Standard RI.9-10.1: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
Cite (v): quote as evidence for an argument or statement. The rapper 50 Cent often cited his tough upbringing as evidence that he’s hard core. Explicit (adj): very clear and complete; leaving no room for doubt about the meaning. Opposite of implicit. ◦The students were given very explicit instructions about which website to visit when they miss class. Implicit (adj): implied though not plainly expressed. What the words suggest or hint at. Opposite of explicit. His negative comments were seen as implicit disapproval of the rules. Inference (n): a conclusion based on observations and reasoning. The young man inferred that his classmate was poor based on the quality of her clothes. He made an inference. CFU: Use one of the words above and write an example sentence. VOCABULARY LOG
CORNELL NOTES Objective: Analyze how advertisers and writers use Aristotle’s three modes of persuasion (ethos, pathos, and logos). (write the objective at the top of your Cornell Notes page) CFU: Define analyze.
Why Is This Important? Learning to analyze persuasive appeals is important because: ◦You will understand how advertisers, writers, and politicians are influencing you. (You won’t get played.) ◦You will be able to use the appeals to persuade others. ◦Your test and essay scores will improve.
Persuasion is Power In other words… CFU: Can you think of a situation where it would help you to be able to persuade someone?
What is “rhetoric”? “Rhetoric is the art of ruling the minds of men.” – Plato
What is “rhetoric”? “The broad masses of a population are more amenable to the appeal of rhetoric than to any other force.” – Adolf Hitler
What is “rhetoric”? “Rhetoric may be defined as the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion.” – Aristotle
Rhetoric is the art of persuasion. The goal of persuasion is to change others’ point of view or to convince others to take action.
The Rhetorical Situation Aristotle taught that a speaker's ability to persuade is based on how well the speaker appeals to his or her audience in three different areas: ◦Logos: an appeal based on the text (logic) ◦Pathos: an appeal based on the reader (emotion) ◦Ethos: an appeal based on the author (reputation)
The Rhetorical Triangle Author ReaderText DRAW THIS
The Rhetorical Triangle Author ReaderText DRAW THIS (Ethos) (Logos) (Pathos)
Logos Logos is an argument based in the text—what the author says. Logos attempts to persuade by using facts, evidence, or logic. Using logos means appealing to the reader’s sense of reason.
CFU Think of advertisements you see on television, the internet, or in magazines: Can you think of one that depends on logos—that uses logic to appeal to viewers?
Ethos Ethos is an argument based on the author’s character. Ethos attempts to persuade by establishing the author as someone trustworthy—an expert or someone with experience. Ethos = “Trust me, I’m an expert.”
CFU Think of advertisements you see on television, the internet, or in magazines: Can you think of one that depends on ethos—that appeals to the viewer based on the author’s reputation or credibility?
Skill Steps: How to Analyze Appeals in a Text or Advertisement 1. Read and look over the piece being analyzed to get a sense of the topic. 2. Describe any images present. 3. Describe any text present. 4.Brainstorm connotations (emotions and associations) of the images and words. ◦What does it make you think of? ◦How does it make you feel? 5. Summarize the message and describe what the author wants his or her audience to do, think, or believe.
Working in partners/groups: evaluate each of the following appeals: are they based on logos, pathos, or logos?
1. "There’s no price that can be placed on peace of mind. Our advanced security systems will protect the well-being of your family so that you can sleep soundly at night.” 2. "The data is perfectly clear: this investment has consistently turned a profit year-over-year, even in spite of market declines in other areas.” 3. "He is a forensics and ballistics expert for the federal government – if anyone’s qualified to determine the murder weapon, it’s him."
Homework Bring in an advertisement from a magazine, a newspaper, or (printed from) the internet.