JE. Anterior tibiotalar spurs: A comparison of open versus arthroscopic debridement. Foot Ankle. 1992;13:125-129. Shorter recovery time with arthroscopy The bigger the spur, the longer the recovery

20 Kim SH, Ha KI. Arthroscopic treatment for impingement of the anterolateral soft tissues of the ankle. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2000;82:1019-1021.. Anterolateral impingement of the ankle should be considered in a patient with chronic anterolateral pain after an injury, regardless of the stability of the ankle.

21 It has been noted that early resection of impinging synovium inhibits the progression of the cascade to chronic synovitis and scar-tissue formation. Meislin RJ, Rose DJ, Parisien JS, et al. Arthroscopic treatment of synovial impingement of the ankle. Am J Sports Med 1993;21:186–9.

22 Bassett FH, Gates HS, Billys JB, et al. Talar impingement by the anteroinferior tibiofibular ligament. A cause of chronic pain in the ankle after inversion sprain. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1990;72:55–9.



25 Perpendicular edges provide a circumferential barrier to hold the fibrocartilage plug in place during the healing process. Promote bleeding of the trabecular bone beneath the subchondral bone plate to facilitate fibrocartilage formation.


27 Ferkel RD, Zanotti RM, Komenda GA, et al. Arthroscopic treatment of chronic osteochondral lesions of the talus: long-term results. Am J Sports Med 2008; 36(90):1750–62.

28 OSTEOCHONDRAL LESIONS For arthroscopic debridement of OCD lesions associated with any technique of subchondral bone penetration (curettage, drilling, or microfracture) in lesions under 15 mm in diameter, there is no evidence that one technique is superior to another.

29 OSTEOCHONDRAL LESIONS Parisien JS. Arthroscopic treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus. Am J Sports Med 1986;14:211-217. Compared 10 patients who were non–weight bearing for 6 weeks with 8 patients who were allowed to bear weight as tolerated after an arthroscopic debridement and curettage or drilling. There was no difference in outcomes, with good results in nearly 90% of patients in both groups.

30 ANKLE ARTHRODESIS Myerson and Quill published the first comparative study between open and arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis. They noted a similar fusion rate (94% v 100%), but significant shorter time to fusion in the arthroscopic group (8.7 weeks) compared with the open group (14.5 weeks). Myerson MS, Quill G. Ankle arthrodesis. A comparison of an arthroscopic and an open method of treatment. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1991:84-95.

31 ANKLE ARTHRODESIS Gougoulias NE, Agathangelidis FG, Parsons SW. Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis. Foot Ankle Int 2007;28:695-706. Gougoulias compared patients with arthroscopic ankle fusions that had minor deformity before surgery with patients who had varus or valgus deformity of more than 15° (maximum, 45°). There was 1 nonunion in each group, and the mean time to union was similar (13.1 and 11.6 weeks, respectively). Outcomes were similar, with good results in 79% and 80%, respectively. The authors suggested that contrary to the generally accepted opinion that deformity over 15° is a contraindication to arthroscopic ankle fusion, a good correction and fusion rate could be achieved with arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis in those patients.



34 Loose bodies Arthrofibrosis Fractures Septic arthritis OA? LESS EVIDENCE

35 SUBTALAR ARTHROSCOPY Sinus Tarsi Syndrome Interosseous ligament / cervical ligament Arthrofibrosis / synovitis Soft tissue impingement Os trigonum Arthrodesis





40 FIRST MTPJ ARTHROSCOPY Osteochondral lesions Synovitis Loose bodies Arthrofibrosis Osteophytes limiting dorsiflexion Sesamoid pathology Excision of gouty tophi



43 TENDOSCOPY Peroneus Longus / Brevis FHL Tibialis Posterior Achilles Tendon





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