2Section I: The Great War Begins Many saw the world as a peaceful one..others did notBismark said there would be a world war that he would not live to see.I. Alliances Draw LinesMany of the great powers of Europe signed treaties out of fear of each other.
3A. The Triple Alliance Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy. (Italy bailed…Ottomans replaced them when war broke out)Remnants of treaties signed by Bismark*** This group would be eventually called the Central Powers.The Triple EntenteFrance and Russia were eventually joined by England.entente – non-binding agreement to follow common policies.this entente led to close military and political alliance.
4II. Rivalries and Nationalism Increase Tension European powers closely guarded their status as world leaders.They competed for positions of power in every area.
5A. CompetitionEconomic rivalries helped kill the relationships among nations.England felt threatened by Germany’s new found economic successes.Germany and France nearly went to war over control of African lands.England and Germany began a great arms race as Germany began to build a massive naval fleet to protect it’s growing empire.a. Militarism – glorification of the use of the military.b. Painted war in a romantic color
6B. NationalismExtreme Pride in one’s nation, nationality, or ethnicity.
72. Often led to issues like… a. German and French issues over border province known as Alsace-LorrainePan Slavism – Russian inspired nationalism that inspired all Slavic people to share a common nationality.b. Russia felt it had a duty to protect all Slavic people.4. Austria-Hungary feared that nationalism would encourage rebellion against their rule.5. Ottoman Empire was worried that new Balkan states would want to take land away from their empire to united Slavic people.
8III. The Powder Keg Ignites A. Assassination in SarajevoHeir to the Austrian throne – Archduke Franz Ferdinand scheduled a trip to Bosnia (Sarajevo).Bosnia was a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.Serbian nationalists were very angry about Austrian rule over Serbian people.Serbians viewed Austrians as foreign oppressors.Black Hand – Serbian nationalist group that was very outspoken against Austrian rule.Gavrilo Princip – Member of Black Hand who assassinated Ferdinand and his pregnant wife.
11B. Austria Strikes BackFrancis Joseph and Austro Hungarian leadership very very angry over the events.However, he was reluctant to go to war over fears of Russia siding with Serbia.Germany told Austria they would back them if war started over it…essentially they pushed Austria into attacking.Austria gave Serbia an ultimatum or list of demands that they knew Serbia would not meeta. Must end all anti-Austrian actionb. Punish any Serbian official involved in the murder plotc. Allow Austria to assist in investigation5. Serbia did not meet all the demands and Austria declared war
12IV. Alliances Kick InThis could have been just another conflict among European nations had it not been for alliances created.A. Russia and France Back SerbiaNicholas II telegraphed his cousin, William II of Germany asking him to get Austria to soften their demands.When Germany said it could not, Russia began to mobilize – or get their troops ready for war.Russia declared war on Austria.Germany declared war on Russia and France.France and England declared war on Austria-Hungary and Germany
14B. Germany Invades Belgium Schleiffen Plan – War plan created by General Alfred von Schlieffen.a. Designed to avoid fighting a 2 front war.b. Quick victory in France and then quickly transport all soliders on trains to the eastern front to fight Russia.2. Germany invaded Belgium as a way to get to France Aug 4, 1914.
16V. Reaction to WarBefore the war many European nations had domestic issues causing problems.Once war broke out, these issues were put onto the back burner as nations focused on winning.
17Section 2: A New Kind of War Largest Conflict in history in terms of the number of soldiers fighting.10.8 Million soldiers dead21 million wounded7.8 million missing6.5 million civilians killed
18I. Stalemate on the Western Front Germany’s plans for a quick defeat of France failed.Belgians resisted Germany’s attempts to cut through Belgium and slowed the process.Russian began attacking Austrian sites and the Germans were forced to shift troops to the east before they were ready.1st Battle of the Marne – ended Germany’s hopes for a quick victory as both sides dug trenches and settled in for a long fight.
27III. Battle on other European Fronts A. Russian losses on the Eastern FrontRussia easily pressed into German lands early in the war.least industrialized = least suppliedGermans were able to drive the Russians back as they were dangerously undersupplied. Some soldiers did not even have rifles.
28B. New Combatants in the Balkans and Southern Europe Bulgaria joined the Central Powers to help defeat it’s old rival Serbia.Romania joined the Allies to gain territory, but was easily crushed.Italy turned on Germany and Austria after a secret treaty with Allies. The Allies helped Italy regain land that the Austrians held.
29IV. War Around the World The Ottoman Empire Joins the Central Powers 1. Closed of the Dardanelles Strait which denied allied access to supply the Russians.a. Allies sent a massive force to Turkish city of Gallipoli to try to open the strait and supply Russiab. after 10 months of fighting…theAllies were defeated and forced to withdraw.
302. ArmeniansMany Armenians sided with the Christian Russians..instead of Muslim Ottoman Turks.As punishment Armenians were targeted by the TurksBetween 60k and 1.5 million Armenians died at the hands of the Ottomans.Many Armenians that survived escaped to the U.S. and other areas.
313. Middle EastArab nationalists declared a revolt against Ottoman rule.English sent T.E. Lawrence to help ArabsT.E.Lawrence – British colonel sent to help the Arabs revolution against the Turks. He later became known as Lawrence of Arabia. He actually led raids of Arab soldiers against the Turks.
33B. War and the ColoniesAllies overran German colonies in Africa & Asia.Allies asked people living in their colonies to serve in their armies.England actually told the people of India this would help their chances of freedom…but it was a lie.
34Section 3: Winning the War I. Waging Total WarTotal War – Channeling a nations entire resources into the war effort.
35A. Economies Committed to War Production conscription – military draft. All nations except Britain began immediately requiring military service.Governments raised taxes to pay for the war.food was rationedsetting prices and forbid strikes.
36B. Economic Warfare1. England used it’s navy to blockade the German ports on the North Sea.a. International law allowed naval blockades to stop contraband, but not food etc..b. England used the blockade to stop both contraband AND food.
372. Germany used it’s submarines call U-Boats to retaliate. Germany warned the world that it would use it’s U-boats to sink vessels bringing supplies to the Allies.Even took an ad out in American newspapers.Lusitania – British passenger liner that held contraband cargo in it’s hold was sunk killed, 128 were American.Woodrow Wilson threatened to cut off ties with Germany..and Germany promised to play nice and follow international law…for now!
38C. Propaganda Warfare Controlling public opinion became very important a. You wanted your populations support and for them to want to fight against the enemy.Censured the press…so casualty reports were not known.
392. Propaganda – spreading ideas to promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause. a. Used to motivate troops, urge citizens to donate money, play up the brutality of the German army.
42D. Women Join the War Effort Women took their husbands jobs in factories while they were off fighting the war.Had to handle the duties of the husband at work and still take care of the family.Women served as nursesWomen developed a sense of pride and confidence in their efforts to support the war….this helped them in the quest for voting rights.
44II. Morale CollapsesMorale had fallen across the boardGermany was reduced to sending 15 yr olds off to fight.
45???Trivia Question??? Why do they call it the Infantry?? Years ago..Armies sent the youngest soldiers..often teens…to the front lines…hence the name INFANT-RY
46A. War FatigueThere was no great glorious war, no poets writing romantic tales of honor and glory.This was an ugly war the likes that no nation had ever seen before.Some troops in France and Italy mutinied or simply left their posts.
47B. Revolution in Russia 3 years of war hit Russia hard. undersupplied, under equipped, unqualified leadership, poor results, and poverty at homeBread riots in St. Petersburg led to a full blown revolution we will talk about later.Allies thought the revolution would bring democratic changes to Russia.
485. Lenin brought Communism and a promise to end the war for Russians. Treaty of Brest Litovsk – Treaty between Germany and Russia to end their fight\With Russia out of the conflict, Germany could now focus on the war with France/England.
49III. U.S. Declares War - 1917 A. Why Join the Allies? Cultural ties to our “friends” England and France.German attacks on American shipping.Zimmerman Note – German ambassador Arthur Zimmerman sent a telegraph to Mexican President suggesting an alliance between the two nations to defeat the U.S.
50B. Declaring WarWilson asked for a declaration of war to preserve peace and make the world safe for democracy.nearly 2 million U.S. soldiers joined the weary Allied troops…..AND $$$$$ to fund the war.
51C. The 14 PointsPoints – Woodrow Wilson’s plan for a peaceful end to WWI.a. freedom of seas, freedom of seas, reduction of arms, end to secret treaties, and self determination – The right to choose your own government.
52IV. Victory at LastGermany was desperate to achieve victory before the Americans arrived, but in their strong push to win..they exhausted their soldiers and supplies.Once the Americans arrived, the Germans were repeatedly pushed backGerman Generals advised the Kaiser to step down..which he did..leaving for the Netherlands to hide in exhile.Austrian Empire also collapsed from within as did the Ottoman and Bulgarian Empires.The new German government asked for an armistice – end to the fighting, on at 11AM.
53Section 4: Making Peace I. The Costs of War Millions dead on both sidesInfluenza pandemic – The spread of disease across a large area. The flu spread throughout the world killing an estimated 20 million worldwide.
54A. The Financial TollHomes, factories, farms, livestock, crops, roads, churches etc.. destroyed.People returned to their homes to find everything had to be rebuilt.Citizens in allied nations began to demand Reparations – payments for war damages.Germany was being held as the scapegoat for all the problems that war brought to Europe.a. The German position was that this was a cease fire…not a surrender and that they did not have to pay any reparations for that reason.
55B. Political TurmoilMany radicals – people who wanted to make extreme changes in government. Wanted to make a new social order of all the chaos that happened.people were panicked by the rapid spread of communism.European nations colonies broke away confident that the European nations were too distracted from the war to care.
56II. The Paris Peace Talks A. Conflicting GoalsU.S. President Woodrow Wilson - wanted to create a treaty that would assure the world peace and prevent future world wars from occurring.David Lloyd George (England) – Wanted to build an England “fit for heroes”.Georges Clemenceau (France) – Wanted to weaken Germany so that it would never be capable of rising again to threaten France.
57B. Problems with PeaceItalians wanted Austrian lands they claim they were promised.many other nationalities wanted control of other lands…so many lands and ethnicities making demands that it was impossible to keep track of it all.Wilson stood firm on the issue of collective security – A system in which a group of nations act as one to preserve the peace of all. He insisted that the League of Nations be part of the treaty.
58III. The Treaty of Versailles Allies FORCED the new German government reps to sign the new treaty.Germans were HORRIFIED!!!They had to assume full blame for the war.$30 billion in reparations ($2.7 trillion today)Treaty crippled Germany’s ability to rebuild itself or even pay the reparations.Stripped their colonies.Germans signed because the really had no other choice.
59IV. Outcomes of the Peace Settlements Self Determination in Eastern Europe1. New nations formed out of lands that were once part of the losing empiresa. Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Czechoslovakia, Yugolslavia, Austria, Hungary
61B. The Mandate System1. A fancy way for the Allied nations to seize control of lands once valuable parts of the Ottoman and Austrian Empires.Mandates – territories administered by the Allied nations.The idea was that the Allied nations would manage the lands until they were stable enough to govern themselves…in reality…they served as colonial possessions.
63C. The League of Nations offers Hope 1. League of Nations – International peace keeping organization whose goal was to prevent future conflicts from occurring.40 nations – U.S. was not a memberLoss of U.S. weakened the position and strength of the League.The League was also weakened by not officially having any power to physically step in to prevent actions by nations.
65Section 5: Revolution and Civil War in Russia I. The March Revolution Ends TsarismMarch 1913 – Romanov family had ruled Russia for 300 yrs.Russia was not industrialized, and most live in poverty.
66A. Unrest DeepensAfter Revolution of 1905 Nicholas proved he could not solve the social issues of the day.Duma failed, corrupt courts, horrid working conditions were all issues.proletariat – Growing class of factory and railroad workers who aspired to revolt against the Tsar when the time was right.
67B. Impact of WWIRussians were united and proud of their strength at the beginning of the war.Horrible losses changed that when factories could not produce enough supplies, and there were shortages of everything you needed to fight a war.Russian pride and honor was not enough to win this conflict.Nicholas went to the front to lead, but left his wife to lead the nationShe was “under the spell” of a mystic holy man named Rasputin who served as a medical and spiritual advisor.It was commonly known that Rasputin was making many of the czarinas decisions for her.People were beginning to believe that the Romanov’s were incapable of leading their nation.
69C. The Tsar Steps DownFacing revolts in the street that the Army was unwilling to stop, and horrible losses on the battlefields, shortages of food and supplies, theTsar was convinced to abdicate the thrown.Duma politicians set up a provisional (temporary) government to lead Russia through the war.Secretly, revolutionary socialists were planning a takeover of the government…eventually this group was led by radical socialist, V.I. Lenin.The revolutions of March and November 1917 became the Bolshevik Revolution.
71II. Lenin and the Bolsheviks A. A Brilliant RevolutionaryStudied the teachings of a German philosopher named Karl Marx, who wrote the book “The Communist Manifesto”.Spread Marxist ideas among the working class people.Was eventually arrested and sent to Siberia. Fled to Switzerland to hide out until the time for revolution was near.
72B. Lenin’s View of MarxLenin had to adapt Marx’s ideas to fit the Russian society.Created an elite group to lead the revolution – Bolsheviks.Lenin felt that only violent revolution could bring about the changes to save Russia.It was the Germans who saw Lenin’s revolution as a way to weaken Russian resolve. They helped/allowed Lenin to cross through Germany to get back into Russia to begin his revolution of the proletariat.
73III. The November revolution Brings the Bolsheviks to Power A. The Provisional Government Makes MistakesLenin and Leon Trotsky traveled the country recruiting followers to his version of SocialismThe provisional government led by Alexander Kerensky continued the war effort and ignored the social injustices facing the citizens.Troops were deserting, workers demanded an end to shortages, and peasants were seizing control of land.
74B. The Bolshevik Takeover November 1917 – Groups of armed factory workers called Red Guard joined mutinous sailors, and overthrew the provisional government without firing a single shot.Bolseviks began seizing control of other cities, ended private ownership of land, workers were give control of factories…a new flag with a hammer and sickle was used…workers and peasants thought they were going to FINALLY control their own lives…..NOT!
75IV. Russia Plunges into Civil War Lenin brokered the Treaty of Brest Litovsk with Germany, withdrawing Russia from WWI.A. Opposing ForcesReds – CommunistsWhites – Tsarist imperial officersMensheviks – Socialists who believed in a different tactic of revolutionary change.
76any other groups that opposed the Reds U.S. and other western lands sent forces to try to help defeat the RedsIt got UGLY as there were numerous murders of high ranking officials.Communists murdered Nicholas Romanov and his wife and children and then buried their bodies in unmarked graves to prevent them from being used as a rallying symbol by the “Whites”.
77B. War Under CommunismThe Communists used terror to control loyal communists as well as criticsChecka – Secret police who executed citizens for even being suspected of organizing against the government.forced labor camps to punish those who spoke out.Commissars – Communist party officials assigned to the army to teach party philosophy and ensure party loyalty.
78V. Building the Communist Soviet Union A. New Government, Same ProblemsU.S.S.R – Union of Soviet Socialist Republicscreated a constitution that granted voting rights, and shared all power and prestige among all people.In reality..the government ruled supreme and punished anyone who did not follow it’s rules.
79B. Lenin’s New Economic Policy 1. NEP – New Economic PolicyState control of banks, large industry and foreign trade.Small privately owned businesses allowed to open.Peasants held onto small plots of land and were allowed to sell their surplus crops for profit.Helped rebuild the soviet economy and end armed rebellion.
80C. Stalin Takes Over1. When Lenin died there was a huge struggle to determine who would take overLeon Trotsky – A loyal supporter of Lenin who worked with Lenin side by side during the revolution.Joseph Stalin – A ruthless power merchant who would kill anyone in his path.
82Trotsky and Stalin engaged in a fierce fight to gain control. Stalin worked behind the scenes to create powerful alliances within the Communist party to isolate TrotksyTrotsky sensing trouble, fled the country, but continued to bash Stalin.Trotsky was eventually assassinated by Stalin’s agents in Mexico.