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Presentation on theme: "Group Members: ANG RUEY ZHOU PUVANINTHIRAN A/L KESAVAN CHUA HOOI KANG"— Presentation transcript:


2 Abstract This presentation contains the following contents
The definition of transformational leadership and transactional leadership. The behaviors of transformational leadership and transaction leadership had also included in this presentation Finally, several research methods that used to study on transformational leadership also had included in the last part of the presentation. The research methods included laboratory experiments, field experiments, survey research, Descriptive and comparative studies, and Intensive Case Studies.

3 Transformational Leadership
Vs Burns (1978) Transforming Leadership Appeals to the moral values of followers to raise their consciousness Transactional Leadership Appealing their self-interest and exchanging benefits. May involve values relevant to the exchange process – honesty, fairness & responsibility

4 Burns also identified a third form of leadership influence based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition. Bureaucratic organization emphasize this form of influence more than influence based on exchange or inspiration.

5 Bass (1985), transformational leader motivates followers by: 1)making them more aware of the importance of task outcome 2) inducing them to transcend their own self-interest for the sake of the organization or team 3) activating their higher-order needs Followers feel trust, admiration, loyalty and respect toward the leader, they are motivated to do more than expected. Transactional leadership involves an exchange process that may results in follower compliance with leader requests but is not likely to generate enthusiasm and commitment.

6 Transformational Behaviors
Idealized influence Arouses strong follower emotions and identification with the leaders Intellectual stimulation Increases follower awareness of problems influences followers to view problems from new perspective Individualized consideration Providing support, encouragement, and coaching to followers Inspirational motivation communicating an appealing vision and using symbols to focus subordinate effort

7 Transactional Behaviors
Contingent reward Clarification of the work required to obtain rewards Use of incentives and contingent rewards to influence motivation Passive management by exception Use of contingent punishments and corrective action in order to get standard performance Active management by exception Looking for mistakes and enforcing rules to avoid mistake

8 New versions of theory also include laissez-faire leadership
New versions of theory also include laissez-faire leadership. - show passive indifference about the task and subordinates (e.g. ignoring problems, ignoring subordinate needs) - absence of effective leadership

9 Influence Processes Involves Internalization – e.g. Inspirational vision Increase Intrinsic Motivation Involves Personal Identification Transformational Behaviors – e.g. Inspirational Motivation & Individualized Consideration Intellectual Stimulation

10 Facilitating Conditions
Does not specify any condition irrelevant or ineffective. Some aspects of transformational leadership are relevant but NOT goes to universal relevance. Situational variables. More important in dynamic & unstable environment. Traits and values of followers

11 Primary Types of Research on the Theories

12 Survey Research Used more often for research on transformational and charismatic leadership. Developed several different questionnaires. Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) - Used for research on transformational leadership. - Measure the leadership effectiveness based on seven factors related to transformational leadership.

13 Cont… Meta-analysis Statistical technique by combining the findings from independent studies. Lowe, Kroek, Sivasubramaniam (1996) conducted meta-analysis by combining 39 studies using MLQ. To examine the general relationship of transformational and transactional leadership and to measure the leadership effectiveness. Transformational leadership was significantly related to some measures of leadership effectiveness.

14 Laboratory Experiments
Kirkpatrick and Locke (1996) Investigate the separate effects of three leadership behavior Visioning Communicating Clarifying


16 Field Experiments Barling, Weber and Kelloway (1996)
Conducted in a bank. One group trained to use more intellectual stimulation and individualized cosideration. The results : High organizational commitment. Personel loan sales by employees is more better.

17 Cont… Dvir, Eden, Avolio and Shamir (1999)
Use transformational leadership in Israeli Defense Force (IDF). Some of 54 participants were given special training. The results : The platoons performed better than others.


19 Descriptive and comparative studies
Descript for identify as either charismatic or non-charismatic leaders Source of behavior descriptive to researchers: Interview Biographical, article, and case study Critical incidents

20 Identify characteristic by interview
Bennis & Nanus, 1985 Conger, 1989 Fior, Harris, & House, 1999 Howel & Higgins, 1990 Jacopsen & House, 2001 Kouzes & Posner, 1987 Levinson & Rosenthal, 1984 Peters & Austin, 1985 Shamir, 1995

21 Indentify characteristic by biographics, article, and case study
Bligh, Kohles, & Meindl, 2004 Deluga, 1998 House, Spangler & Woycke, 1991 Mio et al, 2005 Mumford & Van Doorn, 2001 O’connor et al, 1995 Strangle & Mumford, 2002 Van Fleet & Yulk, 1986a Westley & Mintzberg, 1989 Willner, 1984

22 Identify characteristic by critical incidents
Bryman, Stephens, & Campo, 1996 Kirby, King, & Paradise, 1992 Lapidot, Kark, & Shamir, 2007 Yulk & Van Fleet, 1982

23 Example of descriptive and comparative studies
House, Spangler, and Woycke ( 1991) Ask several historians charismatic or non-charismatic each of 31 former presidents and at least 2 years of their firm term. The motive pattern of his first inaugural address. Ways to measure effectiveness of leadership by Rate of president by historian Analysis of biographical information Result show president with a socialized power are more charismatic. Charismatic president use direct action to solve problem.

24 Example of descriptive and comparative studies
Bennis and Nanus (1985) Study leaders of dynamic and innovative leaders. Collect data using interview and observation. Their no large-than-life. Most leaders were ordinary in appearance, personality, and general behavior. Similarity of leader that researcher identify all leader has vision of desirable and possible vision. Commitment their vision by decision and behavior.

25 Intensive Case Studies
Beyer & browing, 1999 Cha & Edmindson, 2006 Roberts, 1985 Roberts & Bradley, 1988 Trice & Beyer, 1986 Weed, 1993

26 Methods of Collecting Data
Robert 1985 Robert & Bradley 1988 Analysis of newspaper articles, Analysis of official documents, newspaper articles, and reports made by special interest Participant observation of formal and informal meetings Observed during speech engagements, meetings with her staff, press conferences, formal meetings with members of state department of education. Interviews with the superintendent, other administration, board members, staff, teachers, parents, and students Interviews with state legislators, representatives from the governor’s office, the board of education, school boards and teacher unions Archival searches -


28 Briefing of the Studies
Robert 1985 Robert & Bradley 1988 Candidates A Position of job Superintendent of public school district Commissioner of education for state Charismatic / X Solve Problem(s)

29 Briefing contd. Robert 1985 Robert & Bradley 1988
Actions to take on the post / Strategy Developed Mission Statement & Vision Statement Formulated mission statement and vision for change Replaced key position people several assistant commissioners Energetic, created enthusiasm, channeled emotions aroused by the budget crisis, and galvanized people into action. Enthusiasm and support were generated by conducting visits to nearly all of the school districts in the state Staff were trained -


31 Conclusion Robert 1985 Robert & Bradley 1988 Charismatic / X Crisis
Authority More Less Size of team Small Large Relation Strong Weak

32 Thank You


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