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The Energy Frontier and a Lepton Collider

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Presentation on theme: "The Energy Frontier and a Lepton Collider"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Energy Frontier and a Lepton Collider
Barry Barish Caltech Neutrino Oscillations in Venice 13-April-08

2 Answering the Questions Three Complementary Probes + …
Neutrinos as a Probe Particle physics and astrophysics using a weakly interacting probe High Energy Proton Proton Colliders Opening up a new energy frontier ( ~ 1 TeV scale) High Energy Electron Positron Colliders Precision Physics at the new energy frontier Increasing connections to Astrophysics/Cosmology 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

3 Exploring the Terascale the tools
The LHC It will lead the way and has large reach Quark-quark, quark-gluon and gluon-gluon collisions at TeV Broadband initial state The ILC A second view with high precision Electron-positron collisions with fixed energies, adjustable between 0.1 and 1.0 TeV Well defined initial state Together, these are our tools for the terascale 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

4 Three Generations of e+e- Colliders The Energy Frontier
1 TeV ILC LEP ENERGY Fourth Generation? PETRA SPEAR 1 GeV 1970 2020 YEAR 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

5 Possible TeV Scale Lepton Colliders
ILC < 1 TeV Technically possible ~ 2019 ILC Drive beam - 95 A, 300 ns from 2.4 GeV to 240 MeV QUAD POWER EXTRACTION STRUCTURE BPM ACCELERATING STRUCTURES CLIC < 3 TeV Feasibility? ILC yrs CLIC Main beam – 1 A, 200 ns from 9 GeV to 1.5 TeV Muon Collider Muon Collider < 4 TeV FEASIBILITY?? ILC + 15 yrs? Much R&D Needed Neutrino Factory R&D + bunch merging much more cooling etc 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

6 The International Linear Collider
Why e+e- Collisions ? Elementary particles Well-defined energy, angular momentum Uses full COM energy Produces particles democratically Can mostly fully reconstruct events 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

7 LHC: Low mass Higgs: H  gg MH < 150 GeV/c2
Rare decay channel: BR ~ 10-3 Requires excellent electromagnetic calorimeter performance acceptance, energy and angle resolution, g/jet and g/p0 separation Motivation for LAr/PbWO4 calorimeters for CMS Resolution at 100 GeV: s  1 GeV Background large: S/B  1:20, but can estimate from non signal areas CMS 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

8 ILC: Precision Higgs physics
Model-independent Studies mass absolute branching ratios total width spin top Yukawa coupling self coupling Precision Measurements Garcia-Abia et al 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

9 The International Linear Collider
How do you know you have discovered the Higgs ? Measure the quantum numbers. The Higgs must have spin zero ! The linear collider will measure the spin of any Higgs it can produce by measuring the energy dependence from threshold 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

10 What can we learn from the Higgs?
Precision measurements of Higgs coupling Higgs Coupling strength is proportional to Mass 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

11 e+e- : Studying the Higgs determine the underlying model
SM 2HDM/MSSM Zivkovic et al Yamashita et al 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

12 Top Quark Measurements
Bounds on axial ttbarZ and left handed tbW for LHC and ILC compared to deviations in various models 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

13 The International Linear Collider
Supersymmetry at ILC e+e- production crosssections - Measure quantum numbers - Is it MSSM, NMSSM, …? - How is it broken? ILC can answer these questions! tunable energy polarized beams 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

14 The International Linear Collider
Direct production from extra dimensions ? Linear collider New space-time dimensions can be mapped by studying the emission of gravitons into the extra dimensions, together with a photon or jets emitted into the normal dimensions. 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

15 The International Linear Collider
Why Linear? Circular Machine R Synchrotron Radiation DE ~ (E4 /m4 R) Cost ~ a R + b DE ~ a R + b (E4 /m4 R) Optimization : R ~ E  Cost ~ c E2 R m,E Circular Collider Cost (linear) ~ a L where L ~ E Linear Collider cost ~ 200 GeV Energy 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

16 The International Linear Collider
Parameters for the ILC Ecm adjustable from 200 – 500 GeV Luminosity  ∫Ldt = 500 fb-1 in 4 years Ability to scan between 200 and 500 GeV Energy stability and precision below 0.1% Electron polarization of at least 80% The machine must be upgradeable to 1 TeV 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

17 ILC – Underlying Technology
Room temperature copper structures OR Superconducting RF cavities 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

18 Superconducting RF Technology
Forward looking technology for the next generation of particle accelerators: particle physics; nuclear physics; materials; medicine The ILC R&D is leading the way Superconducting RF technology high gradients; low noise; precision optics 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

19 The International Linear Collider
Designing a Linear Collider Superconducting RF Main Linac 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

20 The International Linear Collider
Luminosity & Beam Size frep * nb tends to be low in a linear collider Achieve luminosity with spot size and bunch charge 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

21 The International Linear Collider
Achieving High Luminosity Low emittance machine optics Contain emittance growth Squeeze the beam as small as possible e- e+ ~ 5 nm Interaction Point (IP) 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

22 The International Linear Collider
ILC Reference Design 11km SC linacs operating at 31.5 MV/m for 500 GeV Centralized injector Circular damping rings for electrons and positrons Undulator-based positron source Single IR with 14 mrad crossing angle Dual tunnel configuration for safety and availability Reference Design – Feb 2007 Documented in Reference Design Report 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

23 The International Linear Collider
RDR Design Parameters Max. Center-of-mass energy 500 GeV Peak Luminosity ~2x1034 1/cm2s Beam Current 9.0 mA Repetition rate 5 Hz Average accelerating gradient 31.5 MV/m Beam pulse length 0.95 ms Total Site Length 31 km Total AC Power Consumption ~230 MW 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

24 The International Linear Collider
RDR Complete Reference Design Report (4 volumes) Executive Summary Physics at the ILC Detectors Accelerator 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

25 US/UK Funding and Future Prospects
UK ILC R&D Program About 40 FTEs.  Leadership roles in Damping Rings and Positron Source, as well as in the Beam Delivery System and Beam Dumps.  All of this program is generic accelerator R&D, some of which will be continued outside the specific ILC project. US Program ILC R&D was basically terminated for FY08, but a reduced level ($42M FY07  ~$35M) program proposed for FY09. Presently a broad based U.S. program. Future?? Generic SCRF also terminated in FY08, but expected to be restored in FY09: broad applications (e.g. Project X at Fermilab; fulure particle accelerators). Primary focus is to build US SCRF capability ($25M proposed for FY09) 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

26 The International Linear Collider
The Context THE SCIENCE !!! Nothing has changed. A linear collider remains the consensus choice as the highest priority long term investment for particle physics The Technology Key technical, design & cost issues must be resolved before a serious project could be proposed Increased Coordination with CERN CLIC R&D Program A program to work together on areas of mutual interest was initiated last fall, before the funding problems. Major areas of cooperative work identified in February Conventional Facilities -- Civil, Cooling, Industry, etc Non main linac technology – Particle sources, beam delivery Detectors and simulations 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

27 Technical Design Phase 1 -- 2010
Technical risk reduction: Gradient Results based on re-processed cavities Reduced number 540  390 (reduced US program) Electron Cloud (CesrTA) Cost risks (reductions) – Main Cost Drivers Conventional Facilities (water, etc) Main Linac Technology Technical progress (global design) Cryomodule baseline design is a being developed (e.g. plug compatible parts) 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

28 Technical Design Phase 2 - 2012
RF unit test – 3 CM + beam (KEK) Complete the technical design and R&D needed for project proposal (exceptions*) Documented design Complete and reliable cost roll up Project plan developed by consensus Cryomodule Global Manufacturing Scenario Siting Plan or Process 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

29 ILC – Global Design Phase
????? Omnibus Global Design Effort Project LHC Physics Baseline configuration Reference Design Omnibus Technical Design R&D Program Siting Studies International Mgmt

30 ILC Reference Design and Plan
Producing Cavities Cavity Shape Obtaining Gradient 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

31 Cavity Gradient – Results
2006 2005 KEK single cell results: 2005 – just learning 2006 – standard recipe 2007 – add final 3 μm fresh acid EP Note: multi-cells are harder than singles 2007 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

32 The International Linear Collider
Superconducting RF Cryomodule 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

33 ILC Reference Design and Plan
Making Positrons 6km Damping Ring 10MW Klystrons Beam Delivery and Interaction Point 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

34 The International Linear Collider
Electron cloud – Goal Ensure the e- cloud won’t blow up the e+ beam emittance. Do simulations (cheap) Test vacuum pipe coatings, grooved chambers, and clearing electrodes effect on e- cloud buildup Do above in ILC style wigglers with low emittance beam to minimize the extrapolation to the ILC. 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

35 The International Linear Collider
E Cloud – Results SLAC 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

36 The International Linear Collider
Linear Collider Facility Main Research Center Particle Detector ~30 km long tunnel Two tunnels accelerator units other for services - RF power 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

37 Conventional Facilities
72.5 km tunnels ~ meters underground 13 major shafts > 9 meter diameter 443 K cu. m. underground excavation: caverns, alcoves, halls 92 surface “buildings”, 52.7 K sq. meters = 567 K sq-ft 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

38 The International Linear Collider
Detector Concepts Report 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

39 Detector Performance Goals
11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

40 Detector Performance Goals
11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

41 Detector Performance Goals
ILC detector performance requirements and comparison to the LHC detectors: ○ Inner vertex layer ~ 3-6 times closer to IP ○ Vertex pixel size ~ 30 times smaller ○ Vertex detector layer ~ 30 times thinner Impact param resolution Δd = 5 [μm] [μm] / (p[GeV] sin 3/2θ) ○ Material in the tracker ~ 30 times less ○ Track momentum resolution ~ 10 times better Momentum resolution Δp / p2 = 5 x 10-5 [GeV-1] central region Δp / p2 = 3 x 10-5 [GeV-1] forward region ○ Granularity of EM calorimeter ~ 200 times better Jet energy resolution ΔEjet / Ejet = 0.3 /√Ejet Forward Hermeticity down to θ = 5-10 [mrad] 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

42 Concept of IR hall with two detectors
B The concept is evolving and details being worked out may be accessible during run detector A accessible during run Platform for electronic and services (~10*8*8m). Shielded (~0.5m of concrete) from five sides. Moves with detector. Also provide vibration isolation. 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider

43 The International Linear Collider
Conclusions The energy frontier continues to be a primary tool to explore the central issues in particle physics The LHC at CERN will soon open the 1 TeV energy scale and we anticipate exciting new discoveries A companion lepton collider appears to be the logical next step, but such a machine has technical challenges and needs significant R&D and design now LHC results will inform the final design and even whether a higher energy options is needed, If so, this may also be possible, but on a longer time scale. 11-Feb Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider


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