2Preparation for NAB Revise poetry techniques and learn some new ones! Study several poems to see techniquesPractise for the NAB – do similar questionsSit the NABPass or fail 15/30 = passResit if required next session, could be drama
3Poems Poems use language in a condensed form Some poems tell a story Most poems make you think about some aspect of lifeMany poems are written because the poet had an everyday experience or saw something which sparked a thought …which she/he developed into a poemStudying poetry is about making sure you get the big ideas [= understand the theme] and can analyse the techniques used.
4Textual Analysis type question (It’s also a Close Reading Question) Show how in lines….the poet conveys his attitude to …..Sometimes the question tells you the attitudeShow how in lines….the poet conveys his disapproval ofShow how in lines….the poet conveys his admiration for…
5Show how + attitudeIf the question does not tell you the attitude you must begin by stating itShow how means analyse any techniques the writer has used.Word choiceImagerySentence structure etc [any other feature you can see that’s relevant]
6Analysing the image What imagery is used? You must deconstruct this. What is being compared to what? X is compared to YSQA say you must show awareness of the literal origin of the image.This means first describe whatever qualities are found in the object it is being compared to [Y]
7Practise with your poem: Show how in lines… Practise with your poem: Show how in lines…. the poet conveys his attitude to ……..Make clear his attitudeRefer to any features such asimagerypersonificationsymbolismword choiceword order or sentence structureetc
8Just as …. In the same way… This helps to convey the idea that…. Reference/ quotation/ identification of a feature alone = O marks Marks will depend on the quality of the comment [SQA]The poet uses a metaphor to convey the idea of X :“ nice little quotation…”OK but no marks so far! Do the analysis!Just as …. In the same way…This helps to convey the idea that….
9The word “…..” suggests / has connotations of / implies…… Reference/ quotation/ identification of a feature alone = O marks Marks will depend on the quality of the comment [SQA]The poet uses effective word choice to convey the idea of X :“ nice little quotation…”OK but no marks so far! Do the analysis!The word “…..” suggests / has connotations of / implies……
10Reference/ quotation/ identification of a feature alone = O marks Marks will depend on the quality of the comment [SQA]The poet uses alliteration:“ quirky quotation…”OK but no marks so far! Do the analysis!The alliteration draws attention to the expression and intensifies the meaning.Or if a particular effect is achieved e.g. :The use of two plosives in the ‘broken bones’ alliteration creates a harsh sound which is appropriate in the context of the violence being described.
11Development of an idea = another ‘show how’ question Show how the writer develops or continues the idea of ……Look for words or examples which connectQuote or refer closely to the text giving line referencesAgain refer to techniques or features of the writing and analyse them fully.
12Show how (poet) develops the idea of ……… in verse….OR in lines…… Reference/ quotation/ identification of a feature alone = O marksMarks will depend on the quality of the comment [SQA]
13Tone – a key feature of many poems (and a common question in TA and CR) Tone is about the feelings, mood and atmosphere which the poem creates and evokes.Tone can be related to the poet’s or speaker’s attitude or feelings towards the subject matter of the poem.The tone of a poem can change within the poem: different lines or verses may have a different tone.
14Tone Here are some words used to describe tone (there are many others) optimistic cheerful uplifting enthusiasticregretful nostalgic pessimistic sadtongue-in-cheek sarcastic ironiccritical derisive disparaging mocking scathingreverent respectful deferential serioushumorous light hearted informal colloquialWith a partner discuss which are the strongest feelings in some of the group of words above
15How to discuss tone Tone can be established or created The tone can be maintained or continuedThe tone might be changed or alteredYou may be askedWhat tone do you think is established in lines….ORWhat tone is created in verse… and how has the poet achieved this tone?
16SQA advice on ToneThe 'how' part is often done best by exploring other aspects of language such as sentence structure, imagery, and word choice since these are often used to convey tone. Also, features such as sound, exaggeration and anti-climax are often used to establish tone.
17What tone best describes [poem or verse or lines] … What tone best describes [poem or verse or lines] …..? Say how the tone is established and how it is maintained.You may use any of the features you discussed in previous questionsName the toneDescribe the writer’s attitude.Discuss techniques or features which helped to convey this tone.Reference/ quotation/ identification of a feature alone = O marksMarks will depend on the quality of the comment [SQA]
18The last questionThe final question in Textual Analysis poetry is often worth 5 marks.It may ask you to refer to the poem as a whole.Keep in mind the purpose of the poem and its theme.What did the poet want you to consider?What new insights have you been given?Refer to key ideas in the poem andRefer closely to techniques the poet has usedSound qualities like onomatopoeia, alliterationTone / different tones used e.g. a mix of serious and humorousStructural features such as listing, alliteration, length of lines, order of words, types of sentences, repetitionImagery used [metaphor, simile, personification
19Try one of theseHow does the last verse / lines…. add to your understanding of the poem as a whole?How successfully has the poet conveyed his message in this poem?How effective has the poet been in conveying his feelings about……?