Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

From Versailles to Pearl Harbor: The Road to War and the US Response.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "From Versailles to Pearl Harbor: The Road to War and the US Response."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 From Versailles to Pearl Harbor: The Road to War and the US Response

3 The Great American debate over Interventionism or Isolation  1. Interventionism argument- believed the US should support the Allies against Hitler in any way except actually entering the war.

4 The Great American debate over Interventionism or Isolation  2. Isolationism/neut rality argument- believed the US should completely stay out of the war

5 TRADITIONAL U.S. FOREIGN POLICY WAS TO AVOID FOREIGN ENTANGLEMENTS “It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world” PRESIDENT WASHINGTON, 1796

6 Event 1: Germany faces economic collapse  Germany severely punished for WWI in Versailles Treaty  land in Europe and colonies in Africa taken away  War Guilt Clause  No air force or navy allowed  Only allowed 100,000 troops  Had to pay $32 Billion to the countries it fought in WW I

7 Event 1: Germany faces economic collapse  Germans like Adolf Hitler began to blame others for the economic problems- Jews

8 US Response  US leaders favored isolationism again in 1920s-1930’s  US insisted Germany repay war debts to the European nations  Dawes Plan: USA loaned money to Germany to pay back war reparations  Germany went deeper into debt and never repaid

9 COVER PAGE OF GERMAN EDITIONS OF MEIN KAMPF WRITTEN IN 1924 WHILE HITLER WAS IMPRISONED FOR STAGING A REVOLT

10 Event 2: The Rise of Adolph Hitler  MEIN KAMPF: book by Hitler blaming Jews and communists for all of Germany's problems.  plans for world conquest.  Formed the Nazi Party to promote his views  wanted to create a “master race” of Aryans: white western and northern Europeans with blue or green eyes and blonde hair.  Hitler did not have blonde hair or blue eyes.

11 Hitler as a baby and young boy

12 Hitler at the height of his power 1938

13 Hitler

14 EXAMPLES OF NAZI ANTISEMITISM FINAL SOLUTION TO THE JEWISH PROBLEM Hitler believed that US society was weak by nature Hitler believed American military was polluted by too many blacks and Jews Break to video

15 Which German city hosted the 1936 Olympics?  Berlin

16 How many gold medals did African American Jesse Owens win during the 1936 Olympics  4 gold medals

17 US Response to the Rise of Hitler  FDR, like Hitler, elected in the same year (1932)  FDR focused more on solving the America’s economic depression-who cares about Germany!?  Military spending not a priority- USA military 15 th largest in the world in 1935

18 FDR (Franklin Delano Roosevelt)

19 What did FDR use to help Americans face the conditions of Great Depression together?______________  Fireside chats, newsreels, photos

20 What 2 things did Hitler use in Germany to get out his message? 1. Radios/messages played over loud speakers 2. Propaganda Films

21 What was the title of Hitler’s book  Mein Kampf

22 Event 3: The Rise of Fascism in Italy  Benito Mussolini “Il Duce” (The Leader)  Totalitarian dictator of Italy  Led the Fascists -the nation and the Italian race more important than the individual  October Italy invaded Ethiopia

23 Mussolini and Hitler-allies-Hitler admired Mussolini

24 US Response  The Neutrality Acts: , US Congress passed a series of isolationist laws- forbid the sale of arms to militarily aggressive nations, like Italy and Ethiopia

25 Event 4: The Rise of Militarism in Japan  Japan had a desire expand- to acquire raw materials,  Japanese militarists: Emperor is a god  wanted Japan to remove the US and all European colonial powers from the Pacific realm and rule Asia themselves  Militarists: a strong military (army, navy, air force) should be the most important goal for Japan (Nipon)  foreign conquest- a badge of honor for military leaders

26 Event 4: The Rise of Japanese Militarism  1905-took over Manchuria, China and all of Korea  1930s Chinese cities of Shanghai and Beijing attacked and people massacred  Japan invaded china- the “Rape of Nanking” (400,000 murdered; 20,000 women raped)

27 Hirohito was the last Japanese emperor to uphold the idea that Japan’s imperial rulers were gods

28 A Japanese Soldier prepares to behead a man in Nanking, China (left)’ soldier holds a severed head (right)

29 CHINESE BABY BURNED AFTER JAPANESE BOMBERS STRIKE SHANGHAI IN 1937 THE JAPANESE USED BOMBING TO TERRORIZE CHINA’s CIVILIAN POPULATION. THEY WERE NEVER SUCCESSFUL IN CONQUERING THE WHOLE COUNTRY

30 Chinese Rape Victims of the Japanese

31 US Response to the Rise of Japanese Militarism  FDR protested the invasions  sent $25 million to Chiang Kai Shek to fight Japs  A US volunteer flying squadron arrived of “Flying Tigers” and fought the Japs  Cancelled 1911 Peace Treaty w/ Japan  Still no official military intervention- isolationism/neutral

32 Event 5: Hitler annexed The Rhineland, the Sudetenland and Austria to become a part of Germany ( )

33 EUROPEAN LEADERS AT THE MUNICH CONFERENCE THAT GAVE THE SUDETENLAND TO HITLER. A PRIME EXAMPLE OF APPEASEMENT. NO REPRESENTATIVE FROM CZECHOSLOVAKIA WAS INVITED TO ATTEND. NEVILLE CHAMBERLAINEDOUARD DALADIER SPEECH BY HITLER

34 The Nazis then Overran all of Czechoslovakia

35 US Response  FDR: “the US government has no political involvements in Europe”  US continued to stay neutral- stayed out of the negotiations

36

37 Event 6: The Invasion of Poland/Nazi-Soviet Pact  Next, Hitler wanted parts of Poland  Nazi-Soviet Pact of Hitler and Soviet leader Josef Stalin agreed to divide up Poland and not attack each other

38 Hitler and Stalin-Many Wondered How Long the Honeymoon would last-it didn’t

39 US RESPONSE  US tried to get President Moscicki of Poland and Hitler to negotiate, work out a peaceful settlement  US Neutrality continued

40 Event 7: World War 2 Begins  September 1, 1939: Germany and the USSR invaded Poland  Luftwaffe- German airforce  Blitzkrieg- lightening warfare, intensive attack involving land and airforces

41

42 TOOLS OF THE BLITZKRIEG

43 Event 8: World War 2 Begins  Polish armies defeated in less than 3 weeks  Britain and France declared war on Germany

44 HITLER Next CONQUERed DENMARK, NORWAY, NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM, AND LUXEMBOURG- HITLER Next CONQUERed DENMARK, NORWAY, NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM, AND LUXEMBOURG- HITLER SURPRISED THE ALLIES BY HAVING HIS MAIN INVASION THROUGH LUXEMBOURG AND THE ARGONNE FOREST, AFTER FEINTING AN ATTACK THROUGH BELGIUM WHICH DREW THE ALLIED FORCES NORTH.

45 HITLER’S INVASION OF NORTHWESTERN EUROPE ONE TWO THREE

46 FRENCH AND BRITISH TROOPS TRAPPED AT DUNKIRK FRENCH AND BRITISH TROOPS TRAPPED AT DUNKIRK THE ALLIES WERE TRAPPED AND HAD TO EVACUATE THROUGH THE PORT OF DUNKIRK. “Wars are not won by evacuations”-Winston Churchill

47 AFTER THE GERMANS LEFT DUNKIRK, THEY TURNED SOUTH AND DEFEATED THE REMAINING FRENCH ARMIES JUNE 22, 1940, FRANCE SURRENDERED TO GERMANY. GERMANY WAS MASTER OF ALL EUROPEAN CONTINENT, ITS FACTORIES AND RESOURCES, WITH EXCEPTION OF THE USSR. Only England remained Free.

48 GERMAN TROOPS ENTER PARIS

49 FRENCH WEEP AS THE GERMANS MARCH INTO PARIS

50 HITLER VISITS PARIS FOR THE FIRST AND LAST TIME

51 AUGUST 1940: WHICH NATION WILL BE HITLER’S NEXT TARGET FOR CONQUEST?

52 US Response to Start of WW 2 in Europe  US Pledged Support for France and Britain-money and weapons  Put a trade Embargo on Soviet Union  Got rid of the Neutrality Acts  80% of Americans opposed entry to the war, but most said it was important do what we can to defeat Hitler than stay out of the war

53 GREAT BRITAIN GETS A NEW PRIME MINISTER: WINSTON CHURCHILL “We shall never, ever surrender”

54 Event 9: The Battle of Britain  Britain bombarded by the Luftwaffe  Winston Churchill: “I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat”  The Blitz: ( ) 76 straight nights of German bombing raids on British cities  Hitler’s Goal: cripple Britain to its knees by bombing and then invade by land

55 AIR RAID WARDEN WATCHED FOR GERMAN BOMBERS ATOP LONDON BUILDING  Britain still survived  The Blitz failed  Churchill still felt there was a chance to beat Hitler if only America would enter the war

56 LONDON DOCKS BURN AFTER GERMAN RAID

57 LONDONERS SLEEP UNDERGROUND IN SUBWAY STATIONS TO AVOID THE BOMBS

58 CHILDREN IN FRONT OF THEIR DESTROYED HOME. WHERE ARE THEIR PARENTS?

59 US Response * Lend-Lease Act (“The Declaration Interdependence)- literally gave military aid to Britain for free- “garden hose analogy” -$50 billion in aid sent to Britain  Germans attacked American destroyers taking supplies to Britain

60 THE UNITED STATES BECOMES INVOLVED BY SUPPLING WAR MATERIALS FOR THE ALLIES Break for “Over the Edge” video segment

61 The Homefront America in WW 2 AP US History Break for the Homefront video

62 1. What event occurred on December 7, 1941?  Pearl Harbor was attacked by the Japanese

63 Event 9: The Bombing of Pearl Harbor  Japan continued to expand in the Pacific Region, threatening our supplies of raw materials  Rome-Tokyo-Berlin Axis formed in 1940  General Tojo became prime minister of Japan- wanted to expand Japan’s empire even more

64 JAPAN CONQUESTS: JAPAN BEGAN TAKING OVER PARTS OF ASIA AFTER WWII STARTED AND THE USA TRIED TO GET THEM TO STOP.

65 Event 10: The Bombing of Pearl Harbor  FDR ended all trade with Japan, froze Japanese assets in the US  December 7, 1941: Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii- goal was to destroy the US Navy Pacific fleet  2,300 Americans killed, 8 battleships, 188 planes and 10 other ships destroyed

66 PEARL HARBOR: ON DECEMBER 7TH 1941 THE JAPANESE LAUNCHED A SNEAK ATTACK ON US MILITARY FACILITIES IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. THE US WAS CAUGHT UNPREPARED AND MUCH DAMAGE WAS DONE. SOUND IS THE ACTUAL CBS ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE ATTACK.

67 US Response   FDR’s govt was under negotiation with the Japanese before the attack   “ A date that will live in infamy”- Dec 7, 1941

68

69

70 The Sinking of the USS Arizona

71 Pearl Harbor

72 FDR Asks Congress For a Declaration of War

73 US Response  Congress declared war on Japan, Germany and Italy (Dec. 8 th )  The end of Isolationism- The attack on Pearl Harbor aroused and united America as nothing else could have done.

74 2. How many Americans perished at Pearl Harbor?  2,000 perished

75 3. Besides the Japanese, who also declared war on the United States? 1. Germany 2. Italy

76 4. Who won most of the early battles in the Pacific-Japan or the US?  Japan

77 THE WAR IN THE PACIFIC FROM PEARL HARBOR TO MIDWAY JAPANESE 1942 ADVANCES  JAPAN INVADES DUTCH BORNEO, TIMOR, CELEBES, JAN. 11  SINGAPORE FALLS, 36,000 JAPANESE CAPTURE 85,000 ALLIED SOLDIERS, FEB. 15 TH  RANGOON AND BURMA CAPTURED ON MAR. 10 TH  US SURRENDERS THE PHILIPPINES ON MAY 6 TH  JAPANESE PORT MORESBY INVASION FLEET TURNED BACK AT NAVAL BATTLE OF CORAL SEA ON MAY 7TH

78 5. Describe how women helped the war effort by  Women went to work in large numbers in the factories building ships and weapons for the war

79 6. How many women were working during the war?  19 million  The Rosie the Riveter poster “We Can Do It” became the iconic representation of the patriotic American woman working in the factories during WW 2

80 7. How many days during the war did it take to build a ship?  17 days

81 8. What things did Americans have to ration? 1. gas 2. tires 3. Scrap metal 4. Rubber toys

82 9. How were the “Japs” portrayed on American newsreels?  As villains, demonized, they tossed babies on bayonets  American Wartime propaganda  Analyze a wartime propaganda cartoon- “Bugs Nips the Nips” and Popeye

83 . THESE POSTERS WERE PUT UP IN LOS ANGELES, INSTRUCTING PEOPLE OF JAPANESE DESCENT, CITIZENS AND NON-CITIZENS ALIKE, TO REPORT TO THE CIVIL CONTROL STATION TO BE DEPORTED TO THE CAMPS

84 Why Intern Japanese Americans?  the government interned more than 120,000 people of Japanese descent, both citizens and non-citizens.  this was done to prevent sabotage and espionage by the Japanese Americans living on the west coast.  the military investigated reports of traitorous activities by Japanese Americans and none was ever found to be true.  1988-US government paid reparations of $20,000 to all surviving Japanese-Americans still alive

85 JAPANESE AMERICAN GIRL WAITS WITH ALL OF HER FAMILY’S BELONGINGS TO BE EVACUATED TO AN INTERNMENT CAMP

86 JAPANESE INTERNMENT CAMPS THE DOTS REPRESENT THE LOCATION OF THE CAMPS

87 CANAL CAMP, AZ MANZANAR, CA CRYSTAL CREEK, TX GILA, AZ

88 Korematsu v. The United States  Sued the US government over the internment in 1944  Court 6-3 ruled the internment was constitutional  Civil Liberties in time of war can be restricted

89 President Ronald Reagan signs the official reparation order 1988

90 10. Why were Japanese Americans under Executive Order 9066 mandated to be removed from the West Coast?  There was fear that they would give aid to a Japanese invasion force

91 11. How many Japanese Americans were relocated to internment camps?  120,000

92 12. What male singer became a major idol/heartthrob to many American women during the war?  Frank Sinatra

93 13. Why were families back home not given the full truth of the realities of the war from letters?  The government didn’t want people back home to get the impression we were losing; wanted to keep everyone in support of the war

94 14. How many continents did American soldiers fight on?  3 (Three)

95 The Last Days of WW

96 15. What was the date the Allies invaded the German-held French beaches of Normandy (the largest military operation in US military history)?  June 6, 1944

97 16. What was the day called?  D-Day

98 17. What French city was liberated 2 months after the great invasion day  Paris

99 D-DAY INVASION BEACHES

100 D-DAY: THE ALLIED INVASION OF NAZI OCCUPIED WESTERN EUROPE D-Day Statistics  General Dwight D. Eisenhower Allied supreme commander  Nine allied divisions invaded on D-Day, 3 airborne and 6 infantry, 150,000 soldiers  12,000 planes  5,000 ships escorted the invasion force  20,000 troops were landed by air either parachute or gliders (101 st Airborne division) to protect the flanks of the invasion force from German counterattacks Shoulder sleeve insignia are of the American units, division and above, that were involved in the Normandy invasion on June 6, 1944.

101 A HEAVY PRICE WAS PAID FOR BY US SOLDIERS IN THE SUCCESSFUL INVASION OF FRANCE

102 THOUSANDS OF TROOPS ARRIVED IN FRANCE ON TOWED GLIDERS. MANY CRASHED, KILLING THEIR PILOTS AND PASSENGERS.

103 A HEAVY PRICE WAS PAID FOR THE SUCCESSFUL INVASION OF FRANCE

104 MAP OF ALLIED BREAK OUT FROM NORMANDY: OPERATION COBRA

105 ALLIES ADVANCE RAPIDLY ACROSS FRANCE AFTER BREAKING OUT OF NORMANDY IN OPERATION COBRA.

106 US TROOPS MARCH IN A VICTORY PARADE AFTER THE LIBERATION OF PARIS IN LATE AUGUST 1944

107 Hitler's Last Days/ End of WW II in Europe Several attempts were made on Hitler's life during the war, but each plot was foiled The war for Germany appeared to be inevitably lost as the US and its allies surrounded and then invaded Germany after the last German Offensive (The Battle of the Bulge) Hitler’s hand-picked lieutenants, seeing the futility, defied his orders or committed suicide Hitler’s 2 nd in command Heinrich Himmler committed suicide after capture

108 The Battle of the Bulge Unternehmen Wacht am Rhein (in English: "Operation Watch on the Rhine") 19,000 Americans killed in action was the single largest and bloodiest battle that American forces experienced in World War II and in all US Military history (89,000 casualties)

109 Hitler ends his own life Hitler and his beloved dog Blondi * With allied forces surrounding Berlin, Hitler and his longtime mistress Eva Braun turned wife committed suicide in their underground bunker in Berlin on April 30, 1945

110 Eva Braun Hitler (wife of the Fuhrer)

111 The Nazis Surrender Roosevelt (USA), Churchill (Britain), and Stalin (Russia) made arrangements for post- war Europe at the Yalta Conference in February 1945 Roosevelt Churchill Stalin American, British, French and Russian forces eventually surrounded Berlin in late April of 1945 On May 7 th, the Nazis surrendered; VE-Day (Victory in Europe Day)

112 PRESIDENT FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT DIED ON APRIL

113 Harry S. Truman becomes President

114 Finishing off Japan May-August 1945

115 KAMIKAZE ATTACKS Kamikazes were the suicide attacks the Japanese began late in the war when they realized they could not defeat conventional US forces. there were other types of kamikaze vehicles as well. These included small boats, flying human missiles or ohkas, human torpedoes and even the great battleship Yamato.

116 PICTURES OF KAMIKAZES, AND US SHIPS HIT BY SUICIDE PLANES SPRING-SUMMER 1945

117 All combined kamikaze operations combined sunk thirty-four ships, and damaged 288 ships The most damage done by kamikaze’s was at Okinawa where 1465 suicide planes sank 30 ships and damages 130 more BATTLE OF OKINAWA: the horrendous losses the us suffered at Iwo Jima and Okinawa combined with the devastating kamikaze attacks would only be a prelude to the slaughter that would happen when the US invaded Japanese home islands US losses at both battles

118 OKINAWA ALEUTIAN ISLANDS

119 The Surrender and Defeat of Japan Japan –refused to surrender despite nightly firebombing of its cities such as Tokyo and Yokohama The Allies were planning a massive 2- part invasion of Japan code-named Operation Downfall to begin on X-Day, November 1, 1945 and end with Y-Day on March 1, 1946 The invasion would have included troops from the USA, Canada, Britain and Australia

120

121 Why did Truman decide to drop the Atomic Bombs on Japan? 1. To bring the war to a swifter end. 2. The battle for Okinawa had shown that an D-Day type of invasion of the Japanese mainland (planned for November) would result in large numbers of American casualties. The official estimate given to the Secretary of War was 1 million Allied casualties, though some historians dispute whether this would have been the case. 3. Invasion would also have meant the death of tens of millions of Japanese soldiers and civilians, who were being trained as militia. 4. The Japanese were refusing to surrender (to surrender is a dishonor)-break for Pacific scene from Okinawa

122 The Atomic Bombs  Manhattan Project-secret project assisted by the minds of Tesla and Einstein  Potsdam Ultimatum: Truman to Japan-surrender now or face ultimate destruction  Two bombs were used-Little Boy (dropped on Hiroshima) and Fat Man (dropped on Nagasaki)

123 MODEL OF “LITTLE BOY” ATOMIC BOMB CREW OF THE ENOLA GAY THE PLANE THAT DROPPED THE FIRST ATOMIC BOMB ON JAPAN ENOLA GAY, PLANE THAT DROPPED THE BOMB

124 What 2 Japanese cities were the Atom bombs dropped on? 1. Hiroshima (August 6) 2. Nagasaki (August 9) 5 days after the 2 nd bomb was dropped, the Japanese surrendered on August 14, 1945, or V-J day, signing the Japanese Instrument of Surrender on September 2nd

125 18. How many terms did President Roosevelt win  4 (Four)

126 20. Who became the new president?  Harry S. Truman

127 21. What showed Americans that the Japanese would fight to the bitter end?  Japanese suicidal kamikaze attacks

128 22. During the Potsdam Conference of July 1945, what ultimatum did Truman and the Allies give Japan?  Unconditional surrender or face destruction

129 23. Why did President Truman decide to drop the atom bomb on the Japanese?  TO SAVE LIVES AND END THE WAR QUICKLY PRESIDENT TRUMAN GAVE THE ORDER TO USE THE ATOMIC BOMB ON JAPAN

130 24. What 2 Japanese cities were the Atom bombs dropped on?

131 THE FIRST ATOMIC BOMB WAS DROPPED ON THE CITY OF 1.HIROSHIMA AUGUST 6 TH, 1945, 70,000 KILLED AND EVEN MORE WOUNDED

132 A SECOND ATOMIC BOMB WAS DROPPED ON 2. NAGASAKI AND THE JAPANESE SURRENDERED AUGUST 9 TH, 40,000 KILLED

133 25. Why was the date August 15, 1945 a cause of celebration for Americans?  V J DAY, AUGUST 14, 1945 WORLD WAR II ENDS-The Japanese finally surrendered

134 V J DAY, AUGUST 14, 1945 WORLD WAR II ENDS

135 26. How many Americans lost their lives during WW II?  The video says 395,000 or so, but if you include MIAs (Missing in Action) and POWs (Prisoners of War that were never returned) we lost closer to 500,000 Americans to the War

136 WW II DEATHS PER COUNTRY

137 The Results of the War 1. The Holocaust: US and Allied soldiers discovered gruesome sites when liberating Nazi Occupied Europe: the victims where Jews and other of Hitler’s ”enemies”were being systematically massacred by the Nazis 2. The Russian Soviet communists took over all of Eastern Europe- the Cold War followed as a competitive arms race between the United States and The Soviet Union (Russia)

138 The Results of the War 3. Germany was rebuilt and split into East (controlled by the Russians) and West (controlled by Britain, France and the USA) 4. The formation of the United Nations (UN) an international organization made up of all nations to prevent further wars 5. The Jewish people were finally given their own country by the UN- Israel

139 After WW 2 Germany was occupied by 4 countries

140 West and East Germany

141 The Results of the War 6. Japan (who fought the Allies on Germany’s side) along w/ Germany was occupied and rebuilt by the USA. 7. The USA becomes the most powerful nation in the world

142

143 The Results of the War 9. Women gain even more rights by working in the factories building weapons to help the war effort. (Rosie the Riveter) 10. US Isolation/neutrality ended 11. Due to massive war production in the factories, the United States’ recovered completely from the Great Depression.


Download ppt "From Versailles to Pearl Harbor: The Road to War and the US Response."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google