Presentation on theme: "Cognitive psychology The origins of cognitive thinking such as computational theory of mind can be traced back as early as Descartes in the 17th century.Descartes."— Presentation transcript:
Cognitive psychology The origins of cognitive thinking such as computational theory of mind can be traced back as early as Descartes in the 17th century.Descartes It having only developed as a separate area within the discipline since the late 1950s and early 1960s following the "cognitive revolution" initiated by Noam Chomsky's 1959 critique of behaviorism andNoam Chomsky empiricism more generally. It had its foundations in the Gestalt psychology, Wolfgang Köhler, and Kurt Koffka, and in the work ofGestalt psychologyWolfgang KöhlerKurt Koffka Jean Piaget, who provided a theory of stages/phases that describe children's cognitive developmentJean Piaget (http://en.wikipedia.org)http://en.wikipedia.org The early behavioural psychologists treated the human mind as a 'black box', being concerned only with the relationship between the input to the system (the stimulus) and the output from the system (the response).None of the processes that occurred between the stimulus and the response were considered to be the legitimate concern of psychology, since they could not be directly observed. Dissatisfaction with this strict view, together with an increasing realisation that internal higher-order mental processes are an important part of psychology, has since led to the development of cognitive psychology. This is concerned with what actually happens within the mind/brain system when we think, reason, remember, develop language skills, etc, as well as with how we process information received from the outside world. A mental processes which mediate between stimulus and response. (www2.rgu.ac.uk/ How Students Learn )
Cognitive psychology Cognitive theory contends that solutions to problems take the form of algorithmsrules that are notalgorithms necessarily understood but promise a solution, or heuristicsrules that are understood but that do notheuristics always guarantee solutions. The school of thought arising from this approach is known as cognitivism.cognitivism Cognitive psychology is currently having an increasing influence on educational thinking, especially through the burgeoning field of artificial intelligence. (www2.rgu.ac.uk/ How Students Learn ) Ulric Neisser coined the term 'cognitive psychology' in his book published in 1967Ulric Neisser (Cognitive Psychology, wherein Neisser provides a definition of cognitive psychology characterizing people as dynamic information-processing systems whose mental operations might be described in computational terms. Also emphasising that it is a point of view which postulates the mind as having a certain conceptual structure.
Cognitive psychology Neisser's definition of cognition :...the term "cognition" refers to all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used. It is concerned with these processes even when they operate in the absence of relevant stimulation, as in images and hallucinations... it is apparent that cognition is involved in everything a human being might possibly do; that every psychological phenomenon is a cognitive phenomenon. Cognitive psychology is radically different from previous psychological approaches in two key ways. - It accepts the use of the scientific method, and generally rejects introspection as a validscientific methodintrospection method of investigation, unlike symbol-driven approaches such as Freudian psychology.Freudian -It explicitly acknowledges the existence of internal mental states (such as belief, desire andbeliefdesire motivation) unlike behaviorist psychology.motivationbehaviorist (http://en.wikipedia.org) John Bruer : A true understanding of how the brain handles learning tasks will only be reached with the help of cognitive psychologists. Cognitive psychology is the critical bridge between brain science and education.
Cognitive psychology Relative words and phrases: Information Processing Image schemas and Conceptual metaphors Memory(short-term memory, long-term memory) Remembering Problem solving* Decision Making** Language Nature of the learning process Reinforcement Repetition Educational Thinking Mathematical Thinking Collaborative Learning Situated learning Embodied cognition Cognitive Science*** Artificial Intelligence
Cognitive psychology *Problem solving: Is an integral part of everyday life and also is an important aspect of human cognition. How we learn from experience of problem solving and how our learning transfers (or often fails to transfer) from one situation to another. How we generate a useful representation of a problem as a starting point. The focus on the practical transfer of learning through problem solving will also make it of relevance to educationalists and business psychologists. ** Decision Making : The last part of problem solving, evaluating and choosing, is usually called decision making. ***Cognitive science: differs from cognitive psychology in that algorithms that are intended to simulate human behavior are implemented or implementable on a computer.
Cognitive psychology Influential cognitive psychologists: Alan BaddeleyAlan Baddeley - Albert Bandura - Frederic Bartlett - Elizabeth BatesAlbert BanduraFrederic BartlettElizabeth Bates Donald BroadbentDonald Broadbent (Has a book Perception and Communication in 1958 and has worked on information processing model of cognition+the human brain's processing of math, reading and other information processing specific learning tasks.) Jerome BrunerJerome Bruner ( Bruner's ideas are based on categorization. "To perceive is to categorize,categorization to conceptualize is to categorize, to learn is to form categories, to make decisions is to categorize. " Bruner maintains people interpret the world in terms of its similarities and differences.) Gordon H. BowerGordon H. Bower - Fergus Craik - Noam Chomsky ( worked on language) -Fergus CraikNoam Chomsky Antonio Damasio Hermann Ebbinghaus - William Estes - Michael Gazzaniga -Antonio DamasioHermann EbbinghausWilliam EstesMichael Gazzaniga Keith Holyoak Daniel Kahneman - Nancy Kanwisher - Eric Lenneberg - Elizabeth LoftusKeith HolyoakDaniel KahnemanNancy KanwisherEric LennebergElizabeth Loftus Brian MacWhinneyBrian MacWhinney - James McClelland -James McClelland
Cognitive psychology Influential cognitive psychologists: George Armitage Miller (developer of WordNet- Applied to language as the primary mental knowledgeGeorge Armitage MillerWordNet representation system, cognitive psychology has exploited tree and network mental models. Its singular contribution to AI and psychology in general is the notion of a semantic network)semantic network Ulrich NeisserUlrich Neisser - Allen Newell - Allan Paivio - Seymour PapertAllen NewellAllan PaivioSeymour Papert Jean PiagetJean Piaget (provided a theory of stages/phases that describe children's cognitive development) Steven PinkerSteven Pinker - Michael Posner - Henry L. Roediger III - Eleanor Rosch - David RumelhartMichael PosnerHenry L. Roediger IIIEleanor RoschDavid Rumelhart - Eleanor Saffran - Daniel Schacter - Roger Shepard - Herbert Simon - Elizabeth SpelkeEleanor SaffranDaniel SchacterRoger ShepardHerbert SimonElizabeth Spelke -George Sperling - Robert Sternberg - Saul Sternberg - Larry Squire - Endel TulvingGeorge SperlingRobert SternbergSaul SternbergLarry SquireEndel Tulving - Anne Treisman - Amos Tversky - Lev VygotskyAnne TreismanAmos TverskyLev Vygotsky
Cognitive psychology E-Books 1 -Collaborative Learning: Cognitive and Computational Approaches. 2- Cognitive Psychology and Instruction 3- Representation, Vision and Visualization: Cognitive 4- Situated Learning and Education 5- Mathematical Idea Analysis: What Embodied Cognitive Science Can Say about the Human Nature of Mathematics. ELHAM BAKHTIARYMANESH- 1388