Advanced Business Practice – M001LON Citing and Referencing Week 4
Citation and reference – CU Harvard style In-text citation + Reference
Author’s surname and year of publication in the text, and a page number if appropriate, within the body of the text (Davies 2007:38) Reference list of these citations at the end of the work, alphabetical by author Citation and reference – CU Harvard style
Citing Davies2010: 117 AuthorYear ) ( Page number
As close as possible where you used the information or mentioned another source. It can be within the body of the writing, or at the end of the sentence Where does the citation go?
Halliburton (2006: 38) argues that further research is necessary. Halliburton argues that further research is necessary (2006: 38) It has been argued that further research is necessary (Halliburton 2006: 38) Author’s name in the citation
It has been argued that there is no place for management theory in today’s workplace (Richards 2006). Shah suggests that this was is because management theories refer to a time before the modern workplace and are no longer relevant (2010: 88). Many organisations would go so far as to argue that they have no management structure at all (Tesco 2011). In figure 1, you can see that the number of managers has actually increased over the past 10 years. Management theories are out of date: discuss. Figure 1: Number of managers over past 10 years (Institute of Directors 2010) In text citation of a summary Paraphrased section Citation of a website Citation of an image
Always includes the author and year of publication or creation Include the page number or page range if appropriate Looking at citations in a bit more depth...
2 authors... –(Brown and Charlton 2008: 76) 3 authors –(Davies, Kelly and Stephen 2010) More than 3... –(Hannah et al. 2009: 84) What if...we have more than one author?
Smith (2005: 37) says that chocolate is bad for you. Hammond (2006: 75) advises that moderation is best. What if...I want to refer to many authors in the same section? ! ! Remember to make it clear which author you’re referring to in your work
The health benefits of chocolate have been investigated by many scientists (Bingh 2008: 45, Gregg 2007: 33, Terry 2010: 13). What if...I want to refer to many authors in the same section? ! ! Remember to make it clear which author you’re referring to in your work
With websites and reports, sometimes it is easier to identify a ‘corporate author’ If you’re still stumped, the convention would be to use Anon (for Anonymous) –Eg (Anon. 1914) What if...I can’t tell who the author is? ! ! If you can’t identify the author, should you be using the information at all?
Look for the date a site was last updated, or a copyright field (can be down at the bottom or in the article header If you still can’t find a date, you can use (n.d.) which indicates ‘no date) What if...I can’t tell the date? ! ! If you can’t tell how current the information is, should you be using it at all?
Cite it in the text as any other citation –(Office of National Statistics 2009) –(Maylor 2010: 236) What if...I need to cite a graph?
If you include the graph (or any diagram or image in your work) then: What if...I need to cite a graph? 1.Label it as a figure or a table and number it (consecutively) 2. Include the citation in the text 3. Include a list of all your figures and tables in your contents Figure 3. Share price of ATC (Barchart 2010)
Treat the database as the author, and include the year of publication If you are reproducing graphs, make sure you label the figures and cite them in your work. What if...I need to cite information from a database?
You would cite the author of the chapter, NOT the author of the whole work. The citation looks the same, but the reference will be slightly different... What if...I’m reading a chapter in a book?
This is called secondary citing 1.Try and find the original source 2.If you can’t, then you have to make it clear There has been concern ‘all is not what it seems’ regarding this funding (Black 2008 cited in Redcar 2010: 84) What if...I want to cite an author cited in something I’ve read?
Follow link to CULC referencing guide... CU Harvard Vault
I want to open my essay with a quote that I read in a book by Sebastian English written in 1998. Leadership is the art of bloodless war, where the leaders are the generals and the workforce a great army requiring discipline. Leadership essay
It has been argued that the art of leadership is “the art of bloodless war”, requiring the leader to use discipline to manage a team (English 1998:19). Leadership essay example
Note the direct quotation (the memorable part) The citation, including the page number Paraphrasing the ideas from the original Leadership essay example
Charles Smith, 1998 Leadership is where the leader acts in the role of benevolent parent, enabling the employee to grow and develop throughout their time with the organisation. Robert Farmer, 2007 Leaders should be dominating in their behaviour to their staff, setting out a clear plan of action for all to follow. Including more sources...
There are a vast number of leadership styles that one can chose from. There are advantages to each, and not all are mutually exclusive. Smith argues that a leader is “a benevolent parent” who nutures employees throughout their time with the company (Smith 1998:19-20). Farmer however... Leadership essay example
Farmer however sees leadership as a strong, commanding role, “dominating” the workforce with a definite vision and strong strategy (Farmer 2007:20-25). Leadership essay example
But using technology to examine what makes a good leader is nothing new. For many decades organisations around the world have used psychometric testing to help choose candidates for senior positions, and to try to understand what constitutes a good leader. BBC article
A study by scientists has shown that leadership qualities are inherent in a person’s biology (Cellan-Jones 2011). It is worth noting that this application of science to leadership thinking is not a new phenomenon; Cellan-Jones highlights the lengthy use of psychometric testing in recruitment. However one could argue that using brain scans is a new application of scientific thinking. Leadership essay example
Cellan-Jones, R. (2011) Can Brain Scans Tell Us Who Would Make a Good Chief Executive? [online] available from [31 January 2011]http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-11730685 English, S. (1998) Leadership and War: An Study in Similarities. 3 rd edn. London: Macmillan Farmer, R. (2007) ‘Dictating as Leading’ Harvard Business Review 36 (7), 19-28 Smith, C. (1998) ‘The Benevolent Leader’ in Leadership Essays, Reflections and Thoughts ed by Frederick, H. Birmingham: Highbury Publishing, 3-38 References at the end
Reference list in alphabetical order Not distinguished by material type Use the correct format as per CULC Harvard citing and referencing guide Things to note...