Presentation on theme: "Nationalist Revolution Sweep the West,"— Presentation transcript:
1 Nationalist Revolution Sweep the West, 1789-1900 Chapter 24
2 Latin America Peoples Win Independence Ch. 24, Section 1
3 Toussaint L’Ouverture CreolesSimon BolivarJose de San MartinMiguel Hidalgo
4 Write the names of each class in the correct box; add the percentages of the population that makes up each group. Write a brief description of each group.Peninsulares- At the top of Spanish American societyCreoles- Who would belong to this class? #43Mestizos- Term used to descibe people of mixed European and Indian ancestryMulattos- Term used to descibe people of mixed European and African ancestryAfricansIndians
5 Toussaint L’Ouverture Led a slave revolt that ended slavery on the island of Hispaniola(too-SAN-L
6 CreolesSpearheaded the independence movement in Latin America
7 Why do you think that Latin-American-born Spaniards, a group that suffered far less oppression than other groups, would be the group to lead the revolution against Spain?
8 Simon Bolivar The Liberator Led his forces against the Spanish army in the Battle of AyacuchoThe last major battle in the Spanish colonies’ war for independence
9 Jose de San MartinMilitary officer who liberated parts of Spanish-speaking South AmericaWon independence for Argentina and ChileGave up command of his army afterwards
10 Miguel Hidalgo Priest Issued Grito de Dolores Called for a peasant rebellion in MexicoLed the independence movement in Mexico
11 Compare and contrast the liberation movements in Mexico and Brazil Compare and contrast the liberation movements in Mexico and Brazil. #’s 23 & 44
13 Schools of political thought NationalismNation-StateBalkansLouis-NapoleonAlexander II
14 Schools of political thought ConservativeWealthy property owners and nobilityArgued for protecting traditional monarchies in EuropeLiberalMiddle-class business leaders and merchantsWanted to give more power to elected parlimentsOnly the educated and landowners could voteRadicalWanted drastic changeThought that government should practice the ideals of the French Revolution
15 NationalismThe belief that people’s greatest loyalty should not be to a king or an empire but to a nation of people who share a common culture and history
16 Nation-StateAn independent geographical unit of people having a common culture and identity.
17 Balkans The region of southeastern Europe Now occupied by Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, the European part of Turkey, and the former republics of Yugoslavia
18 Louis-Napoleon Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte Took the title of Emperor Napoleon III
19 Alexander II Son of Czar Nicholas I Moved Russia towards modernization and social change
30 RomanticismAn early 19th-century movement in art and thought, which focused on emotion and nature rather than reason and society.In the early 1800s, the Enlightenment gradually gave way to another movement, called romanticism. This movement in art and ideas focused on nature and on the thoughts and feelings of individuals. Gone was the idea that reason and order were good things. Romantic thinkers valued feeling, not reason, and nature, not society. Romantic thinkers held idealized views of the past as simpler, better times.
31 Emotion Key element of romanticism They valued the common people. As a result, they enjoyed folk stories, songs, and traditions. They also supported calls for democracy. However, not all romantic artists and thinkers supported all of these ideas. Romantic writers had different themes. During the first half of the 19th century, the Grimm brothers collected German folk tales. They also createda German dictionary and worked on German grammar. These works celebrated being German long before there was a united German nation. Other writers wrote about strong individuals. Some wrote about beauty and nature.Germany produced one of the greatest early Romantic writers. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote The Sorrows of Young Werther. It was a story about a young man who kills himself after he falls in love with a married woman. British Romantic poets William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge honored nature as the source of truth and beauty. A type of horror story called a Gothic novel became popular. Novels such as Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein were tales about good and evil. Romanticism was important in music as well. Composers wrote music to appeal to the hearts and souls of listeners. Ludwig van Beethoven, a German, was the foremost of these composers. Romanticism made music a popular art form.
32 Realism19th-century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should beIn the middle 1800s, the grim realities of industrial life made the dreams of romanticism seem silly. A new movement arose—realism. Artists and writers tried to show life as it really was. They used their art to protest unfair social conditions. Frenchwriter Emile Zola’s books revealed harsh working conditions for the poor. They led to new laws aimed at helping those people. In England, Charles Dickens wrote many novels that showed how poor people suffered in the new industrial economy. A new device, the camera, was developed in this period. Photographers used cameras to capture realistic images on film.
33 Romanticism vs. Realism SimilaritiesDifferencesPg 701
34 ImpressionismA movement in 19th-century painting, in which artists reacted against realism by seeking to convey their impressions of subjects or moments in timeIn the 1860s, Parisian painters reacted against the realistic style. This new art style—impressionism— used light and light-filled colors to produce an impression of a subject or moment in time. Impressionist artists like Claude Monet and Pierre- Auguste Renoir glorified the delights of the life of the rising middle class in their paintings. Composers created music that set a mood by usingdifferent music structures, instruments, or patterns.
35 Impressionist painters GoalTo show a moment in time at a glance
36 NationalismHow did nationalism influence the artistic art movement s we discussed?Pg 701