Presentation on theme: " Obtaining data by asking people questions and recording their answers A standardised set of question is given to each respondent; they give their answers."— Presentation transcript:
Obtaining data by asking people questions and recording their answers A standardised set of question is given to each respondent; they give their answers in writing Gets you lots of data quickly and gives you an insight into people’s views, opinions and attitudes But only if they answer accurately
Unstructured Structured Semi-structured
Unstructured interviews are useful for investigating something that hasn’t been well studied before They have open questions that can only be analysed qualitatively They allow psychologists to discover themes that might not be immediately apparent when starting the investigation
Structured interviews involve all participants being asked the same questions in the same order They have fixed, pre-determined questions This usually generates quantitative data
These ask the same questions of each participant. They are more open, allowing participants to expand on their answer and ‘go off at a tangent’ if a particular question sparks their interest
Questionnaires can be both structured and unstructured but tend to lend themselves to being highly structured We tend to use questionnaire when we want quantitative data & Interview when we want qualitative data You can however, gather both qualitative & quantitative data by both methods
Social desirability bias – people give answers that make them ‘sound good’ rather than what they actually think Honesty – people lie! It’s impossible to control for personal interpretations of the questions
Decide which attitudes, behaviours or traits you want to measure Decide whether you want qualitative or quantitative data Decide which sorts of questions you will ask Pilot and modify the questionnaire Collect data
Qualitative data Rich in detail or description, usually in textual or narrative form Quantitative data Numerical data, measurements of quantity or amount
Qualitative Rich in detail Allows for in-depth analysis BUT Difficult to analyse Difficult to compare people or groups Quantitative Easier to analyse (e.g. statistically) Easier to compare people or groups BUT Undetailed and potentially superficial
Open questions Allow respondents to answer however they want Generate qualitative data Closed questions Restrict respondent to a predetermined set of responses Generate quantitative data
Straightforward response Are you female or male? MF What is your age in years? ____ years Do you smoke? YesNo
Checklist What is the highest academic qualification you hold? GCSEs A – Levels Batchelor Degree Post-graduate Degree
Adjectival/adverbial response Does your anxiety affect your ability to do the following things? Not at all A Bit Very much Go to work Meet friends Go shopping
Numerical (Likert) response scale Psychology is the most interesting A-Level subject12345 Strongly agree Agree Not sure Disagree Strongly Disagree
Ranking scale Rank the following activities according to how much time you spend on them each day (1 = most time, 4 = least time) Talking face to face Talking on the telephone Text messaging Other (e.g. MSN, IRC chat)
Keep it simple & clear Keep it as short as possible Keep it relevant to purpose Collect personal information last Ask for one piece of information at a time Allow for ‘don’t know’ where appropriate Be sensitive
Test Questionnaire with a group of PPs Obtain feedback from them Identify issues with the q’aire Alter the problem q’aire items
Write your answers on your mini whiteboards 1. What is social desirability bias?
2. What is qualitative data?
3. What sort of questions does a structured interview have?
4. What sort of data do you get from unstructured interview?
5. Give an example of a Likert scale You need to write a question and provide a scale
Give an example of a fixed choice (closed)question