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Review for Final Exam. Exam Format 25-35 multiple choice questions 25-35 multiple choice questions Three essay questions from a choice of five Three essay.

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Presentation on theme: "Review for Final Exam. Exam Format 25-35 multiple choice questions 25-35 multiple choice questions Three essay questions from a choice of five Three essay."— Presentation transcript:

1 Review for Final Exam

2 Exam Format multiple choice questions multiple choice questions Three essay questions from a choice of five Three essay questions from a choice of five Five essay choices from following list of nine general topics Five essay choices from following list of nine general topics

3 Essay questions 1) Skepticism. What can you know? 2) Applying a system of ethics (i.e. virtue ethics, Kantian ethics and/or utilitarianism) to a concrete moral dilemma, and evaluating the system of ethics. 3) A discussion of a controversial topic where protectionism conflicts with rights, e.g. euthansia, recreational drug use. 4) Personhood: what gets to count as a person. Evaluation of some controversial cases, e.g. apes. 5) Animal rights: a question of the rights and wrongs of an animal rights issue, e.g. vegetarianism, animal experimentation.

4 Essay questions 6) Dualism vs. materialism about the mind. Which do you believe is more plausible and why? 7) The meaning of life. Can life be meaningful? Under what circumstances? Evaluation of some particular circumstances. 8) Free Will. Do we have free will? Comparison of different theories. 9) Time travel. What are the potential logical problems involved? Do they make time travel impossible?

5 Skepticism Plato’s cave Plato’s cave Spectrum of reality Spectrum of reality Shadows,reflections/ordinary objects/Forms, Reality Shadows,reflections/ordinary objects/Forms, Reality Descartes Descartes Radical skepticism Radical skepticism Dream argument Dream argument Evil demon hypothesis Evil demon hypothesis I think therefore I am I think therefore I am Thoughts, ideas and perceptions are real Thoughts, ideas and perceptions are real Maybe the external world is not real Maybe the external world is not real Brain-in-a-vat Brain-in-a-vat The Matrix The Matrix A simulated world A simulated world

6 Morality and Ethics Plato’s Euthyphro argument against “morality comes from God” Plato’s Euthyphro argument against “morality comes from God” Aristotle Aristotle Virtue ethics Virtue ethics Eudomonia Eudomonia The virtues The virtues Kant Kant Rule-based ethics Rule-based ethics The categorical imperative The categorical imperative The principle of universalizability The principle of universalizability Absolute moral duties Absolute moral duties Independent of consequences Independent of consequences Never treat a person as just a means, but always as an end Never treat a person as just a means, but always as an end

7 Morality and Ethics (cont.) Mill Mill Utilititarian ethics Utilititarian ethics Consequentialist Consequentialist Intrinsic good Intrinsic good Instrumental good Instrumental good Happiness and the absence of suffering are the only intrinsic goods Happiness and the absence of suffering are the only intrinsic goods “the greatest good for the greatest number” “the greatest good for the greatest number” Act utilitarianism Act utilitarianism Preference utilitarianism Preference utilitarianism Rule utilitarianism Rule utilitarianism Trolley case Trolley case Transplant case Transplant case

8 Paternalism vs. Individual Rights Paternalism Paternalism Individual rights Individual rights The harm principle The harm principle Free speech Free speech Euthanasia Euthanasia Smoking in public places Smoking in public places

9 Personhood Personhood Personhood “Persons” “Persons” Candidates for personhood Candidates for personhood Moral agents (Kant) Moral agents (Kant) Morally responsible Morally responsible vs. morally considerable Apes as persons Apes as persons Reciprocal rights Reciprocal rights

10 Animal rights Indirect vs. direct duties to animals Indirect vs. direct duties to animals Vegetarianism Vegetarianism vivisection vivisection Peter Singer Peter Singer Ethics evolving to include animals Ethics evolving to include animals Speciesism Speciesism Sentience Sentience Vague line (perhaps between a clam and a shrimp) Vague line (perhaps between a clam and a shrimp) The argument from borderline cases The argument from borderline cases Individuals vs. species vs. biosystems Individuals vs. species vs. biosystems

11 Animal rights (cont.) Tom Regan Tom Regan Animal rights Animal rights Beings of moral standing should not be treated as mere means, but as an end to themselves Beings of moral standing should not be treated as mere means, but as an end to themselves Subjects-of-a-life Subjects-of-a-life Normal mammals of a year or more Normal mammals of a year or more Carl Cohen Carl Cohen Reciprocality of rights Reciprocality of rights

12 Consciousness Physicalism Physicalism Dualism Dualism Substance dualism Substance dualism Property dualism Property dualism Matter vs mind Matter vs mind Chalmers Chalmers Zombies Zombies The conceivability argument The conceivability argument

13 Consciousness (cont.) The interaction problem of dualism The interaction problem of dualism Ockham’s razor Ockham’s razor Idealism Idealism The easy problems vs. the hard problem of consciousness The easy problems vs. the hard problem of consciousness Nagel – what is it like to be a bat Nagel – what is it like to be a bat Qualia Qualia Objective scientific knowledge vs. subjective experience Objective scientific knowledge vs. subjective experience

14 Free Will Free will Free will Determinism Determinism Fate Fate Determinism by God vs. determinism by physical laws Determinism by God vs. determinism by physical laws Incompatiblism Incompatiblism Libertarianism Libertarianism Hard determinism Hard determinism Compatibilism Compatibilism The garden of forking paths The garden of forking paths Indeterminism Indeterminism Agent causation Agent causation Deliberation Deliberation Moral responsibility Moral responsibility

15 The Meaning of Life Subjective vs. objective theories Subjective vs. objective theories Eudomonia (the good life) – Aristotle Eudomonia (the good life) – Aristotle Positive psychology Positive psychology The meaning of life is the search for the meaning of life The meaning of life is the search for the meaning of life Otherworldly religion Otherworldly religion Utilitarianism Utilitarianism Environmentalism Environmentalism Family Family Human progress Human progress The present moment The present moment Zen Zen Nihilism Nihilism Existentialism Existentialism

16 Time Travel Presentism Presentism Eternalism Eternalism Time travel to the future vs. time travel to the past Time travel to the future vs. time travel to the past Grandfather paradox Grandfather paradox Butterfly effect Butterfly effect Causal loops Causal loops Coherent time travel Coherent time travel Novato self-consistency principle Novato self-consistency principle Time travel and free will Time travel and free will Travel through parallel universes Travel through parallel universes Constant creation of new alternative universes Constant creation of new alternative universes


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