2 Lesson objectiveWrite research topicFormulate research questions
3 Where are we… Observation/ Background survey Broad area of research Literature reviewProblem definitionTopicProblem statementResearch questionsTheoretical frameworkVariables clearly identifiedHypothesis generationResearch designMethodsData collectionAnalysisInterpretationDeductionHypothesis substantiated?RQ answered?
5 Research questions Guides your purpose Each research question give clear idea of your researchQuantitative or qualitative?Experimental? Survey?Should you interview people, or would the data from a survey answer it?With RQs, easier to identify the assumptions underlying the question, and the “theories” behind it
6 Writing research questions BasicallyRe-formulate your topic as a research question - one that ends with “…?”Ask preliminary questions about this titleAsk as manyGenerate several questionsFormulate a direct question - be precise
7 How to derive research questions.. Questions you can askWhat are the characteristics of this thing?What happens?And in what order do things happen?When does it happen? To whom?When does it NOT happen?For whom is it a problem? Why is it a problem for them?How can one tell it is a problem?Keep those you can answer
8 EXAMPLES Topic Preliminary questions Disruptive behaviour among Pre- TESL StudentsWhat are the “ disruptive behaviours”?What happens? When does it happen? To whom?When does it NOT happen?For whom is it a problem? Why is it a problem for them?How can one tell it’s a problem?
9 How to derive research questions.. Shortlist the questionsWhat exactly IS the research problem here?Why is it important?Why does it need to be solved?How could I go about solving it?What exactly would I have to do, to solve it?If I did that, what would my data look like?What would my findings look like?Answer the last three as precise as you can
10 Ask what you would have to do to solve the research problem What or who will form my sample?Why those/that, rather than others?How will I select them?How will I gain access to them?What exactly will I use?Why that/those, rather than other equipment/instruments/analytical methods?
11 EXAMPLE -Research Questions What are the factors that contribute towards the disruptive behaviours of Pre-TESL students?What are the Pre-TESL students’ (with disruptive behaviours) attitudes towards authority?Is there a relationship between disruptive behaviour and previous schooling of Pre-TESL students ?
12 Differences Among Area, Problem, Purpose and Questions GeneralSpecificTopic/ AreaResearchProblemPurposeStatementQuestionPre TESL Studentswith disruptive behaviourPre TESL students display disruptive behaviourTo study why Pre TESL students display disruptive behaviourWhat are the factors that contribute towards the disruptive behaviours of Pre TESL students?
13 Differences Among Area, Problem, Purpose and Questions GeneralTopic AreaScience EducationResearchProblemAnxiety in science classesTo study the anxiety among students who attend Physics classes?PurposeStatementWhat is the anxiety level of students who attend Physics classes at the UiTM Faculty of Education,?Is there a difference between the anxiety level of male and female students attending Physics classes at the UiTM Faculty of Education,?ResearchQuestionSpecific
14 Differences Among Area, Problem, Purpose and Questions GeneralTopic AreaOnline LearningResearchProblemIsolation in the online learning environmentTo study how students perceive social presence in the online learning environmentPurposeStatementWhat is the online learners’ perception of social presence in an online learning community?ResearchQuestionSpecific
15 Questions into hypothesis Strategy to unpack the questionhighlight some of its different aspectsmake it easier to identify an angle from which the research question can be answeredDeriving a statement that can be true or false
16 EXAMPLES Topic Questions Hypotheses Disruptive behaviour in religious high schoolsIs there a relationship between parents’ educational level and disruptive behaviours of religious high school students?There is a relationship between parents’ educational level and the religious high school student’s display of disruptive behaviour
17 More Examples : RQsHow does group discussion facilitate concept formation?Do individual motivational characteristics affect cognitive learning outcomes?What can international students tell about the impact of culture on their experiences in education courses designed and delivered by a Malaysian university?
18 Examples of hypotheses There is a relationship between individual motivational characteristics and cognitive learning outcomes
19 Fitting things together ProblemsRESEARCH INTEREST/AREAIssuesConcernsResearch problemResearch questionsBackground surveyTheoretical framework
20 Next- Literature review Observation/ Background surveyBroad area of researchLiterature reviewProblem definitionProblem statementResearch topicResearch questionsTheoretical frameworkVariables clearly identifiedHypothesis generationResearch designMethodsData collectionAnalysisInterpretationDeductionHypothesis substantiated?RQ answered?
21 Tasks Task 1 Task 2 Write your problem statement Write your research questionsWrite hypothesis if you are studying relationship/differencesTask 2Read the reflectionIdentify one researchable problemWrite two(2) research questions