2Choosing Strategy Actions that Complement a Firm’s Competitive Approach Decisions regarding the firm’s operating scope and how to best strengthen its market standing must be made:Whether and when to go on the offensive and initiate aggressive strategic moves to improve the firm’s market position.Whether and when to employ defensive strategies to protect the firm’s market position.When to undertake strategic moves based upon whether it is advantageous to be a first mover or a fast follower or a late mover.
3Choosing Strategy Actions that Complement a Firm’s Competitive Approach (cont’d) Decisions regarding the firm’s operating scope and how to best strengthen its market standing must be made:Whether to integrate backward or forward into more stages of the industry value chain.Which value chain activities, if any, should be outsourced.Whether to enter into strategic alliances or partnership arrangements with other enterprises.Whether to bolster the firm’s market position by merging with or acquiring another company in the same industry.
4Launching Strategic Offensives to Improve a Company’s Market Position Aggressive strategic offensives are called for when a firm:Spots opportunities to gain profitable market share at the expense of rivalsHas no choice but to try to whittle away at a strong rival’s competitive advantageCan reap the benefits a competitive edge offers—a leading market share, excellent profit margins, and rapid growthThe best offensives use a firm’s resource strengths to attack its rivals’ weaknesses.
5Blue Ocean Strategy— A Special Kind of Offensive Involves a firm seeking sizable and durable competitive advantage by abandoning its existing markets and, then, inventing a new industry or distinctive market segment in which that firm has exclusive access to new demand.By “reinventing the circus,” Cirque du Soleil annually attracts an audience of millions of people who typically do not attend circus events.
6Using Defensive Strategies to Protect a Company’s Market Position and Competitive Advantage Defensive strategies help fortify a competitive position by:Lowering the risk of being attacked.Weakening the impact of any attack that occurs.Influencing challengers to redirect their competitive efforts toward other rivals.Good defensive strategies help protect competitive advantage but rarely are the basis for creating it.
7Signaling Challengers that Retaliation Is Likely Publicly announce management’s strong commitment to maintain the firm’s present market sharePublicly commit firm to policy of matching rivals’ terms or pricesMaintain war chest of cash reservesMake occasional counterresponse to moves of weaker rivals
8Timing a Company’s Offensive and Defensive Strategic Moves When to make a strategic move is often as crucial as what move to make.First-mover advantages arise when:Pioneering helps build a firm’s image and reputation with buyersEarly commitments (technology, market channels) produce an absolute cost advantage over rivalsFirst-time customers remain strongly loyal in making repeat purchasesMoving first constitutes a preemptive strike, making imitation extra hard or unlikely
9The Potential for Late-Mover Advantages or First-Mover Disadvantages Moving early can be a disadvantage (or fail to produce an advantage) when:Pioneering leadership is more costly than imitationInnovators’ products are primitive, and do not live up to buyer expectationsPotential buyers are skeptical about the benefits of new technology/product of a first moverRapid changes in technology change or buyer needs allow followers to leapfrog pioneers
10Deciding Whether to Be an Early Mover or Late Mover Key Issue:Is the race to market leadership a marathon or a sprint?Seeking first-mover competitive advantage involves addressing several questions:Does market takeoff depend on development of complementary products or services not currently available?Is new infrastructure required before buyer demand can surge?Will buyers need to learn new skills or adopt new behaviors?Are there influential competitors in a position to delay or derail the efforts of a first mover?
11Vertical Integration: Operating Across More Industry Value Chain Segments Involves extending a firm’s competitive and operating scope within the same industryBackward into sources of supplyForward toward end users of final productCan aim at either full or partial integration
12Integrating Backward to Achieve Greater Competitiveness For backward integration to boost profitability a firm must be able to:Achieve the same scale economies as outside suppliersMatch or beat suppliers’ production efficiency with no drop in quality
13When Backward Vertical Integration Becomes a Consideration Potential situations that create opportunities for cost reduction through backward vertical integration:When suppliers have large profit marginsWhere the item being supplied is a major cost componentWhere the requisite technological skills are easily mastered or acquiredWhen powerful suppliers are inclined to raise prices at every opportunity
14Integrating Forward to Enhance Competitiveness Gain better access to end usersImprove market visibilityInclude the purchasing experience as a differentiating feature
15Forward Vertical Integration and Internet Retailing Direct selling and Internet retailing have appeal when there is potential to:Lower distribution costsGain a cost advantage over rivalsProduce higher marginsAllow for lower prices charged to end usersCompeting directly against distribution allies can create channel conflict and signal a weak commitment to dealers.
16Disadvantages of a Vertical Integration Strategy Boosts capital investment in the industryIncreases business risk if industry growth and profits sourMay slow technological advances if the vertically integrated company is saddled with older technologyPoses all types of capacity-matching problemsMay require radically different skills and business capabilities
17Outsourcing Strategies: Narrowing the Scope of Operations Outsourcing an activity is a consideration when:It can be performed better or more cheaply by outside specialists.It is not crucial to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage and will not hollow out capabilities, core competencies, or technical know-how of a firm.It improves organizational flexibility and speeds time to market.It reduces a firm’s risk exposure to changing technology and/or buyer preferences.It allows a firm to concentrate on its core business, leverage its key resources and core competencies, and do even better what it already does best.
18Outsourcing Strategies: Narrowing the Scope of Operations (cont’d) The Big Risk of Outsourcing:Farming out the wrong types of activitiesHollowing out strategically important capabilities ultimately damages a firm’s competitiveness and long- term success in the marketplace
19Strategic Alliances and Partnerships Is a formal collaborative agreement in which two or more firms join forces to achieve mutually beneficial strategic outcomes:A strategically relevant collaborationA joint contribution of resourcesAn assumption of a shared riskAn agreement to shared controlA recognition of mutual dependenceIs attractive in that it allows firms to bundle resources and competencies that are more valuable in a joint effort than when kept separate.
20Reasons for Firms to Enter into Strategic Alliances To expedite development of new technologies or productsTo overcome deficits in technical or manufacturing expertiseTo bring together personnel of each partner to create new skill sets and capabilitiesTo improve supply chain efficiencyTo gain economies of scale in production and/or marketingTo acquire or improve market access through joint marketing agreements
21Reasons for Firms to Continue in Strategic Alliances Alliances are likely to be long-lasting when:They involve collaboration with suppliers or distribution allies.Both parties conclude that continued collaboration is in their mutual interest, perhaps because new opportunities for learning are emerging.Experience indicates that:Alliances stand a reasonable chance of helping a firm reduce its competitive disadvantage but very rarely have alliances proved a strategic option for gaining a durable competitive edge over rivals.
22Failed Strategic Alliances and Cooperative Partnerships Common causes for the failure of 60–70% of alliances each year:Diverging objectives and prioritiesAn inability to work well togetherChanging conditions that make the purpose of the alliance obsoleteThe emergence of more attractive technological pathsMarketplace rivalry between one or more allies
23Merger and Acquisition Strategies An attractive strategic option for achieving operating economies, strengthening competencies, and opening avenues to new market opportunities:MergerThe combining of two or more firms into a single entity, with the newly created firm often taking on a new nameAcquisitionThe combination in which one firm, the acquirer, purchases and absorbs the operations of another, the acquired firm
24Typical Objectives of Mergers and Acquisitions To create a more cost-efficient operation out of the combined firmsTo expand a firm’s geographic coverageTo extend the firm’s business into new product categoriesTo gain quick access to new technologies or other resources and competitive capabilitiesTo lead the convergence of industries whose boundaries are being blurred by changing technologies and new market opportunities