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By: Anna, Theresa, Steph, Geoff, and Jeff. Italy: the Threat to Media Pluralism  Duopoly: RAI and Mediaset  85 - 90% audience share  Media consolidation.

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Presentation on theme: "By: Anna, Theresa, Steph, Geoff, and Jeff. Italy: the Threat to Media Pluralism  Duopoly: RAI and Mediaset  85 - 90% audience share  Media consolidation."— Presentation transcript:

1 By: Anna, Theresa, Steph, Geoff, and Jeff

2 Italy: the Threat to Media Pluralism  Duopoly: RAI and Mediaset  % audience share  Media consolidation of both television networks under Berlusconi  Gasparri Law adopted in 2004

3 Conclusions & Recommendations  Not adequate in protecting media pluralism and ensuring fair competition – liberal model  Recommendations: include audience share and revenue limits in regulations; establish authorities with the power to act against media concentration; measures that actively promote plurality

4 French Cultural Diplomacy 3 main objectives for French cultural policy externally:  Bring other cultures to France  Promote cultural understanding and cooperation  And, the biggest one, which is promote French culture around the world 2 main players have to work together :  Ministry of Foreign Affairs  Ministry of Culture and Communication Laws analyzed in report:  -Foundations: Constitution of 1954, Article 87 & 88:  -Recent Changes: Act on The External Action of the State of July 2010: Decree # 

5 Implications: Articles 87 & 88 of the Constitution:  France has a historical tradition and structure for cultural diplomacy & cultural aid: makes it a model Decree : 1. gives cultural diplomacy a higher profile 2. a broader mission 3. different status: from ‘Not for Profit’ to ‘Public agency permitted to engage in commercial activities

6 Conclusions Analysis:  Roots of the Aesthetic model here  Also the Modern/Industrial model: Alternative to cultural  An embrace of “soft power”  Reaction to a more globalized world  One independent organization potential to be better organized and more effective Recommendations:  Is this French institutional model, post Act on Exterior Action, one to follow?  Build monitoring and evaluation into the institutional structure of Institut Francais, especially for the development of new missions  Recommend further research on the change of the organization’s status (public/industriel from association)  Wait and see

7 Germany’s Strafgezetzbuch  “Whoever publically… approves of an act committed under… National Socialism… shall be punished by imprisonment up to five years or a monetary fine.” {ART CXXX}  Basic Law, Grundgezetz  “Leidkultur” vs “Leitkultur”

8 Application and Recommendation  Court cases from the Bundesgerichtshof  Effects on International Politics  Germany and Israel  Speech and discussion about the past  Effects on moderns issues?

9 What is Germany?  Germany as a nation has had problems identifying their "leading culture" since it's inception.  This constant questioning has led to the concept of "The German Question" which essentially asks "What is Germany?”  Now that Germany has recently identified itself as an Immigrant Country, this question has yet again become relevant.

10 The Immigrant Act of 2005  In 2005, The Federal Republic of Germany released the Immigrant Act of  Integration courses and tests contained racially charged questions that went against the Grundgesetz.  The Immigrant Act of 2005 only created more barriers and in that that German Government is clearly sticking to a National Conception of Cultural Policy.

11 National Integration Plan  In 2007 the German Government released the National Integration Plan.  To achieve cooperation, the Turks need to feel comfortable participating in their own public space.  Ultimately this participation should lead to more political representation, which will hopefully give way to political equality so that these breaches of German Basic Law will come to a halt.

12 Media Policy: the EU  The guiding documents of the EU specifically encourage and support the creation and dissemination of cultural works, including the Audiovisual sector.  The 2010 Audiovisual Media Services directive (AVMSD 2010) lays out that each member state bears primary responsibility for their own cultural policies.  The MEDIA program (1991-ongoing) is intended to supplement the AV aid and development programs in each member state.

13 Problems  MEDIA is criticized as being too commercially-focused at times.  Small filmmakers and artists have concerns that only larger, more mainstream projects will be funded.  The rules of collaborative/cross-national productions make single-nationality productions more attractive at times, making a "Pan-European" cultural program difficult to attain.

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