Presentation on theme: "Group Members: ANG RUEY ZHOU PUVANINTHIRAN A/L KESAVAN CHUA HOOI KANG FARHAN NAZMI BIN YUSOF MOHD RIDZWAN BIN MOHD YUSAK DING TAI CHEAN."— Presentation transcript:
Group Members: ANG RUEY ZHOU PUVANINTHIRAN A/L KESAVAN CHUA HOOI KANG FARHAN NAZMI BIN YUSOF MOHD RIDZWAN BIN MOHD YUSAK DING TAI CHEAN
Abstract This presentation contains the following contents The definition of transformational leadership and transactional leadership. The behaviors of transformational leadership and transaction leadership had also included in this presentation Finally, several research methods that used to study on transformational leadership also had included in the last part of the presentation. The research methods included laboratory experiments, field experiments, survey research, Descriptive and comparative studies, and Intensive Case Studies.
Transformational Leadership Transforming Leadership Appeals to the moral values of followers to raise their consciousness Transactional Leadership Appealing their self- interest and exchanging benefits. May involve values relevant to the exchange process – honesty, fairness & responsibility Vs Burns (1978)
Burns also identified a third form of leadership influence based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition. Bureaucratic organization emphasize this form of influence more than influence based on exchange or inspiration.
Bass (1985), transformational leader motivates followers by: 1)making them more aware of the importance of task outcome 2) inducing them to transcend their own self-interest for the sake of the organization or team 3) activating their higher-order needs Followers feel trust, admiration, loyalty and respect toward the leader, they are motivated to do more than expected. Transactional leadership involves an exchange process that may results in follower compliance with leader requests but is not likely to generate enthusiasm and commitment.
Transformational Behaviors Arouses strong follower emotions and identification with the leaders Idealized influence Increases follower awareness of problems influences followers to view problems from new perspective Intellectual stimulation Providing support, encouragement, and coaching to followers Individualized consideration Inspirational motivation communicating an appealing vision and using symbols to focus subordinate effort
Transactional Behaviors Clarification of the work required to obtain rewards Use of incentives and contingent rewards to influence motivation Contingent reward Use of contingent punishments and corrective action in order to get standard performance Passive management by exception Looking for mistakes and enforcing rules to avoid mistake Active management by exception
New versions of theory also include laissez-faire leadership. - show passive indifference about the task and subordinates (e.g. ignoring problems, ignoring subordinate needs) - absence of effective leadership
Influence Processes Involves Internalization – e.g. Inspirational vision Increase Intrinsic Motivation Involves Personal Identification Transformational Behaviors – e.g. Inspirational Motivation & Individualized Consideration Intellectual Stimulation
Facilitating Conditions Does not specify any condition irrelevant or ineffective. Some aspects of transformational leadership are relevant but NOT goes to universal relevance. Situational variables. More important in dynamic & unstable environment. Traits and values of followers
Primary Types of Research on the Theories
Survey Research Used more often for research on transformational and charismatic leadership. Developed several different questionnaires. Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) - Used for research on transformational leadership. - Measure the leadership effectiveness based on seven factors related to transformational leadership.
Cont… Meta-analysis Statistical technique by combining the findings from independent studies. Lowe, Kroek, Sivasubramaniam (1996) conducted meta-analysis by combining 39 studies using MLQ. To examine the general relationship of transformational and transactional leadership and to measure the leadership effectiveness. Transformational leadership was significantly related to some measures of leadership effectiveness.
Laboratory Experiments Kirkpatrick and Locke (1996) Investigate the separate effects of three leadership behavior Visioning Communicating Clarifying
Field Experiments Barling, Weber and Kelloway (1996) Conducted in a bank. One group trained to use more intellectual stimulation and individualized cosideration. The results : High organizational commitment. Personel loan sales by employees is more better.
Cont… Dvir, Eden, Avolio and Shamir (1999) Use transformational leadership in Israeli Defense Force (IDF). Some of 54 participants were given special training. The results : The platoons performed better than others.
Descriptive and comparative studies Descript for identify as either charismatic or non-charismatic leaders Source of behavior descriptive to researchers: 1)Interview 2)Biographical, article, and case study 3)Critical incidents
Example of descriptive and comparative studies House, Spangler, and Woycke ( 1991) 1.Ask several historians charismatic or non-charismatic each of 31 former presidents and at least 2 years of their firm term. 2.The motive pattern of his first inaugural address. 3.Ways to measure effectiveness of leadership by Rate of president by historian Analysis of biographical information 4.Result show president with a socialized power are more charismatic. 5.Charismatic president use direct action to solve problem.
Example of descriptive and comparative studies Bennis and Nanus (1985) 1.Study leaders of dynamic and innovative leaders. 2.Collect data using interview and observation. 3.Their no large-than-life. Most leaders were ordinary in appearance, personality, and general behavior. 4.Similarity of leader that researcher identify all leader has vision of desirable and possible vision. 5.Commitment their vision by decision and behavior.
Intensive Case Studies Beyer & browing, 1999 Cha & Edmindson, 2006 Roberts, 1985 Roberts & Bradley, 1988 Trice & Beyer, 1986 Weed, 1993
Methods of Collecting Data Robert 1985Robert & Bradley 1988 Analysis of newspaper articles, Analysis of official documents, newspaper articles, and reports made by special interest Participant observation of formal and informal meetings Observed during speech engagements, meetings with her staff, press conferences, formal meetings with members of state department of education. Interviews with the superintendent, other administration, board members, staff, teachers, parents, and students Interviews with state legislators, representatives from the governor’s office, the board of education, school boards and teacher unions Archival searches-
Briefing of the Studies Robert 1985Robert & Bradley 1988 CandidatesAA Position of jobSuperintendent of public school district Commissioner of education for state Charismatic/X Solve Problem(s)/X
Briefing contd. Robert 1985Robert & Bradley 1988 Actions to take on the post / Strategy Developed Mission Statement & Vision Statement Formulated mission statement and vision for change Replaced key position people several assistant commissioners Energetic, created enthusiasm, channeled emotions aroused by the budget crisis, and galvanized people into action. Enthusiasm and support were generated by conducting visits to nearly all of the school districts in the state Staff were trained-
Conclusion Robert 1985Robert & Bradley 1988 Charismatic/X Crisis/X AuthorityMoreLess Size of teamSmallLarge RelationStrongWeak