2Transactional Analysis A model for explaining why and how:People think like they doPeople act like they doPeople interact/communicate with othersBased on published ‘psychological’ work such as:Games People Play (Dr. Eric Berne)I’m OK - - You’re OK (Dr. Tom Harris)Born to Win (Dr. Dorothy Jongeward)
3Our Brain (according to Berne) Determines what we think and how we actActs like a tape recorder while recordingEventsAssociated feelingsHas 3 distinct parts or ego statesParentAdultChild
4Transactional Analysis Eric Berne was born in 1910 in Montreal, Canada.His father was a doctor & his mother was an editor.His father died at age 38, when Eric was 9Earned an MD in 1935 from McGill UnivBecame a US citizen and served in Utah during WWII, practicing group therapy
5Transactional Analysis Was denied membership in the Psychoanalytic Institute in 1956This brought about his rejection of psychoanalysis and was a turning point in his lifeWrote the book Games People PlayDied of a heart attack in 1970 at the age of 60
6Transactional Analysis Four methods of understanding & predicting human behaviorStructural analysis – within the personTransactional analysis – 2 or more peopleGame analysis – understanding transactions that lead to bad feelingsScript analysis – understand a person’s life plan
7Transactional Analysis Structural analysis –Natural child – spontaneous, impulsive, feeling oriented, self-centered & pleasure lovingAdaptive child – compliant, conforms to the wishes & demands of parental figures
8Transactional Analysis Transactional Analysis or TA is a way of understanding… and changing human behavior… why communication fails and how it can be corrected.… one to one relationships
9Transactional Analysis TA Ego States or Personality AspectsParentAdultChild
10Transactional Analysis Parent… learned to act and feel much as those that raised us.ParentPrejudiced/Critical Parent…follows rules, accepts slogans, holds opinions without thinking first of facts.Nurturing Parent…Supportive and protective toward others, offers help and guidance.
11Transactional Analysis Clues to Someone in Their Parent… a frown or stern look.… tone of voice.… pointing of the index finger.… arms folded as to say “what are you doing?”… uses phrases like; “you should,” “you ought to,” “that is right!”… words such as; sympathizing, punishing. moralizing, judging, giving orders, criticizing.
12Recognizing the Parent State A person in a NP stated is likelyUse words such as well-done, good, gentle, caring, don't worryUse a loving, caring, comforting or concerned tone of voiceUse open, encouraging gestures, smiling, leaning forward, nodding of headHave a caring, understanding attitude
13Recognizing the Parent State A person in CP state may:Use words , such as bad, should, ought, must, always, ridiculous, unacceptableUse a patronizing, critical or disapproving tone of voiceUse aggressive gesturesCome across as judgmental, authoritarianBe intimidating or controlling
14Transactional Analysis Child… what we were when we were young.ChildFree Child…Open to life, spontaneous, filled with the sense of wonder and delight, self centered, aggressive, rebellious, does not consider the consequences of feeling or actions.Adapted Child…Polite, sociable, recognizes the rights of others,adapts behavior to suit them, can resent the rights/demands of others, complies grudgingly, feels unsure about themselves, procrastinates .
15Transactional Analysis Clues to Someone in Their Child… smiling, laughing, having fun.… tone of voice.… crying, having tantrums, getting into trouble.… childlike facial expressions.… uses words/phrases like; “Wow!,” “Gosh!,” “I wish,” “I feel.”
16Recognizing the Child State A person in a free child stateUse words as wow, great, ouch, wantTalk loudly, energetically, free of constraintUse spontaneous gestures and expressionsBe curious, fun-loving, changeable
17Recognizing the Child State A person in adapted child mayUse words such as can’t, try, hope, please, perhaps, wishSound sulky whinny, placatingCome across as innocent, helpless, sad, scaredAct in a defiant, ashamed or compliant way
18Transactional Analysis Adult… looks at the facts and reasons out the answer - the computer ins us.Adult… figures things out logically.… takes responsibility for thoughts, feeling and actions.… solves problems and makes decisions.
19Transactional Analysis Clues to Someone in Their Adult… straight forward facial expression.… active listener, eyes blink every 3 to 5 seconds showing attention.… speaks of probabilities.… uses phrases like; “In my opinion,” “Based on what I have observed,” “So far the facts seem to indicate.”
20Recognizing the Adult State A person in as Adult Sated is likely toSpeak in an even voiceHave an erect posture and use open gesturesBe alert and thoughtful about a problem they are facingClarify the situation by careful questioningHypothesize and process informationUse words like correct, how, what, why, practical, quality
21People generally exhibit all three Ego states.All three Ego states are necessary tohealthy personalityPeople can change the frequency of whichThey use one ego state by concentratingOr developing another
22Ego PortraitsPeople have favorite, preferred ego state, depicted by larger circle in a diagramParent Adult ChildPPPAAACCC
23Human Interaction Analysis A transaction = any interaction or communication between 2 peoplePeople send and receive messages out of and into their different ego statesHow people say something (what others hear?) just as important as what is saidTypes of communication, interactionsComplementaryCrossedUlterior
24Complementary ‘Transactions’ Interactions, responses, actions regarded as appropriate and expected from another person.Parallel communication arrows, communication continues.Example 1: #1 What time do you have?#2 I’ve got 11:15.PPAACC
25Complementary ‘Transactions’ cont’d Example 2:#1 You’re late again!PP#2 I’m sorry. It won’thappen again.AACC
26Crossed ‘Transactions’ Interactions, responses, actions NOT regarded as appropriate or expected from another person.Crossed communication arrows, communication breakdown.Example 1 #1 What is the time ?#2 There’s a clock on the wall, why don’t you figure it out yourself?PPAACC
27Crossed ‘Transactions’ cont’d Example 2 #1 You’re late again!#2 Yeah, I know, I had a flat tire.PPAACC
28Ulterior ‘Transactions’ Interactions, responses, actions which are different from those explicitly statedExample #1 How about coming up to my room andlistening to some music?PPAACC
29Life Positionsare attitudes which people adoptand act out concerning their self-worth and the value of others
30Life Positions I’m OK, you’re OK I’m not OK, you’re OK I’m OK, you’re not OKI’m not OK, you’re not OK
31I’m not OK, you’re OK Submit to, concede You have a low opinion of your own value and poor self esteem; lack self confidence and expect things to go wrong A negative outlook tends to lead to a self fulfilling prophesy and you often lose out in situations
32I’m OK, you’re not OK Compete, aggression You will tend to be competitive. You may not cope well with failure, look down at others, blame other people and see them as cause of your failure
33I’m not OK, you’re not OK Avoid Life may seem to be futile and that nothing can be done to improve things. A life of rejecting and feeling rejected
34I’m OK, you’re OK Cooperate, share You believe in yourself and others, are trusting and tend toget on with life
35Transactional Analysis- Script analysis Script analysis – everyone develops a life script by age 5 & these scripts determine how one interacts with others based upon the interpretation of external eventsA negative life script occurs when the person receives lots of injunctions by the parents that used the word DON’T
36Transactional Analysis Common negative life scripts:Never – one never gets to do what one wantsUntil – one must wait until a certain time or until something is done to be able to do something they want to doAlways – one must continue to do what one has always done
37Transactional Analysis After – a difficulty is expected after a certain eventOpen-ended – one does not know what to do after a given timeMini-scripts: Hurry up! Try harder! Be perfect! Be strong! Please someone! These drivers allow for temporary escape from life scripts
38Driver Styles or Commands These are script messages which we have received from our parents when we were very young and which help to form our life script and OK positionsDrivers induce us to act in a particular way
39The 5 Drivers areBe Prefect – if a job’s worth doing, it’s worth doing wellPlease (others) –be nice to everyone, guess what they want you to do and then do itTry hard – try at something rather than focus energy on its completionBe strong – I can cope, leave it to meHurry upEvery time we act out a dominant driver we are responding in the adapted child ego state to an internal voice which is in parent mode.
40Changing Life ScriptThe main aim of TA is to get an individual in a position of ‘autonomy’Becoming aware of your life stanceAdopting a more positive view of yourself and otherRecognizing that you can alter the way you behaveRecognizing that you and you alone control your life and destiny
41Strokes Stroking is an act of recognition for another. Everyone has to have strokes (affection, recognition and praise).Strokes may bepositive, negative and mixedConditional and unconditional
42Giving and receiving strokes Don’t be insincereAccept strokes positively from other peopleMake a conscious effort to give strokes to other peopleTry to recognize other people’s reaction to strokes and the frequency/kind they appear to appreciateAsk for strokes when you feel you need themGive yourself strokes when you feel you deserve/need them
43GamesGames are a set of transactions that have surface logic but hidden meaning and attempt to draw in an unsuspecting participant.An outcome of games is always a win-lose propositions
44Transactional Analysis- Game analysis Game analysis - ulteriorly motivated transactions that appear complimentary on the surface but end in bad feelings:1st Degree games – minor upset, played socially end up with minor discomfort2nd Degree games – more intimate end up w/bad feelings3rd Degree games - usually involve physical injury
45Transactional Analysis Very few games have a positive or neutral outcomeIn these games, people play one of three positions:VictimPersecutorRescuer
46(T.A.) Games Crooked or covert exchanges of strokes Regularly repeated interactions with ulterior motivesOften the players of these games are not conscious they are doing thisBut sometimes they are!
47(T.A.) Games Wooden leg: An example of a game I’d be able to get a job, if only I didn’t have this wooden leg (or other disability, or long term unemployment or this stupid federal government, or whatever)
48Group ExerciseYou have a friend who uses the wooden leg excuse. In their case it is depression.How are you going to address this issue with them?What steps are you going to take to stop playing the game?
49(T.A.) Games An example of games “I’m only trying to help you!” “What would you do without me?”
50‘Why don’t you/Yes but…’ (T.A.) GamesA good example of a game that we are all familiar with is:‘Why don’t you/Yes but…’
51‘Why don’t you/Yes but…’ Friend says: ‘I want to work as a waiter but no one will give me a go.’You say: ‘Why don’t we ring a few restaurants to see whether they are hiring at the moment.’Friend says: ‘Yes, but my old collegue rang all the restaurants in town a few months ago and nobody was interested.’
52Group DiscussionYou have a friend who plays the ‘yes but’ game all the time.How are you going to address this issue with them?What steps are you going to take to stop playing the game?
53‘Why don’t you/Yes but…’ How to stop the gameStop making suggestions!Review how your sessions with friend progress. Need to change format?Remember, within reason, some approaches are worth giving a second – or third - go
54TA: How to use itBe aware of your own ego state as well as the other’sTry and stay in the Adult stateBe aware of any Games being playedIf a Game is being played, find a fresh approach that seeks to engage the Adult in the client
55T.A. Final Thoughts Be aware of your own language/posture Keep discussions result focussedBeware going into Parent modeSome attempts at rapport building may become parent-child interactions if you are being unconsciously patronisingStick to the agreed Job Search Plan as much as you can