Presentation on theme: "Group Members: ANG RUEY ZHOU PUVANINTHIRAN A/L KESAVAN CHUA HOOI KANG"— Presentation transcript:
1Group Members: ANG RUEY ZHOU PUVANINTHIRAN A/L KESAVAN CHUA HOOI KANG FARHAN NAZMI BIN YUSOFMOHD RIDZWAN BIN MOHD YUSAKDING TAI CHEAN
2Abstract This presentation contains the following contents The definition of transformational leadership and transactional leadership.The behaviors of transformational leadership and transaction leadership had also included in this presentationFinally, several research methods that used to study on transformational leadership also had included in the last part of the presentation. The research methods included laboratory experiments, field experiments, survey research, Descriptive and comparative studies, and Intensive Case Studies.
3Transformational Leadership VsBurns (1978)Transforming LeadershipAppeals to the moral values of followers to raise their consciousnessTransactional LeadershipAppealing their self-interest and exchanging benefits.May involve values relevant to the exchange process – honesty, fairness & responsibility
4Burns also identified a third form of leadership influence based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition. Bureaucratic organization emphasize this form of influence more than influence based on exchange or inspiration.
5Bass (1985), transformational leader motivates followers by: 1)making them more aware of the importance of task outcome 2) inducing them to transcend their own self-interest for the sake of the organization or team 3) activating their higher-order needs Followers feel trust, admiration, loyalty and respect toward the leader, they are motivated to do more than expected.Transactional leadership involves an exchange process that may results in follower compliance with leader requests but is not likely to generate enthusiasm and commitment.
6Transformational Behaviors Idealized influenceArouses strong follower emotions and identification with the leadersIntellectual stimulationIncreases follower awareness of problemsinfluences followers to view problems from new perspectiveIndividualized considerationProviding support, encouragement, and coaching to followersInspirational motivationcommunicating an appealing vision and using symbols to focus subordinate effort
7Transactional Behaviors Contingent rewardClarification of the work required to obtain rewardsUse of incentives and contingent rewards to influence motivationPassive management by exceptionUse of contingent punishments and corrective action in order to get standard performanceActive management by exceptionLooking for mistakes and enforcing rules to avoid mistake
8New versions of theory also include laissez-faire leadership New versions of theory also include laissez-faire leadership. - show passive indifference about the task and subordinates (e.g. ignoring problems, ignoring subordinate needs) - absence of effective leadership
9Influence ProcessesInvolves Internalization – e.g. Inspirational visionIncrease Intrinsic MotivationInvolves Personal IdentificationTransformational Behaviors – e.g. InspirationalMotivation & Individualized ConsiderationIntellectual Stimulation
10Facilitating Conditions Does not specify any condition irrelevant or ineffective.Some aspects of transformational leadership are relevant but NOT goes to universal relevance.Situational variables.More important in dynamic & unstable environment.Traits and values of followers
12Survey ResearchUsed more often for research on transformational and charismatic leadership.Developed several different questionnaires.Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ)- Used for research on transformational leadership.- Measure the leadership effectiveness based on seven factors related to transformational leadership.
13Cont…Meta-analysisStatistical technique by combining the findings from independent studies.Lowe, Kroek, Sivasubramaniam (1996) conducted meta-analysis by combining 39 studies using MLQ.To examine the general relationship of transformational and transactional leadership and to measure the leadership effectiveness.Transformational leadership was significantly related to some measures of leadership effectiveness.
14Laboratory Experiments Kirkpatrick and Locke (1996)Investigate the separate effects of three leadership behaviorVisioningCommunicatingClarifying
16Field Experiments Barling, Weber and Kelloway (1996) Conducted in a bank.One group trained to use more intellectual stimulation and individualized cosideration.The results :High organizational commitment.Personel loan sales by employees is more better.
17Cont… Dvir, Eden, Avolio and Shamir (1999) Use transformational leadership in Israeli Defense Force (IDF).Some of 54 participants were given special training.The results :The platoons performed better than others.
19Descriptive and comparative studies Descript for identify as either charismatic or non-charismatic leadersSource of behavior descriptive to researchers:InterviewBiographical, article, and case studyCritical incidents
23Example of descriptive and comparative studies House, Spangler, and Woycke ( 1991)Ask several historians charismatic or non-charismatic each of 31 former presidents and at least 2 years of their firm term.The motive pattern of his first inaugural address.Ways to measure effectiveness of leadership byRate of president by historianAnalysis of biographical informationResult show president with a socialized power are more charismatic.Charismatic president use direct action to solve problem.
24Example of descriptive and comparative studies Bennis and Nanus (1985)Study leaders of dynamic and innovative leaders.Collect data using interview and observation.Their no large-than-life. Most leaders were ordinary in appearance, personality, and general behavior.Similarity of leader that researcher identify all leader has vision of desirable and possible vision.Commitment their vision by decision and behavior.
26Methods of Collecting Data Robert 1985Robert & Bradley 1988Analysis of newspaper articles,Analysis of official documents, newspaper articles, and reports made by special interestParticipant observation of formal and informal meetingsObserved during speech engagements, meetings with her staff, press conferences, formal meetings with members of state department of education.Interviews with the superintendent, other administration, board members, staff, teachers, parents, and studentsInterviews with state legislators, representatives from the governor’s office, the board of education, school boards and teacher unionsArchival searches-
28Briefing of the Studies Robert 1985Robert & Bradley1988CandidatesAPosition of jobSuperintendent of public school districtCommissioner of education for stateCharismatic/XSolve Problem(s)
29Briefing contd. Robert 1985 Robert & Bradley 1988 Actions to take on the post / StrategyDeveloped Mission Statement & Vision StatementFormulated mission statement and vision for changeReplaced key position peopleseveral assistant commissionersEnergetic, created enthusiasm, channeled emotions aroused by the budget crisis, and galvanized people into action.Enthusiasm and support were generated by conducting visits to nearly all of the school districts in the stateStaff were trained-