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The United States in WW I From Neutrality to War.

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Presentation on theme: "The United States in WW I From Neutrality to War."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The United States in WW I From Neutrality to War

3 The Causes of the War  Nationalism- each European country believed they were superior to the others; overzealous patriotism  Militarism (Arms Race)- European countries glorified armed strength and war-massive and competitive arms race  Military Alliances- Europeans bound together by a series of military treaties  Imperialism (Rivalry over Colonies)- Europeans competing for colonies in Africa and Asia as a source of raw materials

4 INTRICATE AND SOMETIMES SECRET ALLIANCES IN EUROPE LED TO OBLIGATIONS BUT ALSO DIVIDED LOYALTIES IF ATTACKED AUSTRIA-HUNGARY HAD AN AGREEMENT WITH GERMANY WHO HAD AN AGREEMENT WITH ITALY. OTTOMAN EMPIRE WAS ALLIED WITH GERMANY AGAINST RUSSIA. SERBIA HAD AN AGREEMENT WITH RUSSIA WHO HAD AN AGREEMENT WITH FRANCE WHO HAD AN AGREEMENT WITH GREAT BRITAIN WHO HAD AN AGREEMENT TO PROTECT BELGIUM’S NEUTRALITY

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6 The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austro-Hungary  The archduke and his wife Sofia assassinated by a Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip  Occurred in Sarajevo, Bosnia- resented Austria’s control  June 28, 1914

7 ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND AND FAMILY THE HEIR TO THE AUSTR0-HUNGARIAN THRONE WAS ASSASSINATED WHILE TOURING THROUGH SERBIA BY GAVRILO PRINCIP, A MEMBER OF AN ORGANIZATION CALLED BLACK HAND, WHO WANTED INDEPENDENCE FOR THE REGION FROM AUSTRIA- HUNGARY. THIS ASSASSINATION HELPED LEAD TO THE WAR AS COUNTRIES RUSHED TO AVENGE THE MURDER AND FULFILL THEIR ALLIANCE OBLIGATIONS.

8 The Assassination (Continued)  The Response (Tensions already high) 1. Austria and Germany declared war on Serbia 2. Russia, an ally of Serbia, moved troops to Serbia 3. Germany declared war on Russia and its ally France 4. Britain declared war on Germany

9 THE WAR BEGAN WITH THE ALLIES VERSUS THE CENTRAL POWERS AND SIX NEUTRAL NATIONS CENTRAL POWERS AUSTRIA-HUNGARY GERMANY BULGARIA TURKEY ALLIES FRANCE UNITED KINGDOM (AND ALL OF HER COLONIES) ITALY RUSSIA JAPAN ROMANIA SERBIA GREECE PORTUGAL NEUTRAL NATIONS SPAIN SWITZERLAND NORWAY SWEDEN BELGIUM DENMARK

10 HOW DID MOST AMERICANS FEEL ABOUT JOINING THE WAR IN EUROPE? MOST PEOPLE WANTED TO REMAIN NEUTRAL BECAUSE: NOT  THEY FELT THAT IT WAS NOT OUR FIGHT  EUROPE WAS TOO FAR AWAY  WAR WAS EXPENSIVE  DIVIDED LOYALTIES SINCE WE TRADED WITH BOTH GERMANY AND GREAT BRITAIN (AND FRANCE) AND DID NOT WANT TO SEVER TIES WITH EITHER ONE BY FIGHTING AGAINST THEM  Ethnic Division

11 POPULATION BY ETHNIC GROUP IN MILLIONS TOTAL U.S. POPULATION 1910: 91,972,266 U.S. POPULATION BY ETHNIC GROUP FROM BOTH SIDES OF THE WAR: 32,243,282

12 Fighting the War-The Bloody Stalemate  WW I ( ) also called the Great War  Europeans thought war would be over in a few months  Germany fought a multi-front war: 1. The Western Front- against Britain and France 2. The Eastern Front- against the Russians

13 The Western Front  Eastern France  Front’s position fluctuated little from  Characterized by Trench Warfare  Bloody- massive amount of deaths

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15  System of trenches dug along a 160-mile line in eastern France  Soldiers fought from and lived in the trenches  Bloody, muddy and unsanitary  Consisted of long artillery bombardments followed by infantry charges  Havens of disease, dead bodies, rats, flies and trench foot

16 Trench Warfare

17 MOST OF THE TIME IN THE TRENCHES WAS SPENT WAITING FOR THE FIGHTING TO BEGIN SLEEPING TOOK PLACE IN SHIFTS SO SOMEONE WAS ALWAYS WATCHING THE ENEMY

18 “OVER THE TOP”

19 New Weapons of the 20 th Century Warfare-WW I  The Machine Gun  Modern Cannon  Chemical warfare- mustard and chlorine gas  Flame Thrower  Tanks- could break over the trenches and barbed wire  Airplanes- The Red Baron- famous German pilot- downed many Allied planes  U-boat Warfare- “unterseeboots” (submarines)

20 AIRPLANES ENTERED THE SCENE

21 The Machine Gun

22 TECHNOLOGY IMPROVED CANNONS-BIG BERTHA

23 TANKS WERE FIRST INTRODUCED

24 The Flamethrower

25 SUBMARINES, CALLED “U-BOATS” BY THE GERMANS, WERE USED TO SINK SUPPLY SHIPS

26 German U-boat

27 POISONOUS GAS

28 The Machine Gunners w/ gas masks

29 Even the horses wore gas masks

30 ANIMALS AT WAR

31  Verdun (680,000 killed in 6 Months)  Somne (1 million killed in 6 months)  Argonne Forest (decisive, but costly victory for the allies)

32 VERDUN WAS A MAJOR BATTLEGROUND

33 3 Events that drew America into the Conflict 1. The sinking of the luxury liner Lusitania by a German u-boat 2. German U-boats violate International Law- continued to sink American merchant vessels 3. The Zimmerman Telegram- “the icing on the cake”

34 1. The Sinking of the Lusitania  May 7, sunk in 18 minutes  Torpedoed off the Irish coast  1,200 dead out of 2000, including 128 Americans and 125 children  Contained a secret cargo –4200 cases of guns for the British and French  Outraged America….Germany apologized and pledged not to sink any more civilian vessels- Sussex Pledge of 1916

35 The Sinking of the Lusitania <>

36 ALTHOUGH THIS EVENT ANGERED MANY AMERICANS, THE U.S. DID NOT JOIN THE WAR FOR 2 MORE YEARS

37 GERMANY ANNOUNCED THEY WOULD RESUME THEIR U-BOAT CAMPAIGN AND SINK ALL (INCLUDING AMERICAN) SHIPS IN THE WAR ZONE. MANY GERMANS WERE STARVING FROM THE BRITISH BLOCKADE AND THE GERMAN MILITARY BELIEVED THEY COULD FORCE THE BRITISH TO SURRENDER IN A FEW MONTHS, BEFORE THE U.S. WOULD ENTER, AND WIN THE WAR. WILSON CLUNG TO THE HOPE THAT GERMANY WOULD NOT ACTUALLY ATTACK U.S. SHIPS, HOWEVER IN MARCH FOUR UNARMED MERCHANT SHIPS WERE SUNK, WITH 36 LIVES LOST. 2. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

38 3. The Zimmerman Telegram  The “icing on the cake” (January 1917)  Sent to the German ambassador in Mexico from Arthur von Zimmerman  Called for Mexico to invade the US to keep the US from sending troops to Europe  Promised to Mexico Texas, Arizona and New Mexico  “Intercepted” by the British  On April 6, 1917, President Wilson convinced Congress to declare war on Germany

39 ZIMMERMANN Telegram(1917) On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America. If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement.... You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months. Alfred Zimmermann, German Foreign Minister 1916

40 POLITICAL CARTOON ON THE ZIMMERMAN NOTE

41 US President Woodrow Wilson Asks Congress to declare war on Germany

42 American Opposition to the War  Quakers, Mennonites and Amish (pacifists)  Socialists like Eugene Debs-argued that America was in the war to help out big business  Women’s Peace Party  People who opposed the war were branded as “traitors” and “wrongdoers”  Thousands of anti-war persons were imprisoned under the Espionage Act (1917) and the Sedition Act (1918) for “inciting treason or Insurrection” against the government and US Military

43 America Mobilizes  Selective Service Act: Draft was instituted- 9.5 million men drafted, 5 million men enlisted on their own  Industrial production increased for weapons and other war supplies  Agricultural production increased to help feed troops  Women, African Americans and Mexicans went to work in the factories to help w/ the labor shortage  War Labor Board-Women paid equal to men

44 DRAFTED MEN REPORTED FOR SERVICE IN SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS

45 WAR PROPAGANDA POSTERS

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47 American Soldiers in the War  Soldiers arrived in June1917  2 million by end of the war-Nov  American soldiers called the “Doughboys”  Brave and tough, but not well trained at first  Boosted the morale of the Allied forces in Europe  Helped the allied navy and air forces

48 AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIERS SERVED IN SEGREGATED UNITS HENRY JOHNSON, LEFT, AND NEADHAM ROBERTS, RIGHT RECEIVED THE FRENCH CROIX DE GUERRE, AN AWARD CREATED TO RECOGNIZE BRAVERY IN THE FACE OF AN ENEMY

49 ALTHOUGH AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIERS WERE USED MOSTLY FOR LABOR, THE FRENCH HIRED SOME INFANTRY THAT FOUGHT ALONGSIDE FRENCH WHITE SOLDIERS. THESE EXPERIENCES CONTRIBUTED TO THE SENSE OF EMPOWERMENT EXPRESSED BY THE BLACK COMMUNITY IN THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE IN THE 1920s. BUILDING RAILROADS IN FRANCE CUTTING DOWN TREES

50 American Commander General John “Blackjack” Pershing  American commander of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF)  “When you hit, hit hard and don’t stop hitting”  Intensified troop training  Led the Allies to decisive victories

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52 War Industries Board – Bernard Baruch Food Administration – Herbert Hoover Railroad Administration – William McAdoo National War Labor Board – W. H.Taft & Frank P. Walsh

53 1.INCOME TAX CREATED IN th Amendemnt The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration. 2. BONDS and LIBERTY LOANS: THE GOVERNMENT BORROWS MONEY 3. WAR SAVING STAMPS: COST BETWEEN 25 CENTS AND $5, THE GOVERNMENT PRINTED BOOKLETS AND WHEN THEY WERE FULL THEY COULD BE TURNED IN FOR BONDS HOW DID THE U.S. GOVERNMENT PAY FOR THE WAR?

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56 Propaganda Against Germans  Americans were encouraged by the government to reject anything German  Boycotts on German beer and music; names of foods changed- sauerkraut to “liberty cabbage”; hamburgers to “liberty sausage”  German-Americans discriminated against  Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Acts of restricted the lives and movement of German- Americans

57 Schenck v. US Schenck v. US – in ordinary times the mailing of the leaflets would have been protected by the 1 st Amendment. - BUT, every act of speech must be judged acc. to the circumstances in which it was spoken. -The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic. [Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes] - If an act of speech posed a clear and present danger, then Congress had the power to restrain such speech.

58 EXAMPLES OF ANTI-GERMAN SENTIMENT DURING WWI MANY AMERICAN SCHOOLS STOPPED OFFERING INSTRUCTION IN THE GERMAN LANGUAGE. CALIFORNIA'S STATE EDUCATION BOARD CALLED GERMAN A LANGUAGE OF "AUTOCRACY, BRUTALITY, AND HATRED”. SAUERKRAUT BECAME "LIBERTY CABBAGE" SALOONKEEPERS REMOVED PRETZELS FROM THE BAR ORCHESTRAL WORKS BY BACH, BEETHOVEN, AND BRAHMS VANISHED FROM MUSIC PROGRAMS, INCLUDING THAT OF THE NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC MANY GERMAN AMERICANS WERE BADGERED, BEATEN, AND SOMETIMES KILLED.

59 German Americans being deported

60 WOMEN TOOK THE JOBS LEFT BEHIND BY THE MEN

61 NURSES CONTRIBUTED TO THE WAR EFFORT

62 The End of the War The Russians pulled out of the war due to the Communist revolution in 1917 The Allies, led by the US, repelled one last German offensive and pushed the Germans through the Argonne Forest and out of France back east into Germany by October Austro-Hungarian ethnic groups rebelled Nov. 11 th, Germany signs an armistice- fighting ceases The German/Austro-Hungarian empire crumbles from within Major offensive against Germans in The Argonne led by American Major Charles Whittlesey- commander of the “Lost Battalion”

63 Major Charles Whittlesey-commander of the “Lost Battalion”-held off the Germans in the Argonne Forest for several days until help arrived

64 Sergeant Alvin C. York, 328th Infantry, who with aid of 17 men, captured 132 German prisoners; shows hill on which raid took place [October 8, 1918]. Argonne Forest, near Cornay, France., 02/07/1919 AN AMERICAN HERO

65 ARMISTICE SIGNED: “AT THE 11 TH HOUR, OF THE 11 TH MONTH, ON THE 11 TH DAY” NOVEMBER 11, 1918 WWI ENDS

66 THE UNITED STATES CELEBRATED

67 US Casualties and the Results of the War  10 million soldiers killed, 20 million wounded in battle (worldwide)  10 million civilians killed-many due to worldwide influenza epidemic  112,000 US soldiers killed in action; 290,000 wounded ( in only 1 year of action)  Women gain the right to vote in US and other parts of Europe  Worldwide Influenza Outbreak-600,000 Americans died from the flu

68 INFLUENZA, 1918 SOLDIERS NEAR BOSTON SUDDENLY STARTED DYING THE CAUSE OF DEATH WAS IDENTIFIED AS INFLUENZA, BUT IT WAS UNLIKE ANY STRAIN EVER SEEN AS THE KILLER VIRUS SPREAD ACROSS THE COUNTRY, HOSPITALS OVERFILLED, DEATH CARTS ROAMED THE STREETS AND HELPLESS CITY OFFICIALS DUG MASS GRAVES IT WAS THE WORST EPIDEMIC IN AMERICAN HISTORY, KILLING OVER 600,000, FIVE TIMES THE DEATHS OF AMERICAN SOLDIERS IN THE WAR. IT DISAPPEARED AS MYSTERIOUSLY AS IT HAD BEGUN. PARADES QUICKLY SPREAD THE DISEASE

69 Country Dead Wounded POW/MIA Total Mobilized Austria-Hungary 1,200,000 3,620,000 2,200,000 7,020,000 7,800,000 Belgium 13,716 44,686 34,659 93, ,000 British Empire 908,371 2,090, ,652 3,190,235 8,904,467 Bulgaria 87, ,390 27, ,919 1,200,000 France 1,357,800 4,266, ,000 6,160,800 8,410,000 Germany 2,773,700 4,216,058 1,152,800 7,142,558 11,000,000 Greece 5,000 21,000 1,000 27, ,000 Italy 650, , ,000 2,197,000 5,615,000 Japan , ,000 Montenegro 3,000 10,000 7,000 20,000 50,000 Portugal 7,222 13,751 12,318 33, ,000 Romania 335, ,000 80, , ,000 Russia 2,700,000 4,950,000 2,500,000 9,150,000 12,000,000 Serbia 45, , , , ,343 Turkey 325, , , ,000 2,850,000 US 110, , ,518 4,734,991 TOTALS 10,528,831 21,189,154 7,746,419 37,464,404 65,418,801

70 Results of the War (continued)  The Treaty of Versailles (1919)- designed to punish Germany for the war  President Wilson did not want to punish Germany, but to allow for all countries to determine their own fate- espec. SELF-DETERMINATION (14 points)  Germany had no say in the Treaty-War Guilt Clause (Germany would accept responsibility to the war  Beaten, stripped of her pride, some of her territory and colonial possessions, Germany plunged into economic depression setting the stage for the rise of Nazism and Adolph Hitler

71 Why was the Treaty blocked? Isolationist sentiment in Congress Efforts of Senator Henry Cabot Lodge who tried to revise the treaty Wilson’s idea of a League of Nations (pre-United Nations) heavily rejected by the isolationists Wilson had a stroke in 1919 hampering his efforts to further lobby support

72 PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE “BIG FOUR” GEORGE ORLANDO CLEMENCEAU WILSON WANTED TO MAINTAIN TRADE RELATIONS WITH GERMANY BUT WANTED COLONIES WANTED LAND PROMISED DURING WWI WANTED TO PUNISH GERMANY AND PREVENT FUTURE INVASION WANTED 14 POINTS AND FAIR PEACE FOR ALL

73 TREATY OF VERSAILLES, EUROPE

74 WHAT WERE THE EFFECTS OF WWI IN AMERICA? U.S. BECAME A WORLD SUPERPOWER U.S. ECONOMY GREW DURING THE WAR, ALTHOUGH IT DID GO INTO A RECESSION SHORTLY THEREAFTER BIRTH OF AN ANTI-WAR MOVEMENT BIRTH OF ANTI-AMERICANISM WITHIN THE COUNTRY U.S. CULTURE WAS STARTING TO SPREAD ABROAD BIRTH OF BLACK EMPOWERMENT MOVEMENT WOMEN WORKED OUTSIDE THE HOME IN HUGE NUMBERS BIRTH OF ANTI-COMMUNISM


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