Lesson objective Write research topic Formulate research questions
Where are we… Observation/ Background survey Broad area of research Literature review Problem definition Topic Problem statement Research questions Theoretical framework Variables clearly identified Hypothesis generation Research design Methods Data collection Analysis Interpretation Deduction Hypothesis substantiated? RQ answered?
Research Topics -Examples Research topics 1 Research topics 2 Research topics 3 http://www.manchesteruniversit ypress.co.uk/
Research questions Guides your purpose Each research question give clear idea of your research Quantitative or qualitative? Experimental? Survey? Should you interview people, or would the data from a survey answer it? With RQs, easier to identify the assumptions underlying the question, and the “theories” behind it
Writing research questions Basically Re-formulate your topic as a research question - one that ends with “…?” Ask preliminary questions about this title Ask as many Generate several questions Formulate a direct question - be precise
How to derive research questions.. Questions you can ask What are the characteristics of this thing? What happens? And in what order do things happen? When does it happen? To whom? When does it NOT happen? For whom is it a problem? Why is it a problem for them? How can one tell it is a problem? Keep those you can answer
EXAMPLES TopicPreliminary questions Disruptive behaviour among Pre- TESL Students What are the “ disruptive behaviours”? What happens? When does it happen? To whom? When does it NOT happen? For whom is it a problem? Why is it a problem for them? How can one tell it’s a problem?
How to derive research questions.. Shortlist the questions What exactly IS the research problem here? Why is it important? Why does it need to be solved? How could I go about solving it? What exactly would I have to do, to solve it? If I did that, what would my data look like? What would my findings look like? Answer the last three as precise as you can
Ask what you would have to do to solve the research problem What or who will form my sample? Why those/that, rather than others? How will I select them? How will I gain access to them? What exactly will I use? Why that/those, rather than other equipment/instruments/analytical methods?
EXAMPLE -Research Questions What are the factors that contribute towards the disruptive behaviours of Pre-TESL students? What are the Pre-TESL students’ (with disruptive behaviours) attitudes towards authority? Is there a relationship between disruptive behaviour and previous schooling of Pre-TESL students ?
Differences Among Area, Problem, Purpose and Questions General Specific Topic/ Area Research Problem Purpose Statement Research Question Pre TESL Students with disruptive behaviour Pre TESL students display disruptive behaviour To study why Pre TESL students display disruptive behaviour What are the factors that contribute towards the disruptive behaviours of Pre TESL students?
Differences Among Area, Problem, Purpose and Questions General Specific Topic Area Research Problem Purpose Statement Research Question Science Education Anxiety in science classes To study the anxiety among students who attend Physics classes? What is the anxiety level of students who attend Physics classes at the UiTM Faculty of Education,? Is there a difference between the anxiety level of male and female students attending Physics classes at the UiTM Faculty of Education,?
Differences Among Area, Problem, Purpose and Questions General Specific Topic Area Research Problem Purpose Statement Research Question Online Learning Isolation in the online learning environment To study how students perceive social presence in the online learning environment What is the online learners’ perception of social presence in an online learning community?
Questions into hypothesis Strategy to unpack the question highlight some of its different aspects make it easier to identify an angle from which the research question can be answered Deriving a statement that can be true or false
EXAMPLES TopicQuestionsHypotheses Disruptive behaviour in religious high schools Is there a relationship between parents’ educational level and disruptive behaviours of religious high school students? There is a relationship between parents’ educational level and the religious high school student’s display of disruptive behaviour
More Examples : RQs How does group discussion facilitate concept formation? Do individual motivational characteristics affect cognitive learning outcomes? What can international students tell about the impact of culture on their experiences in education courses designed and delivered by a Malaysian university?
Examples of hypotheses There is a relationship between individual motivational characteristics and cognitive learning outcomes
Fitting things together Research questions Background survey Research problem Theoretical framework Problems RESEARCH INTEREST/ AREA Issues Concerns
Next- Literature review Observation/ Background survey Broad area of research Literature review Problem definition Problem statement Research topic Research questions Theoretical framework Variables clearly identified Hypothesis generation Research design Methods Data collection Analysis Interpretation Deduction Hypothesis substantiated? RQ answered?
Tasks Task 1 Write your problem statement Write your research questions Write hypothesis if you are studying relationship/differences Task 2 Read the reflection Identify one researchable problem Write two(2) research questions