Presentation on theme: "CE 00875-3 Character AI Diane Bishton - K229 these slides at Free Will."— Presentation transcript:
CE 00875-3 Character AI Diane Bishton - K229 (firstname.lastname@example.org) these slides at http://www.blackboard.staffs.ac.uk Free Will
Introduction Despite the fact that we find ourselves influencing & being influenced by other people on a daily basis, as human beings we have the notion of ‘Free Will’. In this lecture we’ll look at how Free Will may be defined & will describe it in terms of potentially useful properties. The question for you will be, “Is there such a thing as Free Will, or not ?” Whatever your answer there will be implications, not the least of which will be how you might incorporate such a concept in an AI.
Evolution of Free Will “ Free Will…(may) have been selected for over the course of evolution…we can have both Free Will and a mechanism to implement it” Edmonds, B. in Davis D. (2005) “Visions of Mind. Architectures for Cognition and Affect” pp108-9 The suggestion is that Free Will brings advantages to our species, and that some process has occurred through millennia which has changed the structure of our brain – the mechanism. But hold on… If there’s a mechanism, then because mechanisms are predictable, how can there be free will ? The bulk of this lecture is based on the above chapter.
Modelling Free Will All modelling occurs in a context – models have scope (the set of circumstances in which they work) and hence limitations. The scope has been determined by the contexts in which the model was first developed & tried out e.g. Flowcharts (actually earlier as Therbligs in work redesign) & batch processing systems State transition diagrams & real time systems Sometimes, of course, we try to extend/alter the scope & try out the model in new contexts (in the case of Free Will, in social contexts). May or may not ‘fit’. The less a model fits, the more it is taken to be under the influence of variable external factors. Eventually, we may need a new model, a new theory.
The Functional Description or ‘Properties’ of Free Will According to Edmonds, Free Will has the following properties that have given us a selective advantage in nature i.e. in the world in which we find ourselves: Exterior Unpredictability (context: what a competitor sees) Interior Rationality (context: ones internal cognition) Social Accountability (context : translating internal to external) These properties are interdependent (& about different contexts, as indicated above.)
Exterior Unpredictability (EU) Are co-operation & competition mutually exclusive ? (The seminars next week will explore aspects of these). Typically as humans we find that in any situation there are elements of both. EU is about leaving a competitor unable to predict what you’ll do next. Meet new challenges in unexpected ways. Sometimes, the rational thing to do is something that appears to be random, and rationality is a condition of membership of many social groups. Of course, rationality depends on the expectations of that group in terms of norms & rules established (incentives / sanctions) by that group – Ministry of Funny Walks. Form, Storm, Norm, Perform in team building. Your examples ?
Interior Rationality (IR) IR is about justifying your actions to yourself. You have goals which you wish to achieve. Where we are aware of these goals, then we might make plans to get closer to them. Sometimes, we may achieve a goal ‘by accident’, but then can rationalise that achievement where we either:need to understand it ourselves, or: where we need to ‘make up a story’ ready to rationalise it to someone else (see SA next). The rationalisation shows how we’re being consistent in trying to achieve the goal. Self preservation. Motives focus on oneself. Whatever the cost – bravery, or stupidity ? Your examples ?
Social Accountability (SA) SA is all about passing on your rationalisation to others. The rationalisation has to be understood by others. It’s a public account of your decision-making process that shows there was a structure/plan in relation to something which appeared apparently irrational. Examples: Awarding banks £130,000,000,000 (Feb 2009) Awarding directors of ‘failing’ banks huge bonuses Going into a battle / fight when obviously outnumbered (Is much of Politics about SA ?) Your examples ?
Inter-relation of the Properties Because humanity is a social species, SA must affect any action that may or may not be taken. How big the role SA has in decision-making depends on the social group that would have to be accounted to, and how ‘distant’ it is from the decision maker. The less one is seen (or sees themselves) as belonging to a social group, the more free will the individual has. EA could be seen as pure free will if there were not IR & SA to affect what could otherwise be seen as a completely random process. IR is based on self preservation, but this is ‘kept under control’ by ER & SA.
A possible mechanism for Free Will ? It is proposed to implement free will as a developmental process. And that this process should be evolutionary in approach. The result should be the ability to direct a mature brain to the advantage of the individual, while maintaining the individual’s place in the community, for example by using Genetic Programming: 1)A creative technique that often produces unexpected solutions 2)Recombination maintains maximum variety in a population - preserving sub trees, but with different combinations 3)In the solution space there are different solutions that result in the same behaviour in a specific training context, but which arbitrarily change in other contexts 4)Solutions match the goal (the goal is implicit in the selection mechanism)
Does Free Will really exist ? Edmonds suggests in his version of Free Will that it does exist, but that it is then controlled by a mechanism which essentially incorporates the possibility of generating random actions which are ultimately kept in check by our internal cognition and external forces. Is this how you would imagine Free Will to operate ? Thinking about the earlier material, also add to the mix if you wish (there’s that free will again): The work of Prof Susan Greenfield - brain state comes first) Ideas from Behaviourist (as against Cognitivist and Constructivist theories of learning) Theological (Religious) ideas – without a God, there is chaos
Definitions of Free Will “the ability or discretion to choose; free choice” “the power of making free choices that are unconstrained by external circumstances or by an agency such as fate or divine will” www.thefreedictionary.com “the power of making free choices unconstrained by external agencies” www.websters-online-dictionary.org
Postscript If there’s time: Did you do the ‘experiment’ from last time ? ( Experiment (p.m.): look at the staff photographs in the Octagon. Put the names of the face-holder under ‘higher’, ‘lower’ title.) If so, let’s see what you got.