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The Energy Frontier and a Lepton Collider Barry Barish Caltech Neutrino Oscillations in Venice 13-April-08.

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Presentation on theme: "The Energy Frontier and a Lepton Collider Barry Barish Caltech Neutrino Oscillations in Venice 13-April-08."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Energy Frontier and a Lepton Collider Barry Barish Caltech Neutrino Oscillations in Venice 13-April-08

2 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider2 Answering the Questions Three Complementary Probes + … Neutrinos as a Probe –Particle physics and astrophysics using a weakly interacting probe High Energy Proton Proton Colliders –Opening up a new energy frontier ( ~ 1 TeV scale) High Energy Electron Positron Colliders –Precision Physics at the new energy frontier Increasing connections to Astrophysics/Cosmology

3 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider3 Exploring the Terascale the tools The LHC –It will lead the way and has large reach –Quark-quark, quark-gluon and gluon-gluon collisions at 0.5 - 5 TeV –Broadband initial state The ILC –A second view with high precision –Electron-positron collisions with fixed energies, adjustable between 0.1 and 1.0 TeV –Well defined initial state Together, these are our tools for the terascale

4 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider4 Three Generations of e + e - Colliders The Energy Frontier Fourth Generation? SPEAR PETRA LEP ENERGY YEAR 2020 1 TeV ILC 1970 1 GeV

5 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider5 Possible TeV Scale Lepton Colliders ILC < 1 TeV Technically possible ~ 2019 QUAD POWER EXTRACTION STRUCTURE BPM ACCELERATING STRUCTURES CLIC < 3 TeV Feasibility? ILC + 5-10 yrs Main beam – 1 A, 200 ns from 9 GeV to 1.5 TeV Drive beam - 95 A, 300 ns from 2.4 GeV to 240 MeV Muon Collider < 4 TeV FEASIBILITY?? ILC + 15 yrs? Much R&D Needed Neutrino Factory R&D + bunch merging much more cooling etc ILC CLIC Muon Collider

6 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider6 Why e + e - Collisions ? Elementary particles Well-defined –energy, –angular momentum Uses full COM energy Produces particles democratically Can mostly fully reconstruct events

7 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider7 LHC: Low mass Higgs: H    M H < 150 GeV/c 2  Rare decay channel: BR ~ 10 -3  Requires excellent electromagnetic calorimeter performance  acceptance, energy and angle resolution,  g/jet and g/p 0 separation  Motivation for LAr/PbWO 4 calorimeters for CMS  Resolution at 100 GeV:  1 GeV  Background large: S/B  1:20, but can estimate from non signal areas CMS

8 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider8 ILC: Precision Higgs physics  Model-independent Studies mass absolute branching ratios total width spin top Yukawa coupling self coupling  Precision Measurements Garcia-Abia et al

9 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider9 The linear collider will measure the spin of any Higgs it can produce by measuring the energy dependence from threshold How do you know you have discovered the Higgs ? Measure the quantum numbers. The Higgs must have spin zero !

10 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider10 What can we learn from the Higgs? Precision measurements of Higgs coupling Higgs Coupling strength is proportional to Mass

11 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider11 e + e - : Studying the Higgs determine the underlying model SM 2HDM/MSSM Yamashita et al Zivkovic et al

12 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider12 Top Quark Measurements Bounds on axial ttbarZ and left handed tbW for LHC and ILC compared to deviations in various models

13 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider13 - Measure quantum numbers - Is it MSSM, NMSSM, …? - How is it broken? ILC can answer these questions! -tunable energy -polarized beams Supersymmetry at ILC e + e - production crosssections

14 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider14 New space-time dimensions can be mapped by studying the emission of gravitons into the extra dimensions, together with a photon or jets emitted into the normal dimensions. Linear collider Direct production from extra dimensions ?

15 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider15 –  E ~ (E 4 /m 4 R) – Cost ~ a R + b  E ~ a R + b (E 4 /m 4 R) – Optimization : R ~ E 2  Cost ~ c E 2 Circular Machine Why Linear? cost Energy Circular Collider Linear Collider –Cost (linear) ~ a L –where L ~ E R m,E Synchrotron Radiation R ~ 200 GeV

16 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider16 Parameters for the ILC E cm adjustable from 200 – 500 GeV Luminosity  ∫ Ldt = 500 fb -1 in 4 years Ability to scan between 200 and 500 GeV Energy stability and precision below 0.1% Electron polarization of at least 80% The machine must be upgradeable to 1 TeV

17 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider17 ILC – Underlying Technology Room temperature copper structures OR Superconducting RF cavities

18 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider18 Superconducting RF Technology Forward looking technology for the next generation of particle accelerators: particle physics; nuclear physics; materials; medicine The ILC R&D is leading the way Superconducting RF technology –high gradients; low noise; precision optics

19 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider19 Designing a Linear Collider Superconducting RF Main Linac

20 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider20 Luminosity & Beam Size f rep * n b tends to be low in a linear collider Achieve luminosity with spot size and bunch charge

21 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider21 Low emittance machine optics Contain emittance growth Squeeze the beam as small as possible Achieving High Luminosity ~ 5 nm Interaction Point (IP) e-e- e+e+

22 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider22 –11km SC linacs operating at 31.5 MV/m for 500 GeV –Centralized injector Circular damping rings for electrons and positrons Undulator-based positron source –Single IR with 14 mrad crossing angle –Dual tunnel configuration for safety and availability ILC Reference Design Reference Design – Feb 2007 Documented in Reference Design Report

23 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider23 RDR Design Parameters Max. Center-of-mass energy500GeV Peak Luminosity~2x10 34 1/cm 2 s Beam Current9.0mA Repetition rate5Hz Average accelerating gradient31.5MV/m Beam pulse length0.95ms Total Site Length31km Total AC Power Consumption~230MW

24 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider24 RDR Complete Reference Design Report (4 volumes) Executive Summary Physics at the ILC Accelerator Detectors

25 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider25 US/UK Funding and Future Prospects UK ILC R&D Program –About 40 FTEs. Leadership roles in Damping Rings and Positron Source, as well as in the Beam Delivery System and Beam Dumps. –All of this program is generic accelerator R&D, some of which will be continued outside the specific ILC project. US Program –ILC R&D was basically terminated for FY08, but a reduced level ($42M FY07  ~$35M) program proposed for FY09. –Presently a broad based U.S. program. Future?? –Generic SCRF also terminated in FY08, but expected to be restored in FY09: broad applications (e.g. Project X at Fermilab; fulure particle accelerators). Primary focus is to build US SCRF capability ($25M proposed for FY09)

26 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider26 The Context THE SCIENCE !!! –Nothing has changed. A linear collider remains the consensus choice as the highest priority long term investment for particle physics The Technology –Key technical, design & cost issues must be resolved before a serious project could be proposed Increased Coordination with CERN CLIC R&D Program –A program to work together on areas of mutual interest was initiated last fall, before the funding problems. –Major areas of cooperative work identified in February Conventional Facilities -- Civil, Cooling, Industry, etc Non main linac technology – Particle sources, beam delivery Detectors and simulations

27 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider27 Technical Design Phase 1 -- 2010 Technical risk reduction: –Gradient Results based on re-processed cavities Reduced number 540  390 (reduced US program) –Electron Cloud (CesrTA) Cost risks (reductions) – Main Cost Drivers –Conventional Facilities (water, etc) –Main Linac Technology Technical progress (global design) –Cryomodule baseline design is a being developed (e.g. plug compatible parts)

28 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider28 Technical Design Phase 2 - 2012 RF unit test – 3 CM + beam (KEK) Complete the technical design and R&D needed for project proposal (exceptions*) –Documented design –Complete and reliable cost roll up Project plan developed by consensus –Cryomodule Global Manufacturing Scenario –Siting Plan or Process

29 ILC – Global Design Phase 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2012 ????? Global Design Effort Baseline configuration Reference Design R&D Program Technical Design Siting Studies International Mgmt LHC Physics Omnibus Project

30 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider30 ILC Reference Design and Plan Producing Cavities Cavity Shape Obtaining Gradient

31 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider31 Cavity Gradient – Results KEK single cell results: 2005 – just learning 2006 – standard recipe 2007 – add final 3 μm fresh acid EP Note: multi-cells are harder than singles 2005 2007 2006

32 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider32 Superconducting RF Cryomodule

33 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider33 ILC Reference Design and Plan Making Positrons 6km Damping Ring 10MW Klystrons Beam Delivery and Interaction Point

34 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider34 Electron cloud – Goal Ensure the e- cloud won’t blow up the e+ beam emittance. –Do simulations (cheap) –Test vacuum pipe coatings, grooved chambers, and clearing electrodes effect on e- cloud buildup –Do above in ILC style wigglers with low emittance beam to minimize the extrapolation to the ILC.

35 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider35 E Cloud – Results SLAC

36 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider36 ~30 km long tunnel Particle Detector Main Research Center Two tunnels accelerator units other for services - RF power Linear Collider Facility

37 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider37 Conventional Facilities 72.5 km tunnels ~ 100-150 meters underground 13 major shafts > 9 meter diameter 443 K cu. m. underground excavation: caverns, alcoves, halls 92 surface “buildings”, 52.7 K sq. meters = 567 K sq-ft

38 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider38 Detector Concepts Report

39 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider39 Detector Performance Goals

40 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider40 Detector Performance Goals

41 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider41 Detector Performance Goals ILC detector performance requirements and comparison to the LHC detectors: ○ Inner vertex layer ~ 3-6 times closer to IP ○ Vertex pixel size ~ 30 times smaller ○ Vertex detector layer ~ 30 times thinner Impact param resolution Δd = 5 [μm] + 10 [μm] / (p[GeV] sin 3/2θ) ○ Material in the tracker ~ 30 times less ○ Track momentum resolution ~ 10 times better Momentum resolution Δp / p 2 = 5 x 10 -5 [GeV -1 ] central region Δp / p 2 = 3 x 10 -5 [GeV -1 ] forward region ○ Granularity of EM calorimeter ~ 200 times better Jet energy resolution ΔE jet / E jet = 0.3 /√E jet Forward Hermeticity down to θ = 5-10 [mrad]

42 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider42 detector B may be accessible during run accessible during run Platform for electronic and services (~10*8*8m). Shielded (~0.5m of concrete) from five sides. Moves with detector. Also provide vibration isolation. Concept of IR hall with two detectors The concept is evolving and details being worked out detector A

43 11-Feb-08 Harvard Colloquium The International Linear Collider43 Conclusions The energy frontier continues to be a primary tool to explore the central issues in particle physics The LHC at CERN will soon open the 1 TeV energy scale and we anticipate exciting new discoveries A companion lepton collider appears to be the logical next step, but such a machine has technical challenges and needs significant R&D and design now LHC results will inform the final design and even whether a higher energy options is needed, If so, this may also be possible, but on a longer time scale.


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